Altered effective connectivity of resting state networks by acupuncture stimulation in stroke patients with left hemiplegia: A multivariate granger analysis.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the response feature of resting-state networks (RSNs) of stroke patients with left hemiplegia by acupuncture stimulation.Nineteen stroke patients with left hemiplegia and 17 controls were recruited in this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data before and after acupuncture were acquired using magnetic scanning. The independent component analysis (ICA) was employed to extract RSNs related to motion, sensation, cognition, and execution, including sensorimotor network (SMN), left and right frontoparietal network (LFPN and RFPN), anterior and posterior default mode network (aDMN, pDMN), visual network (VN), and salience network (SN). Granger causality method was used to explore how acupuncture stimulation affects the causality between intrinsic RSNs in stroke patients. Compared with healthy subjects, stroke patients presented the more complex effective connectivity. Before acupuncture stimulation, LFPN inputted most information from other networks while DMN outputted most information to other networks; however, the above results were reversal by acupuncture. In addition, we found aDMN reside in between SMN and LFPN after acupuncture.The finding suggested that acupuncture probably integrated the effective connectivity internetwork by modulating multiple networks and transferring information between LFPN and SMN by DMN as the relay station.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the changes in functional connectivity (FC) within each resting-state network (RSN) and between RSNs in subcortical stroke patients who were well recovered in global motor function. Eleven meaningful RSNs were identified via functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 25 subcortical stroke patients and 22 normal controls using independent component analysis. Compared with normal controls, stroke patients exhibited increased intranetwork FC in the sensorimotor (SMN), visual (VN), auditory (AN), dorsal attention (DAN), and default mode (DMN) networks; they also exhibited decreased intranetwork FC in the frontoparietal network (FPN) and anterior DMN. Stroke patients displayed a shift from no FC in controls to negative internetwork FC between the VN and AN as well as between the VN and SMN. Stroke patients also exhibited weakened positive (anterior and posterior DMN; posterior DMN and right FPN) or negative (AN and right FPN; posterior DMN and dorsal SMN) internetwork FC when compared with normal controls. We suggest that subcortical stroke may induce connectivity changes in multiple functional networks, affecting not only the intranetwork FC within RSNs but also the internetwork FC between these RSNs.
Project description:A core feature of drug-resistant epilepsy is hyperexcitability in the motor cortex, and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a suitable treatment for seizures. However, the antiepileptic effect causing network reorganization has rarely been studied. Here, we assessed the impact of rTMS on functional network connectivity (FNC) in resting functional networks (RSNs) and their relation to treatment response. Fourteen patients with medically intractable epilepsy received inhibitive rTMS with a figure-of-eight coil over the vertex for 10 days spread across two weeks. We designed a 6-week follow-up phase divided into four time points to investigate FNC and rTMS-induced timing-dependent plasticity, such as seizure frequency and abnormal interictal discharges on electroencephalography (EEG). For psychiatric comorbidities, the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) were applied to measure depression and anxiety before and after rTMS. FNC was also compared to that of a cohort of 17 healthy control subjects. The after-effects of rTMS included all subjects that achieved the significant decrease rate of more than 50% in interictal epileptiform discharges and seizure frequency, 12 (14) patients with the reduction rate above 50% compared to the baseline, as well as emotional improvements in depression and anxiety (<i>p</i> < 0.05). In the analysis of RSNs, we found a higher synchronization between the sensorimotor network (SMN) and posterior default-mode network (pDMN) in epileptic patients than in healthy controls. In contrast to pre-rTMS, the results demonstrated a weaker FNC between the anterior DMN (aDMN) and SMN after rTMS, while the FNC between the aDMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) was greater (<i>p</i> < 0.05, FDR corrected). Importantly, the depressive score was anticorrelated with the FNC of the aDMN-SMN (<i>r</i> = -0.67, <i>p</i> = 0.0022), which was markedly different in the good and bad response groups treated with rTMS (<i>p</i> = 0.0115). Based on the vertex suppression by rTMS, it is possible to achieve temporary clinical efficacy by modulating network reorganization in the DMN and SMN for patients with refractory epilepsy.
Project description:Brain metastases are the most prevalent cerebral tumors. Resting state networks (RSNs) are involved in multiple perceptual and cognitive functions. Therefore, precisely localizing multiple RSNs may be extremely valuable before surgical resection of metastases, to minimize neurocognitive impairments. Here we aimed to investigate the reliability of independent component analysis (ICA) for localizing multiple RSNs from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data in individual patients, and further evaluate lesion-related spatial shifts of the RSNs. Twelve patients with brain metastases and 14 healthy controls were recruited. Using an improved automatic component identification method, we successfully identified seven common RSNs, including: the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), dorsal attention network (DAN), language network (LN), sensorimotor network (SMN), auditory network (AN) and visual network (VN), in both individual patients and controls. Moreover, the RSNs in the patients showed a visible spatial shift compared to those in the controls, and the spatial shift of some regions was related to the tumor location, which may reflect a complicated functional mechanism - functional disruptions and reorganizations - caused by metastases. Besides, higher cognitive networks (DMN, ECN, DAN and LN) showed significantly larger spatial shifts than perceptual networks (SMN, AN and VN), supporting a functional dichotomy between the two network groups even in pathologic alterations associated with metastases. Overall, our findings provide evidence that ICA is a promising approach for presurgical localization of multiple RSNs from rs-fMRI data in individual patients. More attention should be paid to the spatial shifts of the RSNs before surgical resection.
Project description:Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present with heterogeneous symptom profiles, while neurobiological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Brain network studies consistently report disruptions of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with MDD, including hypoconnectivity in the frontoparietal network (FPN), hyperconnectivity in the default mode network (DMN), and increased connection between the DMN and FPN. Using a large, multisite fMRI dataset (n = 189 patients with MDD, n = 39 controls), we investigated network connectivity differences within and between RSNs in patients with MDD and healthy controls. We found that MDD could be characterized by a network model with the following abnormalities relative to controls: (i) lower within-network connectivity in three task-positive RSNs [FPN, dorsal attention network (DAN), and cingulo-opercular network (CON)], (ii) higher within-network connectivity in two intrinsic networks [DMN and salience network (SAN)], and (iii) higher within-network connectivity in two sensory networks [sensorimotor network (SMN) and visual network (VIS)]. Furthermore, we found significant alterations in connectivity between a number of these networks. Among patients with MDD, a history of childhood trauma and current symptoms quantified by clinical assessments were associated with a multivariate pattern of seven different within- and between-network connectivities involving the DAN, FPN, CON, subcortical regions, ventral attention network (VAN), auditory network (AUD), VIS, and SMN. Overall, our study showed that traumatic childhood experiences and dimensional symptoms are linked to abnormal network architecture in MDD. Our results suggest that RSN connectivity may explain underlying neurobiological mechanisms of MDD symptoms and has the potential to serve as an effective diagnostic biomarker.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often has long-term debilitating sequelae in cognitive and behavioral domains. Understanding how TBI impacts functional integrity of brain networks that underlie these domains is key to guiding future approaches to TBI rehabilitation. In the current study, we investigated the differences in inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) of resting state networks (RSNs) between chronic mild-to-severe TBI patients and normal comparisons (NC), focusing on two externally oriented networks (i.e., the fronto-parietal network [FPN] and the executive control network [ECN]), one internally oriented network (i.e., the default mode network [DMN]), and one somato-motor network (SMN). Seed voxel correlation analysis revealed that TBI patients displayed significantly less FC between lateralized seeds and both homologous and non-homologous regions in the opposite hemisphere for externally oriented networks but not for DMN or SMN; conversely, TBI patients showed increased FC within regions of the DMN, especially precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus. Region of interest correlation analyses confirmed the presence of significantly higher inter-hemispheric FC in NC for the FPN (p?<?0.01), and ECN (p?<?0.05), but not for the DMN (p?>?0.05) or SMN (p?>?0.05). Further analysis revealed that performance on a neuropsychological test measuring organizational skills and visuo-spatial abilities administered to the TBI group, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, positively correlated with FC between the right FPN and homologous regions. Our findings suggest that distinct RSNs display specific patterns of aberrant FC following TBI; this represents a step forward in the search for biomarkers useful for early diagnosis and treatment of TBI-related cognitive impairment.
Project description:Cerebral palsy (CP) has long been investigated to be associated with a range of motor and cognitive dysfunction. As the two most common CP subtypes, spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) and dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) may share common and distinct elements in their pathophysiology. However, the common and distinct dysfunctional characteristics between SCP and DCP on the brain network level are less known. This study aims to detect the alteration of brain functional connectivity in children with SCP and DCP based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Resting-state networks (RSNs) were established based on the independent component analysis (ICA), and the functional network connectivity (FNC) was performed on the fMRI data from 16 DCP, 18 bilateral SCP, and 18 healthy children. Compared with healthy controls, altered functional connectivity within the cerebellum network, sensorimotor network (SMN), left frontoparietal network (LFPN), and salience network (SN) were found in DCP and SCP groups. Furthermore, the disconnections of the FNC consistently focused on the visual pathway; covariance of the default mode network (DMN) with other networks was observed both in DCP and SCP groups, while the DCP group had a distinct connectivity abnormality in motor pathway and self-referential processing-related connections. Correlations between the functional disconnection and the motor-related clinical measurement in children with CP were also found. These findings indicate functional connectivity impairment and altered integration widely exist in children with CP, suggesting that the abnormal functional connectivity is a pathophysiological mechanism of motor and cognitive dysfunction of CP.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Post-stroke aphasia (PSA) results from brain network disorders caused by focal stroke lesions. However, it still remains largely unclear whether the impairment is present in intra- and internetwork functional connectivity (FC) within each resting-state network (RSN) and between RSNs in the subacute stage of PSA. <b>Objectives:</b> This study aimed to investigate the resting-state FC within and between RSNs in patients with PSA and observe the relationships between FC alterations and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) measures. <b>Methods:</b> A total of 20 individuals with subacute PSA and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for functional MRI (fMRI) scanning, and only patients with PSA underwent WAB assessment. Independent component analysis was carried out to identify RSNs. Two-sample <i>t</i>-tests were used to calculate intra- and internetwork FC differences between patients with PSA and HCs. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR correction, <i>p</i> < 0.05). Partial correlation analysis was performed to observe the relationship between FC and WAB scores with age, gender, mean framewise displacement, and lesion volume as covariates (<i>p</i> < 0.05). <b>Results:</b> Compared to HCs, patients with PSA showed a significant increase in intranetwork FC in the salience network (SN). For internetwork FC analysis, patients showed a significantly increased coupling between left frontoparietal network (lFPN) and SN and decreased coupling between lFPN and right frontoparietal network (rFPN) as well as between lFPN and posterior default mode network (pDMN) (FDR correction, <i>p</i> < 0.05). Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the intergroup difference of FC (lFPN-rFPN) and auditory-verbal comprehension (<i>p</i> < 0.05). <b>Conclusion:</b> Altered FC was revealed within and between multiple RSNs in patients with PSA at the subacute stage. Reduced FC between lFPN and rFPN was the key element participating in language destruction. These findings proved that PSA is a brain network disorder caused by focal lesions; besides, it may improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of patients with PSA at the subacute stage.
Project description:Resting state functional MRI (R-fMRI) studies have shown that slow (<0.1Hz), intrinsic fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal are temporally correlated within hierarchically organized functional systems known as resting state networks (RSNs) (Doucet et al., 2011). Most broadly, this hierarchy exhibits a dichotomy between two opposed systems (Fox et al., 2005). One system engages with the environment and includes the visual, auditory, and sensorimotor (SMN) networks as well as the dorsal attention network (DAN), which controls spatial attention. The other system includes the default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal control system (FPC), RSNs that instantiate episodic memory and executive control, respectively. Here, we test the hypothesis, based on the spectral specificity of electrophysiologic responses to perceptual vs. memory tasks (Klimesch, 1999; Pfurtscheller and Lopes da Silva, 1999), that these two large-scale neural systems also manifest frequency specificity in the resting state. We measured the spatial correspondence between electrocorticographic (ECoG) band-limited power (BLP) and R-fMRI correlation patterns in awake, resting, human subjects. Our results show that, while gamma BLP correspondence was common throughout the brain, theta (4-8Hz) BLP correspondence was stronger in the DMN and FPC, whereas alpha (8-12Hz) correspondence was stronger in the SMN and DAN. Thus, the human brain, at rest, exhibits frequency specific electrophysiology, respecting both the spectral structure of task responses and the hierarchical organization of RSNs.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMN) arising from the motor cortex in the brain and lower motor neurons (LMN) in the brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral changes create differences in brain activity captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), including the spontaneous and simultaneous activity occurring between regions known as the resting state networks (RSNs). Progressive neurodegeneration as observed in ALS may lead to a disruption of RSNs which could provide insights into the disease process. Previous studies have reported conflicting findings of increased, decreased, or unaltered RSN functional connectivity in ALS and do not report the contribution of UMN changes to RSN connectivity. We aimed to bridge this gap by exploring two networks, the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network (SMN), in 21 ALS patients and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. An UMN score dichotomized patients into UMN+ and UMN- groups. Subjects underwent resting state fMRI scan on a high field MRI operating at 4.7 tesla. The DMN and SMN changes between subject groups were compared. Correlations between connectivity and clinical measures such as the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), disease progression rate, symptom duration, UMN score and finger tapping were assessed. Significant group differences in resting state networks between patients and controls were absent, as was the dependence on degree of UMN burden. However, DMN connectivity was increased in patients with greater disability and faster progression rate, and SMN connectivity was reduced in those with greater motor impairment. These patterns of association are in line with literature supporting loss of inhibitory interneurons.
Project description:Some functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients have shown that ASD patients have significant impairment in brain response. However, few researchers have studied the functional structure changes of the eight resting state networks (RSNs) in ASD patients. Therefore, research on statistical differences of RSNs between 42 healthy controls (HC) and 50 ASD patients has been studied using linear independent component analysis (ICA) in this paper. Our researches showed that there was abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of RSNs in ASD patients. The RSNs with the decreased FC and increased FC in ASD patients included default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), core network (CN), visual network (VN), self-referential network (SRN) compared to HC. The RSNs with the increased FC in ASD patients included auditory network (AN), somato-motor network (SMN). The dorsal attention network (DAN) in ASD patients showed the decreased FC. Our findings indicate that the abnormal FC in RSNs extensively exists in ASD patients. Our results have important contribution for the study of neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms in ASD patients.