Measuring Institutional Quality in Head and Neck Surgery Using Hospital-Level Data: Negative Margin Rates and Neck Dissection Yield.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Negative margins and lymph node yields (LNY) of 18 or more from neck dissections in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have been associated with improved patient survival. It is unclear whether these metrics can be used to identify hospitals with improved outcomes. Objective:To determine whether 2 patient-level metrics would predict outcomes at the hospital level. Design, Setting, and Participants:A retrospective review of records from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) was used to identify patients who underwent primary surgery and concurrent neck dissection for HNSCC between 2004 and 2013. The percentage of patients at each hospital with negative margins on primary resection and an LNY 18 or more from a neck dissection was quantified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to define the association between hospital performance on these metrics and overall survival. Main Outcomes and Measures:Margin status and lymph node yield at hospital level. Overall survival (OS). Results:We identified 1008 hospitals in the NCDB where 64?738 patients met inclusion criteria. Of the 64?738 participants, 45?170 (69.8%) were men and 19?568 (30.2%) were women. The mean SD age of included patients was 60.5 (12.0) years. Patients treated at hospitals attaining the combined metric of a 90% or higher negative margin rate and 80% or more of cases with LNYs of 18 or more experienced a significant reduction in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98). This benefit in survival was independent of the patient-level improvement associated with negative margins (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.71-0.76) and LNY of 18 or more (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83-0.88). Including these metrics in the model neutralized the association of traditional measures of hospital quality (volume and teaching status). Conclusions and Relevance:Treatment at hospitals that attain a high rate of negative margins and LNY of 18 or more is associated with improved survival in patients undergoing surgery for HNSCC. These surgical outcome measures predicted outcomes independent of traditional, but generally nonmodifiable characteristics. Tracking of these metrics may help identify high-quality centers and provide guidance for institution-level quality improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Securing negative surgical margins is a critical goal for head and neck surgery. Local recurrence develops even in some patients who have histologically negative surgical margins. Minimal residual tumor cells may lead to locoregional recurrence despite clear histologic margins reported at the time of resection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To identify subclinical residual disease, the authors analyzed deep margin imprint samples collected on 1-layer nitrocellulose sheets. METHODS:Bisulfite-treated DNA samples from 73 eligible patients were amplified by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSP) targeting 6 genes (deleted in colorectal cancer [DCC], endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB], homeobox protein A9 [HOXA9], kinesin family member 1A [KIF1A], nidogen-2 [NID2], and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B [NR2B]). QMSP values were dichotomized as positive or negative. Associations between the QMSP status of deep margin samples and clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS:Two-gene methylation combinations among the genes DCC, EDNRB, and HOXA9 were associated with decreased locoregional recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. The methylated gene combination of EDNRB and HOXA9 in margin imprints was the most powerful predictor of poor locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-8.46; P =?.012) independent of standard histologic factors. In addition, methylation of both EDNRB and HOXA9 indicated a trend toward reduced recurrence-free survival (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 0.90-8.33; P =?.075) and reduced OS (HR, 5.78; 95% CI, 0.75-44.7; P =?.093) in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS:A panel of gene methylation targets in deep surgical margin imprints provides a potential predictive marker of postoperative locoregional recurrence. Intraoperative use of molecular margin imprint analysis may assist surgeons in obtaining rigorously negative surgical margins and improve the outcome of head and neck surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lymph node yield (LNY) was implemented in the stratification of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The effect of LNY may be related to the extent of surgery. This study aims to identify influencing factors for LNY in central compartment neck dissection (CND). METHODS:Data of 13 712 consecutive PTC patients were analyzed retrospectively. Risk factors for LNY in CND and distribution characteristics of LNY were evaluated. Its relationship with prognosis was studied in another cohort of 136 cases. RESULTS:LNY in therapeutic CND was significantly higher than prophylactic CND (Unilateral: 5.55 ± 3.79 vs 3.41 ± 2.77; Bilateral: 8.90 ± 5.10 vs 6.47 ± 4.17, P < .001). Other independent factors included extranodal extension (ETE), tumor size, and concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The inconsistency distribution of LNY in bilateral CND was associated with preoperative and intraoperative assessment. Patients with significant difference between major and minor LNY suffered from poorer prognosis (10y-RFS: 58.3% vs 92.0%; HR = 6.719, 95%, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS:CND surgical procedure, ETE, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis were independent factors of LNY. Inconsistent distribution of LNY was associated with prognosis of bilateral PTC patients. The impact of preoperative and intraoperative assessment on the actual extent of CND can be used to explain the relationship between LNY and PTC prognosis.
Project description:R0 resection is paramount in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, in the setting of recurrence, immunocompromised patients, or non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a spindle growth pattern, tumor borders are difficult, if not impossible, to determine. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) aids in this differentiation. Potential targets for FGS of CSCC and HNSCC were evaluated. Most sections stained intensely for ?v?6 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on tumor cells. Normal epithelium stained less for ?v?6 than for EGFR. In addition, soft tissue and stroma stained negative for both, allowing for clear discrimination of the soft tissue margin. Tumor cells weakly expressed urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) while expression on stromal cells was moderate. Normal epithelium rarely expressed uPAR, resulting in clear discrimination of superficial margins. Tumors did not consistently express integrin ?3, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, or vascular endothelial growth factor A. In conclusion, ?v?6 and EGFR allowed for precise discrimination of SSC at the surgically problematic soft tissue margins. Superficial margins are ideally distinguished with uPAR. In the future, FGS in the surgically challenging setting of cutaneous and mucosal SCC could benefit from a tailor-made approach, with EGFR and ?v?6 as targets.
Project description:microRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding single-stranded RNAs, about 19-25 nucleotides long. They have been shown to be capable of altering mRNA expression; thus some are oncogenic or tumour suppressive in nature and are regulated by cellular and epigenetic factors. The molecular pathogenic pathway of many cancers has been modified since the discovery of miRs. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the sixth most common cancer in the world, has recently been associated with infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). miR expression profiles are altered in the transition from dysplasia to carcinoma, with some changes being specific to the underlying risk factor. This difference is particularly significant in HPV-positive HNSCC where host miRs are modulated by the virus, creating a different profile to HPV-negative HNSCC. Saliva, as an easily collected proximal biofluid containing numerous miRs, presents an attractive noninvasive diagnostic tool in detecting HNSCC and determining prognosis. Furthermore, miRs may play a role in the analysis of surgical margins for residual tumour extension and in the development of novel miR-based therapeutic targets and agents.
Project description:Molecular deep surgical margin analysis has been shown to predict locoregional recurrences of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To improve the accuracy and versatility of the analysis, we used a highly tumor-specific methylation marker and highly sensitive detection technology to test DNA from surgical margins. Histologically cancer-negative deep surgical margin samples were prospectively collected from 82 eligible HNSCC surgeries by an imprinting procedure (n = 75) and primary tissue collection (n = 70). Bisulfite-treated DNA from each sample was analyzed by both conventional quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) and QMSP by droplet digital PCR (ddQMSP) targeting Paired box 5 (PAX5) gene promoter methylation. The association between the presence of PAX5 methylation and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was evaluated. PAX5 methylation was found in 68.0% (51 of 75) of tumors in the imprint samples and 71.4% (50 of 70) in the primary tissue samples. Among cases that did not have postoperative radiation (n = 31 in imprint samples, n = 29 in tissue samples), both conventional QMSP and ddQMSP revealed that PAX5 methylation-positive margins was significantly associated with poor LRFS by univariate analysis. In particular, ddQMSP increased detection of the PAX5 marker from 29% to 71% in the nonradiated imprint cases. Also, PAX5 methylated imprint margins were an excellent predictor of poor LRFS [HR, 3.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-17.52; P = 0.023] by multivariate analysis. PAX5 methylation appears to be an excellent tumor-specific marker for molecular deep surgical margin analysis of HNSCC. Moreover, the ddQMSP assay displays increased sensitivity for methylation marker detection.
Project description:Cytokeratin (CK) intermediate filaments are demonstrated to have enormous potential in regulating cellular motility and cancer progression. There are more than 20 divergent CKs that have been identified, of which CK 8, 17, 18 and 19 are reported to be elevated in the tumour biopsies of head and neck cancer squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. However, CK expression profiles in the saliva of HNSCC patients have not been investigated. We aim to investigate the mRNA expression profiles of CKs in saliva collected from healthy controls, HPV-negative and -positive HNSCC patients.Oral rinse samples were collected from 42 cancer-free healthy controls (age-matched) and patients who have been diagnosed with HPV-negative (n = 20) and -positive (n = 48) HNSCC.Here, we report that the mRNA expression profiles of CKs differed in saliva collected from healthy controls and HNSCC patients. The mRNA expression levels of CK 8 and 18 were significantly elevated in saliva collected from HPV-negative HNSCC patients; whilst, CK 17 and 19 were expressed at a higher mRNA level in saliva collected from HPV-positive HNSCC patients compared to healthy controls. Importantly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed salivary CK 8 and 18 to have superior sensitivity and specificity in discriminating the HPV-negative HNSCC patients from healthy controls (80% and 86%) as well as between HPV-negative and -positive HNSCC patients (75% and 81%).In summary, we have demonstrated that an aberrant expression of salivary CKs may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic biomarker in HNSCC.
Project description:Background:Lymph node involvement is a fundamental prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Lymph node yield (LNY), which is the number of lymph nodes retrieved after neck dissection, and lymph node ratio (LNR), which is the ratio of positive lymph nodes out of the total removed, are measurable indicators that may have the potential to be used as prognostic factors. The present study is designed to define the exact role of LNY and LNR regarding the overall and specific survival of patients affected by oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC. It has been registered on clinicaltrials.gov database (NCT03534778). Methods:This is a multicenter study involving tertiary care referral centers in Europe and North America. Patients affected by oral cavity, HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal SCC undergoing neck dissection will be consecutively enrolled and followed-up for up to 5 years. Patients and disease characteristic will be properly recorded and centrally analyzed. The primary end-point is to define reliable cut off-values for LNY and LNR which may serve as prognosticators of survival. This will be achieved through the use of ROC curves. Secondary outcomes will be the Overall survival (OS), Disease Specific Survival (DSS), and Progression Free Survival Hazard Ratios (HR) at 2-, 3- and 5 years, which will be evaluated through the Kaplan-Meier method and the difference in survival attested by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis will be performed to understand the association of various outcomes with LNY and LNR.
Project description:The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) remains controversial. We examined effects of adjuvant therapy on overall survival (OS) in PAC, using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB).Patients with resected PAC from 1998 to 2002 were queried from the NCDB. Factors associated with receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (ChemoOnly) versus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ChemoRad) versus no adjuvant treatment (NoAdjuvant) were assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to examine effect of adjuvant therapy type on OS. Propensity scores (PS) were developed for each treatment arm and used to produce matched samples for analysis to minimize selection bias.From 1998 to 2002, a total of 11,526 patients underwent resection of PAC. Of these, 1,029 (8.9 %) received ChemoOnly, 5,292 (45.9 %) received ChemoRad, and 5,205 (45.2 %) received NoAdjuvant. On univariate analysis, factors associated with improved OS included: younger age, higher income, higher facility volume, lower tumor stage and grade, negative margins and nodes, and absence of adjuvant therapy. On multivariate analysis with matched PS, factors independently associated with improved OS included: younger age, higher income, higher facility volume, later year of diagnosis, smaller tumor size, lower tumor stage, and negative tumor margins and nodes. ChemoRad had the best OS (hazard ratio 0.70, 95 % confidence interval 0.61-0.80) in a PS matched comparison with ChemoOnly (hazard ratio 1.04, 95 % confidence interval 0.93-1.18) and NoAdjuvant (index).Adjuvant chemotherapy with radiotherapy is associated with improved OS after PAC resection in a large population from the NCDB. On the basis of these analyses, radiotherapy should be a part of adjuvant therapy for PAC.
Project description:Treatment failure and poor 5-year survival in mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has remained unchanged for decades mainly due to advanced stage of presentation and high rates of recurrence. Incomplete surgical removal of the tumour, attributed to lack of reliable methods to delineate the surgical margins, is a major cause of disease recurrence. The predictability of recurrence using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to delineate surgical margins (PRISM) in mucosal HNSCC study aims to redefine margin status by identifying the true extent of the tumour at the molecular level by performing IHC with molecular markers, eukaryotic initiation factor, eIF4Eand tumour suppressor gene, p53, on the surgical margins and test the use of Lugol's iodine and fluorescence visualisation prior to the wide local excision. This article describes the study protocol at its pre - results stage.PRISM-HNSCC is a bilateral observational research being conducted in Darwin, Australia and Vellore, India. Individuals diagnosed with HNSCC will undergo the routine wide local excision of the tumour followed by histopathological assessment. Tumours with clear surgical margins that satisfy the exclusion criteria will be selected for further staining of the margins with eIF4E and p53 antibodies. Results of IHC staining will be correlated with recurrences in an attempt to predict the risk of disease recurrence. Patients in Darwin will undergo intraoperative staining of the lesion with Lugol's iodine and fluorescence visualisation to delineate the excision margins while patients in Vellore will not undertake these tests. The outcomes will be analysed.The PRISM-HNSCC study was approved by the institutional ethics committees in Darwin (Human Research Ethics Committee 13-2036) and Vellore (Institutional Review Board Min. no. 8967). Outcomes will be disseminated through publications in academic journals and presentations at educational meetings and conferences. It will be presented as dissertation at the Charles Darwin University. We will communicate the study results to both participating sites. Participating sites will communicate results with patients who have indicated an interest in knowing the results.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616000715471).