Stanniocalcin2 acts as an anorectic factor through activation of STAT3 pathway.
ABSTRACT: The regulation of food intake and body weight has been hotly investigated. In the present study, we show that stanniocalcin2 (STC2), a cytokine ubiquitously expressed and especially upregulated in many types of human cancers, has a regulatory role in food intake and weight loss. Systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with recombinant STC2 protein resulted in decreased food intake and body weight, whereas energy expenditure was not affected. Similarly, STC2 treatment also induced anorexia in hyperphagic leptin-deficient mice, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of blood glucose levels. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of STC2 to mice led to an acute decrease in food intake, which was mediated, at least in part, by activation of STAT3 pathway. Taken together, our results revealed the importance of STC2 in the regulation of feeding behavior as well as body weight.
Project description:The role for c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in the control of feeding and energy balance is not well understood. Here, by use of novel and highly selective JNK inhibitors, we investigated the actions of JNK in the control of feeding and body weight homeostasis. In lean mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of SR-3306, a brain-penetrant and selective pan-JNK (JNK1/2/3) inhibitor, reduced food intake and body weight. Moreover, i.p. and i.c.v. administrations of SR11935, a brain-penetrant and JNK2/3 isoform-selective inhibitor, exerted similar anorectic effects as SR3306, which suggests JNK2 or JNK3 mediates aspect of the anorectic effect by pan-JNK inhibition. Furthermore, daily i.p. injection of SR3306 (7 days) prevented the increases in food intake and weight gain in lean mice upon high-fat diet feeding, and this injection paradigm reduced high-fat intake and obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In the DIO mice, JNK inhibition sensitized leptin's anorectic effect, and enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 activation in the hypothalamus. The underlying mechanisms likely involve the downregulation of SOCS3 by JNK inhibition. Collectively, our data suggest that JNK activity promotes positive energy balance, and the therapeutic intervention inhibiting JNK activities represents a promising approach to ameliorate diet-induced obesity and leptin resistance.
Project description:Inactivating mutations of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene in both mice and humans leads to hyperphagia and obesity. To further examine the mechanisms whereby POMC-deficiency leads to disordered energy homeostasis, we have generated mice lacking all POMC-derived peptides. Consistent with a previously reported model, Pomc(-/-) mice were obese and hyperphagic. They also showed reduced resting oxygen consumption associated with lowered serum levels of thyroxine. Hypothalami from Pomc(-/-) mice showed markedly increased expression of melanin-concentrating hormone mRNA in the lateral hypothalamus, but expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate nucleus was not altered. Provision of a 45% fat diet increased energy intake and body weight in both Pomc(-/-) and Pomc(+/-) mice. The effects of leptin on food intake and body weight were blunted in obese Pomc(-/-) mice whereas nonobese Pomc(-/-) mice were sensitive to leptin. Surprisingly, we found that Pomc(-/-) mice maintained their acute anorectic response to peptide-YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)). However, 7 days of PYY(3-36) administration had no effect on cumulative food intake or body weight in wild-type or Pomc(-/-) mice. Thus, POMC peptides seem to be necessary for the normal response of energy balance to high-fat feeding, but not for the acute anorectic effect of PYY(3-36) or full effects of leptin on feeding. The finding that the loss of only one copy of the Pomc gene is sufficient to render mice susceptible to the effects of high fat feeding emphasizes the potential importance of this locus as a site for gene-environment interactions predisposing to obesity.
Project description:Glucose control and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment. Currently, only glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs are able to achieve both weight loss and glucose tolerance. Both glucose and body weight are regulated by the brain, which contains GLP1 receptors (GLP1R). Even though the brain is poised to mediate the effects of GLP1 analogs, it remains unclear whether the glucose- and body weight-lowering effects of long-acting GLP1R agonists are via direct action on CNS GLP1R or the result of downstream activation of afferent neuronal GLP1R. We generated mice with either neuronal or visceral nerve-specific deletion of Glp1r and then administered liraglutide, a long-acting GLP1R agonist. We found that neither reduction of GLP1R in the CNS nor in the visceral nerves resulted in alterations in body weight or food intake in animals fed normal chow or a high-fat diet. Liraglutide treatment provided beneficial glucose-lowering effects in both chow- and high-fat-fed mice lacking GLP1R in the CNS or visceral nerves; however, liraglutide was ineffective at altering food intake, body weight, or causing a conditioned taste aversion in mice lacking neuronal GLP1R. These data indicate that neuronal GLP1Rs mediate body weight and anorectic effects of liraglutide, but are not required for glucose-lowering effects.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to identify leptin target genes and subsequent pathways correlated with leptin-mediated weight loss. We utilized the microarray technology to compare two types of leptin administration: one involving a direct stimulatory effect when administered peripherally (subcutaneous: SQ) and another that is indirect, involving a hypothalamic relay that suppresses food intake when leptin is administered centrally (intracerebroventricular: ICV). We report here the impact of central and peripheral administration of leptin on food intake, body weight and body fat composition in ob/ob mice. We also report hepatic gene expression changes caused by central versus peripheral leptin administration. Keywords: comparison Leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice were continuously administered leptin over 12-days using central (intracerebroventricular) or peripheral (subcutaneous) route of administration. Liver RNA was extracted and hybridized to Illumina microarrays and gene expression data was analyzed. The global gene expression profiles were compared after the central and peripheral leptin treatments in ob/ob mice and C57BL6 mice were used for the baseline gene expression.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to identify leptin target genes and subsequent pathways correlated with leptin-mediated weight loss. We utilized the microarray technology to compare two types of leptin administration: one involving a direct stimulatory effect when administered peripherally (subcutaneous: SQ) and another that is indirect, involving a hypothalamic relay that suppresses food intake when leptin is administered centrally (intracerebroventricular: ICV). We report here the impact of central and peripheral administration of leptin on food intake, body weight and body fat composition in ob/ob mice. We also report hepatic gene expression changes caused by central versus peripheral leptin administration. Keywords: comparison Overall design: Leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice were continuously administered leptin over 12-days using central (intracerebroventricular) or peripheral (subcutaneous) route of administration. Liver RNA was extracted and hybridized to Illumina microarrays and gene expression data was analyzed. The global gene expression profiles were compared after the central and peripheral leptin treatments in ob/ob mice and C57BL6 mice were used for the baseline gene expression. The groups are as below: Liver_B6: C57BL6 mice Liver_VEH_SQ: ob/ob mice with vehicle subcutaneous treatment Liver_LEP_SQ: ob/ob mice with leptin subcutaneous treatment Liver_VEH_ICV: ob/ob mice with vehicle intracerebroventricular treatment, Liver_LEP_ICV: ob/ob mice with leptin intracerebroventricular treatment, Liver_LEP_ICVN: represents four animals from LEP_ICV group in which treatment failed or the cannula may not have been in place. While analyzing the phenotype data, we found that there was no weight loss in these four animals. Sectioning of the brain could not confirm placement of the cannula in these animals. The expression of these animals is very similar to the vehicle treated animals.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17) was recently reported to be a Foxo1 target in agouti-related peptide (AGRP) neurons. Intracerebroventricular injection of GPR17 agonists induced food intake, whereas administration of an antagonist to the receptor reduced feeding. These data lead to the conclusion that pharmacological modulation of GPR17 has therapeutic potential to treat obesity. Here we report that mice deficient in Gpr17 (Gpr17(-/-)) have similar food intake and body weight compared with their wild-type littermates. Gpr17(-/-) mice have normal hypothalamic Agrp mRNA expression, AGRP plasma levels, and metabolic rate. GPR17 deficiency in mice did not affect glucose homeostasis or prevent fat-induced insulin resistance. These data do not support a role for GPR17 in the control of food intake, body weight, or glycemic control.
Project description:Neuronatin (Nnat) has previously been reported to be part of a network of imprinted genes downstream of the chromatin regulator Trim28. Disruption of Trim28 or of members of this network, including neuronatin, results in an unusual phenotype of a bimodal body weight. To better characterise this variability, we examined the key contributors to energy balance in Nnat<sup>+/-p</sup> mice that carry a paternal null allele and do not express Nnat. Consistent with our previous studies, Nnat deficient mice on chow diet displayed a bimodal body weight phenotype with more than 30% of Nnat<sup>+/-p</sup> mice developing obesity. In response to both a 45% high fat diet and exposure to thermoneutrality (30 °C) Nnat deficient mice maintained the hypervariable body weight phenotype. Within a calorimetry system, food intake in Nnat<sup>+/-p</sup> mice was hypervariable, with some mice consuming more than twice the intake seen in wild type littermates. A hyperphagic response was also seen in Nnat<sup>+/-p</sup> mice in a second, non-home cage environment. An expected correlation between body weight and energy expenditure was seen, but corrections for the effects of positive energy balance and body weight greatly diminished the effect of neuronatin deficiency on energy expenditure. Male and female Nnat<sup>+/-p</sup> mice displayed subtle distinctions in the degree of variance body weight phenotype and food intake and further sexual dimorphism was reflected in different patterns of hypothalamic gene expression in Nnat<sup>+/-p</sup> mice. Loss of the imprinted gene Nnat is associated with a highly variable food intake, with the impact of this phenotype varying between genetically identical individuals.
Project description:Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a role in food intake behaviour and energy balance regulation by analysing body weight, body composition and food intake in genetically modified mice that either lack or overexpress heparanase. We also assessed food intake and body weight following acute central intracerebroventricular administration of heparanase; such treatment reduced food intake in wildtype mice, an effect that was abolished in mice lacking MC4R. By contrast, heparanase knockout mice on a high-fat diet showed increased food intake and maturity-onset obesity, with up to a 40% increase in body fat. Mice overexpressing heparanase displayed essentially the opposite phenotypes, with a reduced fat mass. These results implicate heparanase in energy balance control via the central melanocortin system. Our data indicate that heparanase acts as a negative modulator of AgRP signaling at MC4R, through cleavage of heparan sulfate chains presumably linked to syndecan-3.
Project description:<h4>Background/objectives</h4>Based on the recent identification of E.coli heat shock protein ClpB as a mimetic of the anorexigenic ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), the objective of this study was to preclinically validate Hafnia alvei, a ClpB-producing commensal bacterium as a potential probiotic for appetite and body weight management in overweight and obesity.<h4>Methods</h4>The involvement of enterobacterial ClpB in the putative anti-obesity effects was studied using ClpB-deficient E.coli. A food-grade H. alvei HA4597 strain synthetizing the ClpB protein with an ?-MSH-like motif was selected as a candidate probiotic to be tested in ob/ob and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and overweight mice. The relevance of the enterobacterial ClpB gene to human obesity was studied by in silico analysis of fecal metagenomes of 569 healthy individuals from the "MetaHIT" database.<h4>Results</h4>Chronic per os administration of native but not ClpB-deficient E.coli strain reduced body weight gain (p?<?0.05) and daily meal frequency (p?<?0.001) in ob/ob mice. Oral gavage of H.alvei for 18 and 46 days in ob/ob and HFD-fed obese mice, respectively, was well tolerated, reduced body weight gain and fat mass in both obesity models (p?<?0.05) and decreased food intake in hyperphagic ob/ob mice (p?<?0.001). Elevated fat tissue levels of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase were detected in H.alvei -treated ob/ob mice (p?<?0.01). Enterobacterial ClpB gene richness was lower in obese vs. non-obese humans (p?<?0.0001) and correlated negatively with BMI in genera of Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Hafnia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>H.alvei HA4597 strain reduces food intake, body weight and fat mass gain in hyperphagic and obese mice. These data combined with low enterobacterial ClpB gene abundance in the microbiota of obese humans provide the rationale for using H.alvei as a probiotic for appetite and body weight management in overweight and obesity.
Project description:Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a common trichothecene mycotoxin found in cereal foods, dysregulates immune function and maintenance of energy balance. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences are similarly evident in DON's anorectic responses in mice. A bioassay for feed refusal, previously developed by our lab, was used to compare acute i.p. exposures of 1 and 5 mg/kg bw DON in C57BL6 mice. Greater anorectic responses were seen in male than female mice. Male mice had higher organ and plasma concentrations of DON upon acute exposure than their female counterparts. A significant increase in IL-6 plasma levels was also observed in males while cholecystokinin response was higher in females. When effects of sex on food intake and body weight changes were compared after subchronic dietary exposure to 1, 2.5, and 10 ppm DON, males were found again to be more sensitive. Demonstration of male predilection to DON-induced changes in food intake and weight gain might an important consideration in future risk assessment of DON and other trichothecenes.