Essentials and guidelines for clinical medical physics residency training programs: executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.
ABSTRACT: There is a clear need for established standards for medical physics residency training. The complexity of techniques in imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology continues to increase with each passing year. It is therefore imperative that training requirements and competencies are routinely reviewed and updated to reflect the changing environment in hospitals and clinics across the country. In 2010, the AAPM Work Group on Periodic Review of Medical Physics Residency Training was formed and charged with updating AAPM Report Number 90. This work group includes AAPM members with extensive experience in clinical, professional, and educational aspects of medical physics. The resulting report, AAPM Report Number 249, concentrates on the clinical and professional knowledge needed to function independently as a practicing medical physicist in the areas of radiation oncology, imaging, and nuclear medicine, and constitutes a revision to AAPM Report Number 90. This manuscript presents an executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.
Project description:The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education, and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States. The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner. Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized. The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines: Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline. Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances. Approved by AAPM Professional Council 3-31-2017 and Executive Committee 4-4-2017.
Project description:To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics.A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents' assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as "frequent."Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents' preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality.The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism.
Project description:The AAPM, through its members, meetings, and its flagship journal Medical Physics, has played an important role in the development and growth of x-ray tomography in the last 50 years. From a spate of early articles in the 1970s characterizing the first commercial computed tomography (CT) scanners through the "slice wars" of the 1990s and 2000s, the history of CT and related techniques such as tomosynthesis can readily be traced through the pages of Medical Physics and the annals of the AAPM and RSNA/AAPM Annual Meetings. In this article, the authors intend to give a brief review of the role of Medical Physics and the AAPM in CT and tomosynthesis imaging over the last few decades.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Postgraduate medical education is undergoing a paradigm shift in many universities worldwide, transitioning from a time-based model to competency-based medical education (cbme). Residency programs might have to alter clinical rotations, educational curricula, assessment methods, and faculty involvement in preparation for cbme, a process not yet characterized in the literature.<h4>Methods</h4>We surveyed Canadian medical oncology program directors on planned or newly implemented residency program changes in preparation for cbme.<h4>Results</h4>Prior to implementing cbme, all program directors changed at least 1 clinical rotation, most commonly making hematology/oncology (74%) entirely outpatient and eliminating radiation oncology (64%). Introductory rotations were altered to focus on common tumour sites, and later rotations were changed to increase learner autonomy. Most program directors planned to enhance resident learning with electronic teaching modules (79%), new training experiences (71%), and academic half-day changes (50%). Most program directors (64%) planned to change assessment methods to be entirely based on entrustable professional activities. All programs had developed a competence committee to review learner progress, and most (86%) had integrated academic coaches.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Transitioning to cbme led to major structural and curricular changes within medical oncology training programs. Identifying these commonly implemented changes could help other programs transition to cbme.
Project description:A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), and American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD). This Executive Summary of the report highlights the key recommendations for clinical practice, research, and trials.
Project description:Competency-based medical education has evolved over the past decades to include the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System of resident evaluation based on the Milestones project. Entrustable professional activities represent another means to determine learner proficiency and evaluate educational outcomes in the workplace and training environment. The objective of this project was to develop entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education encompassing primary anatomic and clinical pathology residency training. The Graduate Medical Education Committee of the College of American Pathologists met over the course of 2 years to identify and define entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education. Nineteen entrustable professional activities were developed, including 7 for anatomic pathology, 4 for clinical pathology, and 8 that apply to both disciplines with 5 of these concerning laboratory management. The content defined for each entrustable professional activity includes the entrustable professional activity title, a description of the knowledge and skills required for competent performance, mapping to relevant Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestone subcompetencies, and general assessment methods. Many critical activities that define the practice of pathology fit well within the entrustable professional activity model. The entrustable professional activities outlined by the Graduate Medical Education Committee are meant to provide an initial framework for the development of entrustable professional activity-related assessment and curricular tools for pathology residency training.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Physician workforce projections by the Institute of Medicine require enhanced training in geriatrics for all primary care and subspecialty physicians. Defining essential geriatrics competencies for internal medicine and family medicine residents would improve training for primary care and subspecialty physicians. The objectives of this study were to (1) define essential geriatrics competencies common to internal medicine and family medicine residents that build on established national geriatrics competencies for medical students, are feasible within current residency programs, are assessable, and address the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies; and (2) involve key stakeholder organizations in their development and implementation. METHODS: Initial candidate competencies were defined through small group meetings and a survey of more than 100 experts, followed by detailed item review by 26 program directors and residency clinical educators from key professional organizations. Throughout, an 8-member working group made revisions to maintain consistency and compatibility among the competencies. Support and participation by key stakeholder organizations were secured throughout the project. RESULTS: The process identified 26 competencies in 7 domains: Medication Management; Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health; Complex or Chronic Illness(es) in Older Adults; Palliative and End-of-Life Care; Hospital Patient Safety; Transitions of Care; and Ambulatory Care. The competencies map directly onto the medical student geriatric competencies and the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Competencies. CONCLUSIONS: Through a consensus-building process that included leadership and members of key stakeholder organizations, a concise set of essential geriatrics competencies for internal medicine and family medicine residencies has been developed. These competencies are well aligned with concerns for residency training raised in a recent Medicare Payment Advisory Commission report to Congress. Work is underway through stakeholder organizations to disseminate and assess the competencies among internal medicine and family medicine residency programs.
Project description:Although scholars have long studied circumstances that shape prejudice, inquiry into factors associated with long-term prejudice reduction has been more limited. Using a 6-year longitudinal study of non-Black physicians in training (N = 3,134), we examined the effect of three medical-school factors-interracial contact, medical-school environment, and diversity training-on explicit and implicit racial bias measured during medical residency. When accounting for all three factors, previous contact, and baseline bias, we found that quality of contact continued to predict lower explicit and implicit bias, although the effects were very small. Racial climate, modeling of bias, and hours of diversity training in medical school were not consistently related to less explicit or implicit bias during residency. These results highlight the benefits of interracial contact during an impactful experience such as medical school. Ultimately, professional institutions can play a role in reducing anti-Black bias by encouraging more frequent, and especially more favorable, interracial contact.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented and potentially stressful event that inserted itself into the 2019-2020 Canadian medical curriculum. However, its impact on stress and subsequent professional pathways is not well understood. This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental well-being, training, and career choices of Canadian medical clerks within the first three months of the pandemic. It also aims to assess their use of university support systems and their appreciation of potential solutions to common academic stressors. METHODS:An electronic survey composed of four sections: demographics, stressors experienced during the pandemic, World Health Organization (WHO) well-being index, and stress management and resources was distributed to Canadian clerks. RESULTS:Clerks from 10 of the 17 Canadian medical faculties participated in this study (n?=?627). Forty-five percent of clerks reported higher levels of stress than usual; 22% reconsidered their residency choice; and 19% reconsidered medicine as a career. The factors that were most stressful among clerks were: the means of return to rotations; decreased opportunities to be productive in view of residency match; and taking the national licensing exam after the beginning of residency. The mean WHO well-being index was 14.8/25?±?4.5, indicating a poor level of well-being among a considerable proportion of students. Clerks who reconsidered their residency choice or medicine as a career had lower mean WHO well-being indices. Most clerks agreed with the following suggested solutions: training sessions on the clinical management of COVID-19 cases; being allowed to submit fewer reference letters when applying to residency; and having protected time to study for their licensing exam during residency. Overall, clerks were less concerned with being infected during their rotations than with the impact of the pandemic on their future career and residency match. CONCLUSION:The COVID-19 pandemic had a considerable impact on the medical curriculum and well-being of clerks. A number of student-identified solutions were proposed to reduce stress. The implementation of these solutions throughout the Canadian medical training system should be considered.
Project description:PURPOSE:Interest in global health has risen among medical students applying to and residents training in radiation oncology, often outpacing available educational offerings. The Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Global Health Subcommittee sought to determine the perceptions of program directors (PDs) in radiation oncology and their current or planned global health curricular opportunities. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A standardized, Knowledge-Attitudes-Practices survey composed of 32 binary items was sent to PDs for all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited radiation oncology programs. RESULTS:The program response rate was 60% (55 of 91). Responding programs were distributed evenly geographically and included a range of training program sizes. Most PDs (77%) knew that most nations did not meet standard minimum benchmarks for radiation therapy access. Although 89% would support residents in pursuing global health rotations, only 22% would support departmental funding of such rotations. Furthermore, 94% believed that global health was a field worthy of an academic career, but only 39% believed that it had appropriate rigor. Only 8% of programs had dedicated global health rotations. CONCLUSIONS:Radiation oncology PDs largely expressed favorable views of global health as a pursuit and affirmed a high degree of resident and medical student interest. However, faculty commitment and program offerings currently lag behind the interest level. In particular, a substantial number of PDs do not perceive global health to be a rigorous academic endeavor. Future progress in academic global health in radiation oncology will require strategies to systematically support pathways for the development of experience and scholarship both within and beyond residency.