Epithelial Barrier Regulation by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor.
ABSTRACT: Mucosal tissues represent surfaces that are exposed to the outside world and provide a conduit for internal and external communication. Tissues such as the intestine and the lung are lined by layer(s) of epithelial cells that, when organized in three dimensions, provide a critical barrier to the flux of luminal contents. This selective barrier is provided through the regulated expression of junctional proteins and mucins. Tissue oxygen metabolism is central to the maintenance of homeostasis in the mucosa. In some organs (e.g., the colon), low baseline Po2 determines tissue metabolism and results in basal expression of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which is enhanced after ischemia/inflammation. Recent studies have indicated that HIF contributes fundamentally to the expression of barrier-related genes and in the regulation of barrier-adaptive responses within the mucosa. Here, we briefly review recent literature on the topic of hypoxia and HIF regulation of barrier in mucosal health and during disease.
Project description:Epithelial cells of the mucosa provide a first line of defense to prevent the inappropriate translocation of luminal antigens, and therefore contribute significantly to nonspecific innate immunity. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, barrier is provided by multiple components of the mucosa, including mucus production, epithelial junctional complexes, and the production of antimicrobial molecules. In recent years, it is better appreciated that tissue oxygen metabolism is key to homeostasis in the mucosa. The intestine, for example, maintains a low baseline Po2 level due to high rates of metabolism, countercurrent blood flow, and the presence of a steep oxygen gradient across the luminal aspect of tissue surface. As a result, hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent signaling exists even in the healthy, unperturbed intestinal mucosa. In a number of examples, HIF has been demonstrated both to promote barrier function during homeostasis and to promote resolution of active inflammation. Hypoxia-elicited factors that contribute to innate responses in the mucosa include the transcriptional regulation of mucin genes, junction proteins, and autophagic flux. Here, we review current literature related to hypoxia and innate immunity in health and during mucosal inflammation.
Project description:Mucosal surfaces, such as the lung and intestine, are lined by a monolayer of epithelia that provides tissue barrier and transport function. It is recently appreciated that a common feature of inflammatory processes within the mucosa is hypoxia (so-called inflammatory hypoxia). Given the strong association between bacterial translocation and mucosal inflammatory disease, we hypothesized that intestinal epithelial hypoxia influences bacterial translocation. Initial studies revealed that exposure of cultured intestinal epithelia to hypoxia (pO(2), 20 torr; 24-48 h) resulted in a increase of up to 40-fold in the translocation of some strains of Gram-positive bacteria, independently of epithelial barrier function. A screen of relevant pathway inhibitors identified a prominent role for the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr) in hypoxia-associated bacterial translocation, wherein pharmacologic antagonists of PAFr blocked bacterial translocation by as much as 80 +/- 6%. Extensions of these studies revealed that hypoxia prominently induces PAFr through a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent mechanism. Indeed, HIF and PAFr loss of function studies (short hairpin RNA) revealed that apically expressed PAFr is central to the induction of translocation for the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis. Together, these findings reveal that some strains of Gram-positive bacteria exploit HIF-regulated PAFr as a means for translocation through intestinal epithelial cells.
Project description:Sites of inflammation are associated with profound changes in tissue metabolism. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) serves as an adaptive pathway for the resolution of inflammation associated with various murine disease models. The resolution of disease occurs, at least in part, through transcriptional regulation of non-classical epithelial barrier genes. There is significant recent interest in harnessing hypoxia-inducible pathways, including targeting the HIF and the proyl-hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes that stabilize HIF, to promote mucosal healing. Here, we review the signaling pathways involved and define how hypoxia-associated signaling provides mechanistic insight into augmenting barrier function in mucosal inflammatory disease.
Project description:Acute intestinal inflammation involves early accumulation of neutrophils (PMNs) followed by either resolution or progression to chronic inflammation. Based on recent evidence that mucosal metabolism influences disease outcomes, we hypothesized that transmigrating PMNs influence the transcriptional profile of the surrounding mucosa. Microarray studies revealed a cohort of hypoxia-responsive genes regulated by PMN-epithelial crosstalk. Transmigrating PMNs rapidly depleted microenvironmental O2 sufficiently to stabilize intestinal epithelial cell hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). By utilizing HIF reporter mice in an acute colitis model, we investigated the relative contribution of PMNs and the respiratory burst to "inflammatory hypoxia" in vivo. CGD mice, lacking a respiratory burst, developed accentuated colitis compared to control, with exaggerated PMN infiltration and diminished inflammatory hypoxia. Finally, pharmacological HIF stabilization within the mucosa protected CGD mice from severe colitis. In conclusion, transcriptional imprinting by infiltrating neutrophils modulates the host response to inflammation, via localized O2 depletion, resulting in microenvironmental hypoxia and effective inflammatory resolution.
Project description:Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are fundamental determinants of human health. Such interactions are concentrated at the colonic mucosa and provide energy for the host epithelium through the production of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. We sought to determine the role of epithelial butyrate metabolism in establishing the austere oxygenation profile of the distal gut. Bacteria-derived butyrate affects epithelial O2 consumption and results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor coordinating barrier protection. Antibiotic-mediated depletion of the microbiota reduces colonic butyrate and HIF expression, both of which are restored by butyrate supplementation. Additionally, germ-free mice exhibit diminished retention of O2-sensitive dyes and decreased stabilized HIF. Furthermore, the influences of butyrate are lost in cells lacking HIF, thus linking butyrate metabolism to stabilized HIF and barrier function. This work highlights a mechanism where host-microbe interactions augment barrier function in the distal gut.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common malignant tumor in the world, shows multiple complex and pathologies based on the impaired structure and function of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Goblet cells secrete mucins, which are involved in the formation of the intestinal mucosal barrier and not only lubricate and protect the intestinal mucosa but also participate in the processes of cell adhesion, intercellular signal transduction, and immune regulation. It is accepted that the disordered expression and dysfunction of mucins are associated with the occurrence and development of CRC. This article focuses on the secretory mucins encoded by a gene cluster located on chromosome 11p15.5 and systematically reviews their composition, regulation, function, and role in CRC, to deepen the understanding of the pathogeneses of CRC and to provide a new basis and ideas for the treatment of CRC.
Project description:Mucosal surfaces of the lower gastrointestinal tract are subject to frequent, pronounced fluctuations in oxygen tension, particularly during inflammation. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are orchestrated largely by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). As HIF-1? and HIF-2? are coexpressed in mucosal epithelia that constitute the barrier between the lumen and the underlying immune milieu, we sought to define the discrete contribution of HIF-1 and HIF-2 transactivation pathways to intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis. The present study identifies creatine kinases (CKs), key metabolic enzymes for rapid ATP generation via the phosphocreatine-creatine kinase (PCr/CK) system, as a unique gene family that is coordinately regulated by HIF. Cytosolic CKs are expressed in a HIF-2-dependent manner in vitro and localize to apical intestinal epithelial cell adherens junctions, where they are critical for junction assembly and epithelial integrity. Supplementation with dietary creatine markedly ameliorated both disease severity and inflammatory responses in colitis models. Further, enzymes of the PCr/CK metabolic shuttle demonstrate dysregulated mucosal expression in a subset of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease patients. These findings establish a role for HIF-regulated CK in epithelial homeostasis and reveal a fundamental link between cellular bioenergetics and mucosal barrier.
Project description:The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial cells are adapted in mucosal hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors in these cells can fortify barrier integrity to support mucosal tissue healing. Here we investigated whether hypoxia-related pathways could be proposed as potential therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel disease. We developed a novel hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, CG-598 which stabilized HIF-1? in the gut tissue. Treatment of CG-598 did not affect extra-intestinal organs or cause any significant adverse effects such as erythropoiesis. In the experimental murine colitis model, CG-598 ameliorated intestinal inflammation with reduction of inflammatory lesions and pro-inflammatory cytokines. CG-598 treatment fortified barrier function by increasing the expression of intestinal trefoil factor, CD73, E-cadherin and mucin. Also, IL-10 and IL-22 were induced from lamina propria CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cells. The effectiveness of CG-598 was comparable to other immunosuppressive therapeutics such as TNF-blockers or JAK inhibitors. These results suggest that CG-598 could be a promising therapeutic candidate to treat inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:Abnormally low level of interstitial oxygen, or hypoxia, is a hallmark of tumor microenvironment and a known promoter of cancer chemoresistance. Inside a solid tumor mass, the hypoxia stems largely from inadequate supply of oxygenated blood through sparse or misshapen tumor vasculature whilst oxygen utilization rates are low in typical tumor's glycolytic metabolism. In acute leukemias, however, markers of intracellular hypoxia such as increased pimonidazole adduct staining and HIF-1? stabilization are observed in advanced leukemic bone marrows (BM) despite an increase in BM vasculogenesis. We utilized intravital fast scanning two-photon phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FaST-PLIM) in a BCR-ABL B-ALL mouse model to image the extracellular oxygen concentrations (pO2) in leukemic BM, and we related the extracellular oxygen levels to intracellular hypoxia, vascular markers and local leukemia burden. We observed a transient increase in BM pO2 in initial disease stages with intermediate leukemia BM burden, which correlated with an expansion of blood-carrying vascular network in the BM. Yet, we also observed increased formation of intracellular pimonidazole adducts in leukemic BM at the same time. This intermediate stage was followed by a significant decrease of extracellular pO2 and further increase of intracellular hypoxia as leukemia cellularity overwhelmed BM in disease end-stage. Remarkably, treatment of leukemic mice with IACS-010759, a pharmacological inhibitor of mitochondrial Complex I, substantially increased pO2 in the BM with advanced B-ALL, and it alleviated intracellular hypoxia reported by pimonidazole staining. High rates of oxygen consumption by B-ALL cells were confirmed by Seahorse assay including in ex vivo cells. Our results suggest that B-ALL expansion in BM is associated with intense oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) leading to the onset of metabolic BM hypoxia despite increased BM vascularization. Targeting mitochondrial respiration may be a novel approach to counteract BM hypoxia in B-ALL and, possibly, tumor hypoxia in other OxPhos-reliant malignancies.