Relationship between Race and the Effect of Fluids on Long-term Mortality after Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Secondary Analysis of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Short-term follow-up in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) suggested differential mortality by race with conservative fluid management, but no significant interaction. OBJECTIVE:In a post hoc analysis of FACTT including 1-year follow-up, we sought to estimate long-term mortality by race and test for an interaction between fluids and race. METHODS:We performed a post hoc analysis of FACTT and the Economic Analysis of Pulmonary Artery Catheters (EAPAC) study (which included 655 of the 1,000 FACTT patients with near-complete 1-year follow up). We fit a multistate Markov model to estimate 1-year mortality for all non-Hispanic black and white randomized FACTT subjects. The model estimated the distribution of time from randomization to hospital discharge or hospital death (available on all patients) and estimated the distribution of time from hospital discharge to death using data on patients after hospital discharge for patients in EAPAC. The 1-year mortality was found by combining these estimates. RESULTS:Non-Hispanic black (n?=?217, 25%) or white identified subjects (n?=?641, 75%) were included. There was a significant interaction between race and fluid treatment (P?=?0.012). One-year mortality was lower for black subjects assigned to conservative fluids (38 vs. 54%; mean mortality difference, 16%; 95% confidence interval, 2-30%; P?=?0.027 between conservative and liberal). Conversely, 1-year mortality for white subjects was 35% versus 30% for conservative versus liberal arms (mean mortality difference, -4.8%; 95% confidence interval, -13% to 3%; P?=?0.23). CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort, conservative fluid management may have improved 1-year mortality for non-Hispanic black patients with ARDS. However, we found no long-term benefit of conservative fluid management in white subjects.
Project description:In the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) of the National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network, a conservative fluid protocol (FACTT Conservative) resulted in a lower cumulative fluid balance and better outcomes than a liberal fluid protocol (FACTT Liberal). Subsequent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network studies used a simplified conservative fluid protocol (FACTT Lite). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of FACTT Lite, FACTT Conservative, and FACTT Liberal protocols.Retrospective comparison of FACTT Lite, FACTT Conservative, and FACTT Liberal. Primary outcome was cumulative fluid balance over 7 days. Secondary outcomes were 60-day adjusted mortality and ventilator-free days through day 28. Safety outcomes were prevalence of acute kidney injury and new shock.ICUs of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network participating hospitals.Five hundred three subjects managed with FACTT Conservative, 497 subjects managed with FACTT Liberal, and 1,124 subjects managed with FACTT Lite.Fluid management by protocol.Cumulative fluid balance was 1,918 ± 323 mL in FACTT Lite, -136 ± 491 mL in FACTT Conservative, and 6,992 ± 502 mL in FACTT Liberal (p < 0.001). Mortality was not different between groups (24% in FACTT Lite, 25% in FACTT Conservative and Liberal, p = 0.84). Ventilator-free days in FACTT Lite (14.9 ± 0.3) were equivalent to FACTT Conservative (14.6 ± 0.5) (p = 0.61) and greater than in FACTT Liberal (12.1 ± 0.5, p < 0.001 vs Lite). Acute kidney injury prevalence was 58% in FACTT Lite and 57% in FACTT Conservative (p = 0.72). Prevalence of new shock in FACTT Lite (9%) was lower than in FACTT Conservative (13%) (p = 0.007 vs Lite) and similar to FACTT Liberal (11%) (p = 0.18 vs Lite).FACTT Lite had a greater cumulative fluid balance than FACTT Conservative but had equivalent clinical and safety outcomes. FACTT Lite is an alternative to FACTT Conservative for fluid management in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Project description:Importance:Racial/ethnic disparities in quality of care among extremely preterm infants are associated with adverse outcomes. Objective:To assess whether racial/ethnic disparities in major outcomes and key care practices were changing over time among extremely preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants:This observational cohort study used prospectively collected data from 25 US academic medical centers. Participants included 20?092 infants of 22 to 27 weeks' gestation with a birth weight of 401 to 1500 g born at centers participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network from 2002 to 2016. Of these infants, 9316 born from 2006 to 2014 were eligible for follow-up at 18 to 26 months' postmenstrual age (excluding 5871 infants born before 2006, 2594 infants born after 2014, and 2311 ineligible infants including 64 with birth weight >1000 g and 2247 infants with gestational age >26 6/7 weeks), of whom 745 (8.0%) did not have known follow-up outcomes at 18 to 26 months. Main Outcomes and Measures:Rates of mortality, major morbidities, and care practice use over time were evaluated using models adjusted for baseline characteristics, center, and birth year. Data analyses were conducted from 2018 to 2019. Results:In total, 20?092 infants with a mean (SD) gestational age of 25.1 (1.5) weeks met the inclusion criteria and were available for the primary outcome: 8331 (41.5%) black infants, 3701 (18.4%) Hispanic infants, and 8060 (40.1%) white infants. Hospital mortality decreased over time in all groups. The rate of improvement in hospital mortality over time did not differ among black and Hispanic infants compared with white infants (black infants went from 35% to 24%, Hispanic infants went from 32% to 27%, and white infants went from 30% to 22%; P?=?.59 for race?×?year interaction). The rates of late-onset sepsis among black infants (went from 37% to 24%) and Hispanic infants (went from 45% to 23%) were initially higher than for white infants (went from 36% to 25%) but decreased more rapidly and converged during the most recent years (P?=?.02 for race?×?year interaction). Changes in rates of other major morbidities did not differ by race/ethnicity. Death before follow-up decreased over time (from 2006 to 2014: black infants, 14%; Hispanic infants, 39%, white infants, 15%), but moderate-severe neurodevelopmental impairment increased over time in all racial/ethnic groups (increase from 2006 to 2014: black infants, 70%; Hispanic infants, 123%; white infants, 130%). Rates of antenatal corticosteroid exposure (black infants went from 72% to 90%, Hispanic infants went from 73% to 83%, and white infants went from 86% to 90%; P?=?.01 for race?×?year interaction) and of cesarean delivery (black infants went from 45% to 59%, Hispanic infants went from 49% to 59%, and white infants went from 62% to 63%; P?=?.03 for race?×?year interaction) were initially lower among black and Hispanic infants compared with white infants, but these differences decreased over time. Conclusions and Relevance:Among extremely preterm infants, improvements in adjusted rates of mortality and most major morbidities did not differ by race/ethnicity, but rates of neurodevelopmental impairment increased in all groups. There were narrowing racial/ethnic disparities in important care practices, including the use of antenatal corticosteroids and cesarean delivery.
Project description:To assess race-ethnic differences in acute blood pressure (BP) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the contribution to disparities in ICH outcome.BPs in the field (emergency medical services [EMS]), emergency department (ED), and at 24 hours were compared and adjusted for group differences between non-Hispanic black (black), non-Hispanic white (white), and Hispanic participants in the Ethnic Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage case-control study. Outcome was obtained by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. We analyzed race-ethnic differences in good outcome (mRS ? 2) and mortality after adjusting for baseline differences and included BP recordings in this model.Of 2,069 ICH cases enrolled, 30% were white, 37% black, and 33% Hispanic. Black and Hispanic patients had higher EMS and ED systolic and diastolic BPs compared with white patients (p = 0.0001). Although attenuated, at 24 hours after admission, black patients had higher systolic and diastolic BPs. After adjusting for baseline differences, significant race/ethnic differences persisted for EMS systolic, ED systolic and diastolic, and 24-hours diastolic BP. Only ED systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poor functional outcome, and no BP predicted mortality. We found no race-ethnic differences in 3-month functional outcome or mortality after adjusting for group differences, including acute BPs.Although black and Hispanic patients had higher BPs than white patients at presentation, we did not find race-ethnic disparities in 3-month functional outcome or mortality. ED systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poor functional outcome, but not mortality, in this race-ethnically diverse population.
Project description:Importance:Substantial quality improvements in neonatal care have occurred over the past decade yet racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality remain. It is uncertain whether disparate patterns of care by race and ethnicity contribute to disparities in neonatal outcomes. Objectives:To examine differences in neonatal morbidity and mortality rates among non-Hispanic black (black), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (white) very preterm infants and to determine whether these differences are explained by site of delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants:Population-based retrospective cohort study of 7177 nonanomalous infants born between 24 and 31 completed gestational weeks in 39 New York City hospitals using linked 2010 to 2014 New York City discharge abstract and birth certificate data sets. Mixed-effects logistic regression with a random hospital-specific intercept was used to generate risk-adjusted neonatal morbidity and mortality rates for very preterm infants in each hospital. Hospitals were ranked using this measure, and differences in the distribution of black, Hispanic, and white very preterm births were assessed among these hospitals. The statistical analysis was performed in 2016-2017. Exposure:Race/ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures:Composite of mortality (neonatal or in-hospital up to 1 year) or severe neonatal morbidity (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3 or greater, or intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or greater). Results:Among 7177 very preterm births (VPTBs), morbidity and mortality occurred in 2011 (28%) and was higher among black (893 [32.2%]) and Hispanic (610 [28.1%]) than white (319 [22.5%]) VPTBs (2-tailed P?<?.001). The risk-standardized morbidity and mortality rate was twice as great for VPTB infants born in hospitals in the highest morbidity and mortality tertile (0.40; 95% CI, 0.38-0.41) as for those born in the lowest morbidity and mortality tertile (0.16; 95% CI, 0.14-0.18). Black (1204 of 2775 [43.4%]) and Hispanic (746 of 2168 [34.4%]) VPTB infants were more likely than white (325 of 1418 [22.9%]) VPTB infants to be born in hospitals in the highest morbidity and mortality tertile (2-tailed P?<?.001; black-white difference, 20%; 95% CI, 18%-23% and Hispanic-white difference, 11%; 95% CI, 9%-14%). The largest proportion of the explained disparities can be attributed to differences in infant health risks among black, Hispanic, and white VPTB infants. However, 40% (95% CI, 30%-50%) of the black-white disparity and 30% (95% CI, 10%-49%) of the Hispanic-white disparity was explained by birth hospital. Conclusions and Relevance:Black and Hispanic VPTB infants are more likely to be born at hospitals with higher risk-adjusted neonatal morbidity and mortality rates, and these differences contribute to excess morbidity and mortality among black and Hispanic infants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from symptomatic SARS-Cov-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Most studies investigating racial and ethnic disparities to date have focused on hospitalized patients or have not characterized who received testing or those who tested positive for Covid-19.<h4>Objective</h4>To compare patterns of testing and test results for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) and subsequent mortality by race and ethnicity in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).<h4>Participants</h4>5,834,543 individuals in care, among whom 62,098 were tested and 5,630 tested positive for Covid-19 between February 8 and May 4, 2020. Exposures: Self-reported race/ethnicity.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of Covid-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, accounting for a wide range of demographic and clinical risk factors including comorbid conditions, site of care, and urban versus rural residence.<h4>Results</h4>Among all individuals in care, 74% were non-Hispanic white (white), 19% non-Hispanic black (black), and 7% Hispanic. Compared with white individuals, black and Hispanic individuals were more likely to be tested for Covid-19 (tests per 1000: white=9.0, [95% CI 8.9 to 9.1]; black=16.4, [16.2 to 16.7]; and Hispanic=12.2, [11.9 to 12.5]). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (black vs white: OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.12; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.96), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (black vs white: OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.33; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of Covid-19 not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. While there was no observed difference in mortality by race or ethnicity, our findings may underestimate risk in the broader US population as health disparities tend to be reduced in VA.
Project description:Evaluating breast cancer outcomes specific to Hispanics of different race (e.g. Hispanic Black, Hispanic White) may further explain variations in the burden of breast cancer among Hispanic women. Using data from the SEER 17 population-based registries, we evaluated the association between race/ethnicity and tumor stage, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer-specific mortality. The study cohort of 441,742 women, aged 20-79, who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2008, included 44,246 Hispanic whites, 622 Hispanic Blacks, 44,797 non-Hispanic Blacks and 352,077 non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic black, Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women had a 1.5-2.5 fold greater risk of presenting with stage IV breast cancer compared to non-Hispanic whites. All groups were significantly more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with ER+/PR- (1.1-1.5 fold increase) or ER-/PR- (1.4-2.2 fold increase) breast cancer. Hispanic black, Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women had a 10-50 % greater risk of breast cancer-specific mortality compared to non-Hispanic whites. Our findings underscore the breast cancer disparities that continue to exist for Hispanic and black women, overall, as well as between Hispanic women of different race. These disparities highlight the factors that may lead to the poor outcomes observed among Hispanic and black women diagnosed with breast cancer, and for which targeted strategies aimed at reducing breast cancer disparities could be developed.
Project description:Objective:We addressed three research questions: (1) Are there racial mortality disparities in the adult Hispanic population that resemble those observed in the non-Hispanic population in the US? (2) Does nativity mediate the race-mortality relationship in the Hispanic population? and (3) What does the Hispanic mortality advantage relative to the non-Hispanic white population look like when Hispanic race is considered? Methods:We estimated a series of parametric hazard models on eight years of mortality follow-up data and calculated life expectancy estimates using the Mortality Disparities in American Communities database. Results:Hispanic white adults experience lower mortality than their Hispanic black, American Indian and Alaska Native, Some Other Race, and multiple race counterparts. This Hispanic white advantage is found mostly among the US born. The Hispanic advantage relative to the non-Hispanic white population operates for most Hispanic race groups among the foreign born but either disappears or converts to a disadvantage for most of the non-white Hispanic groups among the US born. Contribution:Our study extends the literature on the Hispanic Mortality Paradox by revealing that the adult Hispanic population experiences racial mortality disparities that closely resemble those observed in the non-Hispanic population. The Hispanic mortality advantage is mediated not only by nativity but by race. These results indicate that race is a critical factor that should be considered in any study with the goal of understanding the health and mortality profiles of the Hispanic population in the US.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Reducing cancer disparities is a major public health objective. Disparities often are discussed in terms of either race and ethnicity or socioeconomic status (SES), without examining interactions between these variables.<h4>Methods</h4>Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 data, excluding Alaska Native and Louisiana registries, from 2002 to 2008, were used to estimate five-year, cause-specific survival by race/ethnicity and census tract SES. Differences in survival between groups were used to assess absolute disparities. Hazard ratios were examined as a measure of relative disparity. Interactions between race/ethnicity and neighborhood SES were evaluated using proportional hazard models.<h4>Results</h4>Survival increased with higher SES for all racial/ethnic groups and generally was higher among non-Hispanic white and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) than non-Hispanic black and Hispanic cases. Absolute disparity in breast cancer survival among non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white cases was slightly larger in low-SES areas than in high-SES areas (7.1% and 6.8%, respectively). In contrast, after adjusting for stage, age, and treatment, risk of mortality among non-Hispanic black cases compared with non-Hispanic white cases was 21% higher in low-SES areas and 64% higher in high-SES areas. Similarly, patterns of absolute and relative disparity compared with non-Hispanic whites differed by SES for Hispanic breast cancer, non-Hispanic black colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer cases. Statistically significant interactions existed between race/ethnicity and SES for colorectal and female breast cancers.<h4>Discussion</h4>In health disparities research, both relative and absolute measures provide context. A better understanding of the interactions between race/ethnicity and SES may be useful in directing screening and treatment resources toward at-risk populations.
Project description:Background Racial/ethnic disparities in acute stroke care may impact stroke outcomes. We compared outcomes by race/ethnicity among elderly Medicare beneficiaries in hospitals participating in the FL-PR CReSD (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities) registry with those in hospitals not participating in any quality improvement programs (non- QI ) in Florida and Puerto Rico (PR). Methods and Results The population included fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age 65+ in Florida and PR , discharged with primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke ( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM], codes 433, 434, 436) in 2010-2013. We used mixed logistic models to assess racial/ethnic differences in outcomes (in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality, and 30-day readmission) for CR e SD and non- QI hospitals, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. The study included 62 CR e SD hospitals (N=44 013, 84% white, 9% black, 4% Florida Hispanic, 1% PR Hispanic) and 113 non- QI hospitals (N=14 422, 78% white, 7% black, 5% Florida Hispanic, 8% PR Hispanic). For patients treated at CR e SD hospitals, there were no differences in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality by race/ethnicity; blacks had lower 30-day mortality versus whites (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.97), but higher 30-day readmission (hazard ratio, 1.09; 1.00-1.18) and 1-year mortality (odds ratio, 1.13; 1.04-1.23); Florida Hispanics had lower 30-day readmission (hazard ratio, 0.87; 0.78-0.98). PR Hispanic and black stroke patients treated at non- QI hospitals had higher risk-adjusted in-hospital, 30-day and 1-year mortality, but similar 30-day readmission versus whites treated in non- QI hospitals. Conclusions Disparities in outcomes were less common in CR e SD than non- QI hospitals, suggesting the benefits of quality improvement programs, particularly those focusing on racial/ethnic disparities.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in disease manifestations and survival in a US cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), with a focus on Asian patients. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted among Kaiser Permanente Northern California adults with an incident SSc diagnosis by a rheumatologist from 2007 to 2016, confirmed by a chart review to fulfill 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria. Self-reported race/ethnicity was categorized as non-Hispanic white, Asian, Hispanic, and black. Disease manifestations and survival were compared, using white patients as the reference. RESULTS:A total of 609 patients with incident SSc were identified: 89% were women, and 81% had limited cutaneous SSc, with a mean age at diagnosis of 55.4 ± 14.8 years. The racial/ethnic distribution was 51% non-Hispanic white (n = 310), 25% Hispanic (n = 154), 16% Asian (n = 96), and 8% black (n = 49). Compared with white patients, black patients had a greater prevalence of diffuse disease (14.5% vs. 44.9%; P < 0.001), and Asians had higher rates of anti-U1-RNP antibodies (32.1% vs. 11.9%; P = 0.005). Nine-year overall survival rates following SSc diagnosis were lower in Asian (52.3%), black (52.2%), and Hispanic patients (68.2%) compared with white patients (75.8%). Pulmonary hypertension and infections were the leading causes of death in Asian patients. Asian race was associated with higher mortality on univariable (hazard ratio [HR] 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.99]; P = 0.020) and multivariable analyses (HR 1.80 [95% CI 0.99-3.16]; P = 0.047) when adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, cutaneous subtype, smoking status, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, renal crisis, and malabsorption syndrome. CONCLUSION:Asian patients with SSc in this US cohort had increased mortality compared with white patients. These patients warrant close monitoring for disease progression.