Detection of desmoplastic melanoma with dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.
ABSTRACT: Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is frequently misdiagnosed clinically and often associated with melanoma in situ (MIS).To improve the detection of DM using dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM).A descriptive analysis of DM dermoscopy features and a case-control study within a melanoma population for RCM feature evaluation was performed blindly, using data obtained between 2005 and 2015. After retrospectively identifying all DM cases with RCM data over the study period (n = 16), a control group of non-DM melanoma patients with RCM data, in a ratio of at least 3 : 1, was selected. The control group was matched by age and primary tumour site location, divided into non-DM invasive melanomas (n = 27) and MIS (n = 27). Invasive melanomas were selected according to the melanoma subtypes associated with the DM cases. The main outcomes were the frequency of melanoma-specific features on dermoscopy for DM; and the odds ratios of RCM features to distinguish DM from MIS and/or other invasive melanomas; or MIS from the combined invasive melanoma group.At least one of the 14 melanoma-specific features evaluated on dermoscopy was found in 100% of DMs (n = 15 DM with dermoscopy). Known RCM melanoma predictors were commonly found in the DMs, such as pagetoid cells (100%) and cell atypia (100%). The RCM feature of spindle cells in the superficial dermis was more common in DM compared with the entire melanoma control group (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.01-14.90), and particularly compared to MIS (OR 5.48, 95% CI 1.11-32.36). Nucleated cells in the dermis and the RCM correlate of dermal inflammation were also significant RCM features favouring DM over MIS, as well as invasive melanoma over MIS.Dermoscopy and RCM may be useful tools for the identification of DM. Certain RCM features may help distinguish DM from MIS and other invasive melanomas. Larger studies are warranted.
Project description:Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) together with dermoscopy enables improved differentiation of melanomas from most nevi. The resulting high sensitivity for detecting melanoma with RCM is complemented by a concomitant increased specificity, which results in the reduction of unnecessary biopsies of nevi. Although RCM can achieve high diagnostic accuracy for early melanoma detection, false-negative and false-positive cases of melanoma are occasionally encountered. This article reviews the essential clues and pitfalls for the diagnosis of melanoma via RCM and highlights the importance of evaluating RCM findings in light of the clinical scenario and dermoscopic features.
Project description:Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an imaging device that permits non-invasive visualization of cellular morphology and has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal cutaneous lesions. The application of double reader concordance evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets in retrospective settings and its potential application to telemedicine evaluation has not been tested in a large study population.To improve diagnostic sensitivity of RCM image diagnosis using a double reader concordance evaluation approach; to reduce mismanagement of equivocal cutaneous lesions in retrospective consultation and telemedicine settings.1000 combined dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated in blind by 10 readers with advanced training and internship in dermoscopy and RCM evaluation. We compared sensitivity and specificity of single reader evaluation versus double reader concordance evaluation as well as the effect of diagnostic confidence on lesion management in a retrospective setting.Single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 76.3%, with misdiagnosis of 8 melanomas, 4 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas. Combined double reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 65.5%, with misdiagnosis of 1 in-situ melanoma and 2 basal cell carcinomas.Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of cutaneous lesions by single reader evaluation in retrospective settings is limited by sensitivity levels that may result in potential mismanagement of malignant lesions. Double reader blind concordance evaluation may improve the sensitivity of diagnosis and management safety. The use of a second check can be implemented in telemedicine settings where expert consultation and second opinions may be required.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) as a stand-alone diagnostic tool for suspect skin lesions has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE:Primary aim was to measure experts' accuracy in RCM-based management decisions. Secondary aim was to identify melanoma-specific RCM features. METHODS:The study enrolled patients ?18 years that underwent biopsy of skin lesions clinically suspected to be melanoma. One hundred lesions imaged by RCM were randomly selected from 439 lesions prospectively collected at four pigmented lesion clinics. The study data set included 23 melanomas, three basal cell and two squamous cell carcinomas, 11 indeterminate melanocytic lesions and 61 benign lesions including 50 nevi. Three expert RCM evaluators were blinded to clinical or dermoscopic images, and to the final histopathological diagnosis. Evaluators independently issued a binary RCM-based management decision, 'biopsy' vs. 'observation'; these decisions were scored against histopathological diagnosis, with 'biopsy' as the correct management decision for malignant and indeterminate lesions. A subset analysis of 23 melanomas and 50 nevi with unequivocal histopathological diagnosis was performed to identify melanoma-specific RCM features. RESULTS:Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 74%, 67% and 70% for reader 1, 46%, 84% and 69% for reader 2, and 72%, 46% and 56% for reader 3, respectively. The overall kappa for management decisions was 0.34. Readers had unanimous agreement on management for 50 of the 100 lesions. Non-specific architecture, non-visible papillae, streaming of nuclei, coarse collagen fibres and abnormal vasculature showed a significant association with melanoma in the evaluation of at least two readers. CONCLUSIONS:Reflectance confocal microscopy tele-consultation of especially challenging lesions, based on image review without benefit of clinical or dermoscopy images, may be associated with limited diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement. Architectural and stromal criteria may emerge as potentially useful and reproducible criteria for melanoma diagnosis.
Project description:Introduction The incidence and mortality of melanoma are rising rapidly. Despite ongoing research and the introduction of new therapeutic methods, advanced melanoma is still considered incurable. Early detection and surgical excision of the tumor increases patients’ survival. Since the diagnostic protocol includes surgical excision of all suspicious lesions, it is burdened with a high rate of unnecessary excisions that cause unwanted scarring. This is why the development of accurate diagnostic techniques is crucial. The most common diagnostic tool in early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is dermoscopy, though there are emerging new techniques, such as reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Aim To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy as a secondary examination in melanocytic lesions previously diagnosed as melanomas by means of dermoscopy. Material and methods Forty-six melanocytic lesions presenting dermoscopic features of cutaneous malignant melanoma were examined by means of reflectance confocal microscopy. Results The RCM evaluation showed sensitivity at the level of 100% and specificity at 62%. Conclusions It can be estimated that double evaluation of melanocytic lesions by dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy may allow up to 62% of unnecessary excisions to be avoided.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS) is increasing, but little is known about its clinical and epidemiologic features. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine trends in diagnosis and clinical features of MIS. METHODS:Incident cases of melanoma were collected prospectively from the Nurses' Health Study (1976-2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010). RESULTS:MIS incidence increased from 2 to 42 per 100,000 person-year among women, and from 11 to 73 per 100,000 person-year among men, exceeding the rate of increase of invasive melanomas. Melanoma mortality initially increased during the follow-up period then plateaued. Men were more likely than women to develop in situ melanomas on the upper half of the body (P < .001). Invasive melanomas were diagnosed at a younger age than MIS (P < .001), and were more likely to be found on the lower extremities than MIS (P < .001). LIMITATIONS:This is a strictly descriptive study without examination into mechanisms. CONCLUSION:We found epidemiologic and clinical differences for in situ and invasive melanomas, which support further examination into the variations in etiologic pathways. The lack of improvement in mortality despite the increase in detection of in situ relative to invasive lesions further highlights the need to improve invasive melanoma-specific clinical screening features.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Benign and malignant facial skin lesions may be difficult to differentiate clinically and with dermoscopy. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) as a second-level examination for facial skin neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Retrospective and blinded evaluation of 160 consecutive facial lesions was carried out in two separate steps. Clinical and dermoscopic images were assessed first, followed by combined evaluation of clinical/dermoscopic and RCM images. Our study included 60 % malignant lesions, comprising 43 % melanomas, 9 % basal cell carcinomas, 5 % in situ squamous cell carcinomas and 3 % lymphomas. RESULTS:Ancillary RCM significantly improved diagnostic specificity for the detection of malignancy compared to clinical/dermoscopic evaluation alone (58 % vs 28 %). However, sensitivity was slightly lower for RCM-based image evaluation (93 % vs 95 %) due to misclassification of one in situ SCC and one lymphoma. In terms of melanoma diagnosis, RCM-based image evaluation was generally superior; sensitivity was only slightly increased (88 % vs 87 %), but melanoma specificity was significantly higher (84 % vs 58 %). CONCLUSION:RCM is a valuable diagnostic adjunct for facial skin lesions; unnecessary biopsies in this cosmetically sensitive area could be reduced by one third without missing a melanoma.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:A relatively novel application for dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is their use in the monitoring of topical treatment response for non-melanoma skin cancer. Actinic keratosis (AK) is the early phase of a multistep biologic continuum leading to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. A number of topical therapies are now available for the treatment of AK but their disadvantages include long treatment duration and prolonged local reactions. Ingenol mebutate is a newer therapy for AK which is only applied for 2 or 3 days. CASE REPORT:Dermoscopy and RCM findings in two patients with AK treated with ingenol mebutate confirm that it induces rapid lesion necrosis and specific neutrophil-mediated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Necrosis occurs via mitochondrial membrane disruption, with subsequent eradication of residual tumor cells via transient inflammation. Local skin reactions to ingenol mebutate should be considered part of the drug's mechanism of action rather than an adverse effect. CONCLUSION:Ingenol mebutate is a valuable therapy for the treatment of AK. This case report adds further evidence to the usefulness of dermoscopy and RCM in the assessment and monitoring of treatment outcome.
Project description:Benign melanotic macules (MAC) are the most frequent cause of lip pigmentation and sometimes difficult to differentiate from lip melanoma (MEL).To report in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of normal lips of different phototypes and to identify features that assist in distinguishing MEL from MAC using dermoscopy and RCM.For this retrospective observational study, 2 groups of patients from 2 tertiary referral centers for melanoma (Sydney Melanoma Diagnostic Centre and Melanoma Institute Australia) were recruited between June 2007 and January 2015. Group 1 included patients with normal lips and different phototypes, and Group 2 consisted of patients with MAC and MEL; RCM and dermoscopy were used for lips analysis.Overall, 92 RCM features were correlated with clinical history, dermoscopic images, and histopathology in all patients with MEL and 5 patients with MAC.Images from the vermillion and/or mucosal part of the lip were recorded from 10 patients with clinically normal lips (mean [SD] age, 34.5 [6.1] years), 16 patients with MAC (mean [SD] age, 49.6 [17.9] years), and 5 patients with 6 cases of MEL (1 patient had a recurrent lesion; mean [SD] age, 56.2 [15.5] years). In normal lips, the draped pattern-a previously described MAC RCM feature-was identified in all cases. In MEL, the following findings were frequent and significantly different from MAC: epidermal disarray; pagetoid infiltration of dendritic and/or round cells; a nonspecific architectural pattern at the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ); nonhomogenously distributed papillae; continuous (lentiginous) proliferation of cells with marked atypia at the DEJ, especially in interpapillary spaces; a higher number of dendritic cells (especially roundish); and atypical round cells at the DEJ. The cellular body area of dendritic cells was about the double in MEL compared with MAC. An RCM lip algorithm was developed that provided 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity for the diagnosis of MEL of the vermillion and mucosal part of the lip. With dermoscopy, MAC were correctly classified as benign in 13 of 16 cases (81%) and MEL were classified as equivocal or malignant in 5 of 6 cases (83%).Reflectance confocal microscopy can assist in the differential diagnosis of lip MEL and MAC. An RCM Lip Score that we developed based on study results is proposed and needs to be validated on an independent data set.
Project description:Melanomas that clinically mimic seborrheic keratosis (SK) can delay diagnosis and adequate treatment. However, little is known about the value of dermoscopy in recognizing these difficult-to-diagnose melanomas.To describe the dermoscopic features of SK-like melanomas to understand their clinical morphology.This observational retrospective study used 134 clinical and dermoscopic images of histopathologically proven melanomas in 134 patients treated in 9 skin cancer centers in Spain, France, Italy, and Austria. Without knowledge that the definite diagnosis for all the lesions was melanoma, 2 dermoscopy-trained observers evaluated the clinical descriptions and 48 dermoscopic features (including all melanocytic and nonmelanocytic criteria) of all 134 images and classified each dermoscopically as SK or not SK. The total dermoscopy score and the 7-point checklist score were assessed. Images of the lesions and patient data were collected from July 15, 2013, through July 31, 2014.Frequencies of specific morphologic patterns of (clinically and dermoscopically) SK-like melanomas, patient demographics, and interobserver agreement of criteria were evaluated.Of the 134 cases collected from 72 men and 61 women, all of whom were white and who had a mean (SD) age of 55.6 (17.5) years, 110 (82.1%) revealed dermoscopic features suggestive of melanoma, including pigment network (74 [55.2%]), blue-white veil (72 [53.7%]), globules and dots (68 [50.7%]), pseudopods or streaks (47 [35.1%]), and blue-black sign (43 [32.3%]). The remaining 24 cases (17.9%) were considered likely SKs, even by dermoscopy. Overall, lesions showed a scaly and hyperkeratotic surface (45 [33.6%]), yellowish keratin (42 [31.3%]), comedo-like openings (41 [30.5%]), and milia-like cysts (30 [22.4%]). The entire sample achieved a mean (SD) total dermoscopy score of 4.7 (1.6) and a 7-point checklist score of 4.4 (2.3), while dermoscopically SK-like melanomas achieved a total dermoscopy score of only 4.2 (1.3) and a 7-point checklist score of 2.0 (1.9), both in the range of benignity. The most helpful criteria in correctly diagnosing SK-like melanomas were the presence of blue-white veil, pseudopods or streaks, and pigment network. Multivariate analysis found only the blue-black sign to be significantly associated with a correct diagnosis, while hyperkeratosis and fissures and ridges were independent risk markers of dermoscopically SK-like melanomas.Seborrheic keratosis-like melanomas can be dermoscopically challenging, but the presence of the blue-black sign, pigment network, pseudopods or streaks, and/or blue-white veil, despite the presence of other SK features, allows the correct diagnosis of most of the difficult melanoma cases.
Project description:Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a variant of spindle cell melanoma typically found on chronically sun-damaged skin of older individuals. Early diagnosis can be challenging because it is often amelanotic and has a predominantly dermal component. DM can be difficult to diagnose not only clinically but also histologically, and can be mistaken for a variety of benign and malignant nonmelanocytic spindle cell tumors when viewed on prepared histopathology slides. Pathologists have observed that DMs can manifest significant variation with respect to the extent of intratumoral cellularity, fibrosis, and/or perineural invasion. Furthermore, some tumors present with a pure desmoplastic invasive component (>90%) while other tumors display mixed features of DM and nondesmoplastic melanoma. This has led to the separation of DM into 2 histologic subtypes, pure and mixed. With a focus on the distinction between pure and mixed DM, this review will detail what is currently known about the diagnostic features of DM, discuss risk and prognostic factors, and examine the current literature on disease progression and management.