DM9 Domain Containing Protein Functions As a Pattern Recognition Receptor with Broad Microbial Recognition Spectrum.
ABSTRACT: DM9 domain was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, and it was subsequently found to integrate with or without other protein domains across a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates. In the present study, a member of DM9 domain containing protein (DM9CP) family from marine invertebrate Crassostrea gigas (designated CgDM9CP-1), which was only composed of two DM9 domains, was taken as a protein model to study the biological functions of DM9 domain and its molecular determinants. CgDM9CP-1 was found to exhibit high binding specificity and avidity toward d-mannose residue. It served as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) with a broad range of recognition spectrum to various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including lipopolysaccharide, peptidylglycan, mannan, and ?-1, 3-glucan in a d-mannose-dependent manner, as well as bacteria and fungi. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying its pattern recognition activity, the crystal structures of wild-type and loss-of-function mutants were solved, and Asp22 and Lys43 were found to be the critical residues for ligand recognition. Moreover, CgDM9CP-1 protein was found to mainly distribute on the surface of C. gigas hemocytes, and it could be translocated into cytoplasm and colocalized with the engulfed microbes during hemocyte phagocytosis. The present result clearly indicated that CgDM9CP-1 was a PRR, and it provided an important clue for the better understanding of DM9CP function.
Project description:C-type lectins (CTLs) are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins known to assist the innate immune system as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The binding specificity of CTLs lies in the motif of their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the tripeptide motifs EPN and QPD bind to mannose and galactose, respectively. However, variants of these motifs were discovered including a QAP sequence reported in shrimp believed to have the same carbohydrate specificity as QPD. Here, we characterized a novel C-type lectin (MjGCTL) possessing a CRD with a QAP motif. The recombinant MjGCTL has a calcium-dependent agglutinating capability against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and its sugar specificity did not involve either mannose or galactose. In an encapsulation assay, agarose beads coated with rMjGCTL were immediately encapsulated from 0?h followed by melanization at 4?h post-incubation with hemocytes. These results confirm that MjGCTL functions as a classical CTL. The structure of QAP motif and carbohydrate-specificity of rMjGCTL was found to be different to both EPN and QPD, suggesting that QAP is a new motif. Furthermore, MjGCTL acts as a PRR binding to hemocytes to activate their adherent state and initiate encapsulation.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated intestinal immune homeostasis and cytokine secretion. Multiple loci are associated with IBD, but a functional explanation is missing for most. Here we found that pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-induced cytokine secretion was diminished in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) from rs7282490 ICOSLG GG risk carriers. Homotypic interactions between the costimulatory molecule ICOS and the ICOS ligand on MDDCs amplified nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)-initiated cytokine secretion. This amplification required arginine residues in the ICOSL cytoplasmic tail that recruited the adaptor protein RACK1 and the kinases PKC and JNK leading to PKC, MAPK, and NF-?B activation. MDDC from rs7282490 GG risk-carriers had reduced ICOSL expression and PRR-initiated signaling and this loss-of-function ICOSLG risk allele associated with an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, similar to polymorphisms in NOD2. Taken together, ICOSL amplifies PRR-initiated outcomes, which might contribute to immune homeostasis.
Project description:Oligosaccharide recognition by three mammalian mannose-binding proteins was investigated by using as probes a series of structurally characterized neoglycolipids in t.l.c. binding assays. The neoglycolipids were derived from N-linked oligosaccharides of complex, high-mannose and hybrid types and from human milk oligosaccharides and simple di- and tri-saccharides. The three proteins, namely the recombinant carbohydrate-recognition domain of rat mannose-binding Protein A and the multi-subunit forms of rat and human serum mannose-binding proteins, were shown to have in common reactivity with oligosaccharide probes containing one or more non-reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue(s). Substitution with galactose masks reactivity. The three proteins also bound to non-reducing terminal mannose residues in high-mannose-type oligosaccharides, non-reducing terminal fucose residues in the sequence Fuc alpha 1-4(Gal beta 1-3)GlcNAc and non-reducing terminal glucose residues in dextran oligomers; the recombinant binding domain gave consistently weaker binding. The relative reactivities with the various probes differ for each protein. Overall, the reaction patterns of the three mammalian proteins differ from that of the plant lectin concanavalin A, which showed preferential binding to the high-mannose type, weak binding to biantennary complex type and no binding to the fuco-oligosaccharide and simple oligosaccharide probes. As a group, the three mammalian proteins resemble bovine serum conglutinin and behave as lectins with rather broad sugar specificities directed at certain non-reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, glucose and fucose residues, but with subtle differences in fine specificities. These results illustrate the potential of neoglycolipids in studies of oligosaccharide recognition by natural and recombinant proteins of diverse biological systems.
Project description:Yeast flocculation is a phenomenon which is believed to result from an interaction between a lectin-like protein and a mannose chain located on the yeast cell surface. The FLO1 gene, which encodes a cell wall protein, is considered to play an important role in yeast flocculation, which is inhibited by mannose but not by glucose (mannose-specific flocculation). A new homologue of FLO1, named Lg-FLO1, was isolated from a flocculent bottom-fermenting yeast strain in which flocculation is inhibited by both mannose and glucose (mannose/glucose-specific flocculation). In order to confirm that both FLO1 and Lg-FLO1 are involved in the yeast flocculation phenomenon, the FLO1 gene in the mannose-specific flocculation strain was replaced by the Lg-FLO1 gene. The transformant in which the Lg-FLO1 gene was incorporated showed the same flocculation phenotype as the mannose/glucose-specific flocculation strain, suggesting that the FLO1 and Lg-FLO1 genes encode mannose-specific and mannose/glucose-specific lectin-like proteins, respectively. Moreover, the sugar recognition sites for these sugars were identified by expressing chimeric FLO1 and Lg-FLO1 genes. It was found that the region from amino acid 196 to amino acid 240 of both gene products is important for flocculation phenotypes. Further mutational analysis of this region suggested that Thr-202 in the Lg-Flo1 protein and Trp-228 in the Flo1 protein are involved in sugar recognition.
Project description:Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
Project description:Similar to mammals, several viral-sensing pattern recognition receptors (PRR) have been identified in birds including Toll-like receptors (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR). Avian TLR are slightly different from their mammalian counterparts, including the pseudogene TLR8, the absence of TLR9, and the presence of TLR1La, TLR1Lb, TLR15, and TLR21. Avian TLR3 and TLR7 are involved in RNA virus recognition, especially highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), while TLR15 and TLR21 are potential sensors that recognize both RNA viruses and bacteria. However, the agonist of TLR15 is still unknown. Interestingly, chickens, unlike ducks, geese and finches, lack RIG-I, however they do express melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) which functionally compensates for the absence of RIG-I. Duck RIG-I is the cytosolic recognition element for HPAIV recognition, while chicken cells sense HPAIV through MDA5. However, the contributions of MDA5 and RIG-I to IFN-? induction upon HPAIV infection is different, and this may contribute to the chicken's susceptibility to highly pathogenic influenza. It is noteworthy that the interactions between avian DNA viruses and PRR have not yet been reported. Furthermore, the role for avian Nod-like receptors (NLR) in viral immunity is largely unknown. In this review, recent advances in the field of viral recognition by different types of PRR in birds are summarized. In particular, the tissue and cellular distribution of avian PRR, the recognition and activation of PRR by viruses, and the subsequent expression of innate antiviral genes such as type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines are discussed.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were first identified as molecular sensors that transduce signals from specific structural patterns derived from pathogens; their underlying molecular mechanisms of recognition and signal transduction are well-understood. To date, more than 20 pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) have been reported in humans, some of which are membrane-bound, similar to TLRs, whereas others are cytosolic, including retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Clinically, PRR ligands have been developed as vaccine adjuvants to activate innate immunity and enhance subsequent antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, PRR ligands have been used as direct immunostimulators to enhance immune responses against infectious diseases and cancers. HIV-1 remains one of the world's most significant public health challenges. Without the elimination of HIV-1 latently infected cells, patients require lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while research aimed at a functional cure for HIV-1 infection continues. Based on the concept of "shock and kill," a latency-reversing agent (LRA) has been developed to reactivate latently infected cells and induce cell death. However, previous research has shown that LRAs have limited efficacy in the eradication of these reservoirs in vivo. Besides, PRR ligands with anti-retroviral drugs have been developed for use in HIV treatment for these years. This mini-review summarizes the current understanding of the role of PRR ligands in AIDS research, suggests directions for future research, and proposes potential clinical applications.
Project description:Inflammatory diseases are characterized by dysregulated cytokine production. Altered functions for most risk loci, including the inflammatory bowel disease and leprosy-associated tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) region, are unclear. Regulation of pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR)-induced signaling and cytokines is crucial for immune homeostasis; TNFSF15:death receptor 3 (DR3) contributions to PRR responses have not been described. We found that human macrophages expressed DR3 and that TNFSF15:DR3 interactions were critical for amplifying PRR-initiated MAPK/NF-?B/PI3K signaling and cytokine secretion in macrophages. Mechanisms mediating TNFSF15:DR3 contributions to PRR outcomes included TACE-induced TNFSF15 cleavage to soluble TNFSF15; soluble TNFSF15 then led to TRADD/FADD/MALT-1- and caspase-8-mediated autocrine IL-1 secretion. Notably, TNFSF15 treatment also induced cytokine secretion through a caspase-8-dependent pathway in intestinal myeloid cells. Importantly, rs6478108 A disease risk-carrier macrophages demonstrated increased TNFSF15 expression and PRR-induced signaling and cytokines. Taken together, TNFSF15:DR3 interactions amplify PRR-induced signaling and cytokines, and the rs6478108 TNFSF15 disease-risk polymorphism results in a gain of function.
Project description:The macrophage mannose receptor is an integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of tissue macrophages. After ligation of mannose-rich glycoconjugates or pathogens, the receptor mediates endocytosis and phagocytosis of the bound ligands by macrophages. The cDNA-derived primary structure of the mannose receptor predicts a cysteine-rich NH2-terminal domain, followed by a fibronectin type II region. The remainder of the ectodomain is comprised of eight carbohydrate recognition-like domains, followed by a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. Transfection of the mannose receptor cDNA into Cos-I cells is necessary for receptor-mediated endocytosis of mannose-rich glycoconjugate as well as phagocytosis of yeasts. Deletion of the cytoplasmic tail results in a mutant receptor that is able to bind but not ingest the ligated pathogens, suggesting that the signal for phagocytosis is contained in the cytoplasmic tail.
Project description:Langerin mediates the carbohydrate-dependent uptake of pathogens by Langerhans cells in the first step of antigen presentation to the adaptive immune system. Langerin binds to an unusually diverse number of endogenous and pathogenic cell surface carbohydrates, including mannose-containing O-specific polysaccharides derived from bacterial lipopolysaccharides identified here by probing a microarray of bacterial polysaccharides. Crystal structures of the carbohydrate-recognition domain from human langerin bound to a series of oligomannose compounds, the blood group B antigen, and a fragment of ?-glucan reveal binding to mannose, fucose, and glucose residues by Ca(2+) coordination of vicinal hydroxyl groups with similar stereochemistry. Oligomannose compounds bind through a single mannose residue, with no other mannose residues contacting the protein directly. There is no evidence for a second Ca(2+)-independent binding site. Likewise, a ?-glucan fragment, Glc?1-3Glc?1-3Glc, binds to langerin through the interaction of a single glucose residue with the Ca(2+) site. The fucose moiety of the blood group B trisaccharide Gal?1-3(Fuc?1-2)Gal also binds to the Ca(2+) site, and selective binding to this glycan compared to other fucose-containing oligosaccharides results from additional favorable interactions of the nonreducing terminal galactose, as well as of the fucose residue. Surprisingly, the equatorial 3-OH group and the axial 4-OH group of the galactose residue in 6SO(4)-Gal?1-4GlcNAc also coordinate Ca(2+), a heretofore unobserved mode of galactose binding in a C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain bearing the Glu-Pro-Asn signature motif characteristic of mannose binding sites. Salt bridges between the sulfate group and two lysine residues appear to compensate for the nonoptimal binding of galactose at this site.