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Distinguishing Among Modes of Convergent Adaptation Using Population Genomic Data.


ABSTRACT: Geographically separated populations can convergently adapt to the same selection pressure. Convergent evolution at the level of a gene may arise via three distinct modes. The selected alleles can (1) have multiple independent mutational origins, (2) be shared due to shared ancestral standing variation, or (3) spread throughout subpopulations via gene flow. We present a model-based, statistical approach that utilizes genomic data to detect cases of convergent adaptation at the genetic level, identify the loci involved and distinguish among these modes. To understand the impact of convergent positive selection on neutral diversity at linked loci, we make use of the fact that hitchhiking can be modeled as an increase in the variance in neutral allele frequencies around a selected site within a population. We build on coalescent theory to show how shared hitchhiking events between subpopulations act to increase covariance in allele frequencies between subpopulations at loci near the selected site, and extend this theory under different models of migration and selection on the same standing variation. We incorporate this hitchhiking effect into a multivariate normal model of allele frequencies that also accounts for population structure. Based on this theory, we present a composite-likelihood-based approach that utilizes genomic data to identify loci involved in convergence, and distinguishes among alternate modes of convergent adaptation. We illustrate our method on genome-wide polymorphism data from two distinct cases of convergent adaptation. First, we investigate the adaptation for copper toxicity tolerance in two populations of the common yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus We show that selection has occurred on an allele that has been standing in these populations prior to the onset of copper mining in this region. Lastly, we apply our method to data from four populations of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, that show very rapid convergent adaptation for tolerance to industrial pollutants. Here, we identify a single locus at which both independent mutation events and selection on an allele shared via gene flow, either slightly before or during selection, play a role in adaptation across the species' range.

SUBMITTER: Lee KM 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5714468 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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