MiR-19a protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis via PTEN/PI3K/p-Akt pathway.
ABSTRACT: miRNAs have been implicated in processing of cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury. Recent studies demonstrated that miR-19a might provide a potential cardioprotective effect on myocardial disease. However, the effect of miR-19a in regulating myocardial ischemic injury has not been previously addressed. The present study was to investigate the effect of miR-19a on myocardial ischemic injury and identified the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Using the H/R model of rat cardiomyocytes H9C2 in vitro, we found that miR-19a was in low expression in H9C2 cells after H/R treatment and H/R dramatically decreased cardiomyocyte viability, and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which were attenuated by co-transfection with miR-19a mimic. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting assay revealed that PTEN was a direct target gene of miR-19a, and miR-19a suppressed the expression of PTEN via binding to its 3'-UTR. We further identified that overexpression of miR-19a inhibited the expression of PTEN at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, PTEN was highly expressed in H/R H9C2 cells and the apoptosis induced by H/R was associated with the increase in PTEN expression. Importantly, miR-19a mimic significantly increased p-Akt levels under H/R. In conclusion, our findings indicate that miR-19a could protect against H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting PTEN /PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.
Project description:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an ischemic heart disease with high mortality worldwide. AMI triggers a hypoxic microenvironment and induces extensive myocardial injury, including autophagy and apoptosis. MiRNAs, which are a class of posttranscriptional regulators, have been shown to be involved in the development of ischemic heart diseases. We have previously reported that hypoxia significantly alters the miRNA transcriptome in rat cardiomyoblast cells (H9c2), including miR-27a-5p. In the present study, we further investigated the potential function of miR-27a-5p in the cardiomyocyte response to hypoxia, and showed that miR-27a-5p expression was downregulated in the H9c2 cells at different hypoxia-exposed timepoints and the myocardium of a rat AMI model. Follow-up experiments revealed that miR-27a-5p attenuated hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury by regulating autophagy and apoptosis via Atg7, which partly elucidated the anti-hypoxic injury effects of miR-27a-5p. Taken together, this study shows that miR-27a-5p has a cardioprotective effect on hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell injury, suggesting it may be a novel target for the treatment of hypoxia-related heart diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The erythropoietin helix B surface peptide (HBSP) has been shown to have neuroprotective and repair-damaging myocardium effects similar to erythropoietin (EPO). However, the protective mechanism of HBSP on cardiomyocyte hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) injury is not clear. METHODS:H9C2 cells were pretreated with HBSP and subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), changes in cell function, autophagy and apoptosis were assessed, respectively. Cells were transfected with miR-21 mimic and miR-NC, and the relative expression of miR-21 and Atg12 were detected by qRT-PCR. The target role of miR-21 and Atg12 was evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter. After transfected with si-Atg12 and si-NC, western blot was used to assess autophagy and apoptosis proteins, flow cytometry assay was used to detect apoptosis rate. RESULTS:We found the expression of miR-21 was significantly down-regulated, accompanied by remarkably activated of autophagy and apoptosis in H9C2 cells during H/R injury. Pleasantly, HBSP pretreatment has a similar effect as transfection of miR-21 mimic, which is to evidently inhibit autophagy and apoptosis by up-regulating miR-21 expression. Moreover, Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that Atg12 was directly bond to miR-21. To further understand whether Atg12 is involved in the process of miR-21 regulating autophagy, si-Atg12 and si-NC were transfected into H9C2 cell, the results showed that knockdown of Atg12 enhances the inhibition autophagy and apoptosis effect of HBSP. CONCLUSION:These results demonstrate that HBSP inhibits myocardial H/R injury induced by autophagy over-activation and apoptosis via miR-21/Atg12 axis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A growing body of evidence suggests that stem cell-derived exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) could be a promising cardioprotective therapy in the context of hypoxic conditions. The present study aims to explore how miRNA-144 (miR-144), a miRNA contained in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes, exerts a cardioprotective effect on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the context of hypoxic conditions and identify the underlying mechanisms. METHODS:MSCs were cultured using the whole bone marrow adherent method. MSC-derived exosomes were isolated using the total exosome isolation reagent and confirmed by nanoparticle trafficking analysis as well as western blotting using TSG101 and CD63 as markers. The hypoxic growth conditions for the H9C2 cells were established using the AnaeroPack method. Treatment conditions tested included H9C2 cells pre-incubated with exosomes, transfected with miR-144 mimics or inhibitor, or treated with the PTEN inhibitor SF1670, all under hypoxic growth conditions. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using 7-ADD and Annexin V together. The expression levels of the miRNAs were detected by real-time PCR, and the expression levels of AKT/p-AKT, Bcl-2, caspase-3, HIF-1?, PTEN, and Rac-1 were measured by both real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS:Exosomes were readily internalized by H9C2 cells after co-incubation for 12?h. Exosome-mediated protection of H9C2 cells from apoptosis was accompanied by increasing levels of p-AKT. MiR-144 was found to be highly enriched in MSC-derived exosomes. Transfection of cells with a miR-144 inhibitor weakened exosome-mediated protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of cells grown in hypoxic conditions with miR-144 mimics resulted in decreased PTEN expression, increased p-AKT expression, and prevented H9C2 cell apoptosis, whereas treatment with a miR-144 inhibitor resulted in increased PTEN expression, decreased p-AKT expression, and enhanced H9C2 cell apoptosis in hypoxic conditions. We also validated that PTEN was a target of miR-144 by using luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, cells treated with SF1670, a PTEN-specific inhibitor, resulted in increased p-AKT expression and decreased H9C2 cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate that MSC-derived exosomes inhibit cell apoptotic injury in hypoxic conditions by delivering miR-144 to cells, where it targets the PTEN/AKT pathway. MSC-derived exosomes could be a promising therapeutic vehicle to facilitate delivery of miRNA therapies to ameliorate ischemic conditions.
Project description:Background: Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the widely used anti-cancer drugs, whereas it can induce irreversible cardiac injury in a dose-dependent manner which limits its utility in clinic. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between miR-25 and DOX-induced cardiac injury and its underlying mechanism. Methods: Mice and H9c2 cells were exposed to DOX. The overexpressed or knockdown of miR-25 in H9c2 cells was achieved by miR-25 mimic or inhibitor and the efficiency of transfection was identified by qRT-PCR or Western blotting. Cell viability, apoptotic cell rate, and levels of apoptosis-related proteins were determined by CCK-8, flow cytometry, and Western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining (IF) were performed to assess the expression levels of reactive oxygen species and degree of DNA damage. Results: As a result, DOX significantly upregulated miR-25 expression in mice and H9c2 cells and reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. miR-25 overexpression expedited cell injury induced by DOX in H9c2 cells demonstrated by the increased cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas miR-25 inhibition attenuated the cell injury. Furthermore, miR-25 negatively controlled the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Intervention the expression of PTEN using si-PTEN reversed the beneficial effects of miR-25 inhibition on DOX-injured H9c2 cells. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-25 is involved in DOX-induced cell damage through the regulation of PTEN expression.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that several upstream signaling elements of apoptosis and necroptosis are closely associated with acute injury in the heart. In our study, we observed that miR-105 was notably dysregulated in rat hearts with myocardial infarction (MI). Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that miR-105 participates in the regulation of RIP3/p-MLKL- and BNIP3-dependent necroptosis/apoptosis in H9c2 cells and MI rat hearts. Our results show that the RIP3/p-MLKL necroptotic pathway and BNIP3-dependent apoptosis signaling are enhanced in H9c2 cells under hypoxic conditions, whereas, compared with these pathways in the controls, those in miR-105-treated H9c2 cells are suppressed. Mechanistically, we identified miR-105 as the miRNA directly suppressing the expression of RIP3 and BNIP3, two important mediators involved in cell necroptosis and apoptosis. Furthermore, MI rat hearts injected with miR-105 had decreased infarct sizes, indicating that miR-105 is among three miRNAs that function simultaneously to suppress necroptotic/apoptotic cell death pathways and to inhibit MI-induced cardiomyocyte cell death at multiple levels. Taken together, miR-105 may constitute a new therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection in ischemic heart disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:GATA4 is an early cardiac-specific transcription factor, and endogenous GATA4-positive cells play a critical role in cardioprotection after myocardial injury. As functional paracrine units of therapeutic cells, exosomes can partially reproduce the reparative properties of their parental cells. Here, we investigated the cardioprotective capabilities of exosomes derived from cardiac colony-forming unit fibroblasts (cCFU-Fs) overexpressing GATA4 (cCFU-FsGATA4) and the underlying mechanism through which these exosomes use microRNA (miRNA) delivery to regulate target proteins in myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS:Exosomes were harvested from cCFU-Fs by ultracentrifugation. miRNA arrays were performed to determine differential miRNA expression between exosomes derived from cCFU-FsGATA4 (GATA4-Exo) and control cCFU-Fs (NC-Exo). A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR221 directly targets the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) gene. Cardiac function and myocardial infarct size were evaluated by echocardiography and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. RESULTS:Compared with NC-Exo, GATA4-Exo increased the survival and reduced the apoptosis of H9c2 cells. Direct intramyocardial transplantation of GATA4-Exo at the border of the ischemic region following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery significantly restored cardiac contractile function and reduced infarct size. Microarray analysis revealed significantly increased miR221 expression in GATA4-Exo. qPCR confirmed higher miR221 levels in H9c2 cells treated with GATA4-Exo than in those treated with NC-Exo. miR221 mimic-transfected H9c2 cells demonstrated a significantly higher survival rate following exposure to hypoxic conditions than those transfected with miR221 inhibitor. A dual-luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed the PTEN gene as a target of miR221. Western blot analysis showed that H9c2 cells treated with GATA4-Exo exhibited lower PTEN protein expression and higher p-Akt expression. CONCLUSION:GATA4 overexpression enhances the protective effect of cCFU-F-derived exosomes on myocardial ischemic injury. In terms of the mechanism, it is at least partly due to the miR221 transferred by GATA4-Exo, which inhibits PTEN expression, activates the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway, and subsequently alleviates apoptosis of myocardial cells (CMs).
Project description:Background:MicroRNAs play important roles in regulation of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate microRNA-320 (miR-320) expression in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the roles of miR-320 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting AKIP1 (A kinase interacting protein 1). Methods:The level of miR-320 was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected via terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated via flow cytometry. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify the target gene of miR-320. The expression levels of AKIP1 mRNA and protein were detected via qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results:Both the level of miR-320 and the rate of cardiomyocyte apoptosis were substantially higher in the I/R group and H9c2 cells subjected to H/R than in the corresponding controls. Overexpression of miR-320 significantly promoted cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas downregulation of miR-320 had an opposite effect. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-320 directly targets AKIP1. Moreover, knock down and overexpression of AKIP1 had similar effects on the H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. Conclusions:miR-320 plays an important role in regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by I/R injury by targeting AKIP1 and inducing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Project description:Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are considered major players in physiological and pathological processes based on their versatile regulatory roles in different diseases including cardiovascular disease. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a newly discovered class of RNAs, constitute a substantial fraction of the mammalian transcriptome and are abundantly expressed in the cardiovascular system. However, the regulatory functions of these circRNAs in ischemic cardiac disease remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a circRNA transcribed from the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (ncx1) gene, named circNCX1, in oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemic myocardial injury. Methods: Divergent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to amplify the circRNA. The circular structure of circNCX1 was verified by Sanger sequencing and RNase R digestion. The subcellular localization of circNCX1 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To test the expression pattern and function of circNCX1 during oxidative stress, H9c2 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with H2O2 or hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). Mechanistically, the interaction of circNCX1 with miRNA was examined by AGO2-IP and RNA pull-down assays. The regulatory role of circNCX1 in target gene expression was tested by western blot and luciferase reporter assays. At the animal level, we constructed a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) mouse model to analyze the effect of circNCX1 on heart function, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac remodeling. Results: circNCX1 was increased in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promotes cardiomyocyte apoptosis by acting as an endogenous miR-133a-3p sponge. Due to competitive binding of circNCX1 to miR-133a-3p, the suppressive activity of pro-apoptotic gene cell death-inducing protein (CDIP1) by miR-133a-3p was reduced. Knockdown of circNCX1 in murine cardiomyocytes and heart tissues reduced the levels of CDIP1 and attenuated the apoptosis and I/R injury. Conclusions: Our findings reveal a novel regulatory pathway that comprises circNCX1, miR-133a-3p and CDIP1, that is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This pathway may serve as a potential therapeutic avenue for ischemic heart diseases.
Project description:Background Few reports have addressed the mechanism by which microRNA miR-10b-5p regulates post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice underwent surgical ligation of the left anterior descending artery to create an MI or ischemia/reperfusion animal model. The expression of miR-10b-5p, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) was detected in infarct border zone tissues at various time points. After precordial injections of the negative control or miR-10b-5p, overexpression lentiviruses were made in the areas surrounding the MI sites at 1 week, and myocardial infarct size, cardiac function, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were examined. A miR-10b-5p mimic was transfected into primary mouse cardiomyocytes to analyze its effects on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and PTEN expression. Meanwhile, PTEN as a target of miR-10b-5p was verified via luciferase reporter gene assays. Cotransfection of miR-10b-5 and PTEN verified the relationship between miR-10b-5 and PTEN. Under hypoxic stress, the expression of HIF-1α and miR-10b-5p was examined. The results showed that miR-10b-5p expression was markedly reduced in the infarct border zone. Overexpression of miR-10b-5p in the murine model of MI significantly reduced MI size, improved cardiac function, and inhibited apoptosis. Overexpression of miR-10b-5p in vitro antagonized hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and specifically inhibited the expression of the apoptosis-related gene PTEN, but overexpression of PTEN weakened these effects. We also found that hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α resulted in decreased expression of miR-10b-5p. Interfering with the activation of the HIF-1α signaling pathway promoted Pri-miR-10b and miR-10b-5p expression and inhibited PTEN expression. Conclusions MicroRNA miR-10b-5p antagonizes hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, indicating that miR-10b-5p may serve as a potential future clinical target for the treatment of MI.
Project description:Myocardial ischemia is a condition with insufficient oxygen supporting the heart tissues, which may result from myocardial infarction or trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock. In order to develop better preventive and therapeutic strategies for myocardial ischemic damage, it is important that we understand the mechanisms underlying this type of injury. Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) have been proposed as a novel player in maintaining mitochondrial quality control. This study aimed to investigate the role and possible mechanisms of MDVs in ischemia/hypoxia-induced myocardial apoptosis. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were used for the cellular experiments. A 40% fixed blood volume hemorrhagic shock rat model was used to construct the acute general ischemic models. MDVs were detected using immunofluorescence staining with PDH and TOM20. Exogenous MDVs were reconstituted in vitro from isolated mitochondria under different hypoxic conditions. The results demonstrate that MDV production was negatively correlated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxic conditions; exogenous MDVs inhibited hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis; and MDV-mediated protection against hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis was accomplished via Bcl-2 interactions in the mitochondrial pathway. This study provides evidence that MDVs protect cardiomyocytes against hypoxic damage by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis. Our study used a novel approach that expands our understanding of MDVs and highlights that MDVs may be part of the endogenous response to hypoxia designed to mitigate damage. Strategies that stimulate cardiomyocytes to produce cargo-specific MDVs, including Bcl-2 containing MDVs, could theoretically be helpful in treating ischemic/hypoxic myocardial injury.