"Gaining or losing": The importance of the perspective in primary care health services valuation.
ABSTRACT: Economic theory classifies an intervention as socially beneficial if the total Willingness to Pay (WTP) of those who gain exceeds the total Willingness to accept (WTA) of those who are harmed. This paper examines the differences in health system users' valuation of a health care service in primary care setting based on the WTP and WTA perspectives, discussing the impact of personal and service variables, including risk attitudes, on these disparities.Six hundred and sixty two subjects who asked for care in health centres in the Region of Madrid (Spain) were interviewed, using the contingent valuation method to estimate WTP and WTA. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, health needs, satisfaction with the service and risk attitude and behaviour under risk (measured by self-reported scales and lottery games respectively) were collected. Generalised Linear Models were used to estimate the association between the explanatory variables and the WTA/WTP ratio.We obtained the WTA/WTP ratio for 570 subjects (mean 1.66 CI 95%: 1.53-1.79; median 1, interquartile range 1-2). People with higher education or in high social groups expressed WTA values closest to WTP. The opposite occurred in patients with the greatest health needs or who were born abroad. Self-reported expression of risk aversion appeared also related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. Satisfaction with the service evaluated was the most influential factor in the WTA/WTP ratio.Health need, difficulty in obtaining substitutes and satisfaction with the service could serve for profiling people averse to loss for health care services in primary care setting. Self-reported expression of risk aversion could also be related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. This would mean that these characteristics should be taken into account both in the design and implementation of new healthcare interventions, as in the making decision for disinvestment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The preferences of citizens are a basic element to incorporate into the decision-making process when planning health policies. Contingent valuation (CV) is a common method for calculating the value for citizens that new technologies, interventions, and the provision of services or policies have. However, choosing the correct CV tool may not be a neutral decision. This work aims to assess the substitution of a healthcare service by comparing valuation differences between the willingness to pay (WTP) for the maintenance of the service versus the willingness to accept compensation (WTA) for its substitution, both of which are related to subject characteristics, with a particular focus on trust in institutions and risk aversion.<h4>Methods</h4>A CV study was designed to study Dutch population preferences when physician assistants replace anaesthesiologists. Differences between the distributions of WTA and WTP were compared through full decomposition methods, and conditional quantile regression was performed.<h4>Results</h4>Nearly two-thirds of surveyed citizens expressed null values for WTA and WTP. The other third systematically reported a value of WTA higher than that of WTP, which increased further with lower income and the possible presence of a strategic bias. In contrast, being more than 65 years old, having trust in government, and preferring anaesthesiologists decreased the WTA-WTP difference. Risk aversion had no clear association with the WTA-WTP gap.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Known differences between the perceived value of health services from the perspective of gains and losses could be related to people's characteristics. Trust in government but not aversion to risk was related to the WTA-WTP differences. Identifying a profile of citizens who are averse to losing health services should be considered when designing and implementing health services or interventions or making disinvestment decisions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The economic value attributed by users of health services in public health systems can be useful in planning and evaluation. This value can differ from the perspectives of Willingness to Pay (WTP) and Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA).Our objective was to study the perceptions of the patient about the service provided by the family physician by means of the WTA/WTP ratio.<h4>Methods</h4>An economic evaluation study by the Contingent Valuation Method was designed. Interviews were conducted with 451 subjects at six health centres (four urban and two rural) in areas with different socioeconomic characteristics. A payment card was used to measure the WTP and WTA. Other characteristics of the subject or service that could influence these responses were collected. An explicative model was constructed to study the WTA/WTP relationship.<h4>Results</h4>Four hundred and four subjects (89.6%) expressed a WTP and WTA different from zero. The WTA/WTP quotient showed a median of 1.55 (interquartile range 1-3.08) and a mean of 3.30 (IC 95%: 2.84-3.75). The WTA/WTP ratio increases with age and in low-income areas. It decreases in professional groups with more specialized activities, with growing family income, and in the chronically ill. Other characteristics related to the perception of state of health, accessibility to the service, satisfaction, or perception of risk were not explicative.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Subjects who were older and had a less favourable socioeconomic situation expressed a higher WTA/WTP ratio when valuing the visit to the family physician. These characteristics could identify a profile of "aversion to loss" with respect to this service.
Project description:Informal care, the health care provided by the patient's social network is important in low income settings although its monetary value is rarely estimated. The lack of estimates of the value of informal care has led to its omission in economic evaluations but this can result in incorrect decisions about cost effectiveness of an intervention. We explore the use of contingent valuation methods of willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) to estimate the value of informal care provided to HIV infected women that are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) under the Option B+ approach to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in Malawi.We collected cross sectional data from 93 caregivers of women that received ART care from six health facilities in Malawi. Caregivers of women that reported for ART care on the survey day and consented to participate in the survey were included until the targeted sample size for the facility was reached. We estimated the value of informal care by using the willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) approaches. Medians were used to summarize the values and these were compared by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.The median WTA to provide informal care in a month was US$30 and the median WTP for informal care was US$13 and the two were statistically different (p < 0.000). Median WTP was higher in the urban areas than in the rural areas (US$21 vs. US$13, p < 0.001) and for caregivers from households from higher wealth quintile than in the lower quintile (US$15 vs. US$13, p < 0.0462).Informal caregivers place substantial value on informal care giving. In low income settings where most caregivers are not formally employed, WTP and WTA approaches can be used to value informal care.NCT02005835.
Project description:Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely adopted as an analytical framework to evaluate whether health care interventions represent value for money, and its use in dentistry is increasing. Traditionally, in cost-effectiveness analysis, one assumes that the decision maker's maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for health gain is equivalent to his minimum willingness to accept (WTA) monetary compensation for health loss. It has been documented in the literature that losses are weighted higher than equivalent gains, i.e., that WTA exceeds WTP for the same health condition, resulting in a WTA/WTP ratio greater than 1. There is a knowledge gap of published WTA/WTP ratios for dental interventions in the literature. We therefore conducted a (i) systematic review of published WTA-WTP estimates in dentistry (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, London, UK) and (ii) a patient-level analysis of WTA/WTP ratios of included studies, and (iii) we demonstrate the impact of a WTA-WTP disparity on cost-effectiveness analysis. Out of 55 eligible studies, two studies were included in our review. The WTA/WTP ratio ranged from 2.58 for discontinuing water fluoridation to 5.12 for mandibular implant overdentures, indicating a higher disparity for implant rehabilitations than for dental public health interventions. A WTA-WTP disparity inflates the cost-effectiveness of dental interventions when there is a substantial risk of both lower costs and health outcomes. We therefore recommend that in these cases the results of cost-effectiveness analyses are reported using different WTA/WTP ratios in a sensitivity analysis.
Project description:Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke but patients often discount recommended behavioral changes and prescribed medications. While effective interventions to promote adherence have been developed, cost-effectiveness from the patient's perspective, has not been well studied. The valuation of patient time and out of pocket expenses should be included while performing cost effectiveness evaluation. The Achieve BP study uses the contingent valuation method to assess willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) among patients with a history of uncontrolled blood pressure discharged from an urban emergency department and enrolled in a larger randomized controlled trial.WTA and WTP were assessed by asking patients a series of questions about time and travel costs and time value related to their study participation. A survey was conducted during the final study visit with patients to investigate the effectiveness of a kiosk-based educational intervention on blood pressure control. All study patients, regardless of study arm, received the same clinical protocol of commonly prescribed antihypertensive medication and met with research clinicians four times as part of the study procedures.Thirty-eight patients were offered the opportunity to participate in the cost-effectiveness study and all completed the survey. Statistical comparisons revealed these 38 patients were similar in representation to the entire RCT study population. All 38 (100.0%) were African-American, with an average age of 49.1 years; 55.3% were male, 21.1% were married, 78.9% had a high school or higher education, and 44.7% were working. 55.9% did not have a primary care provider and 50.0% did not have health insurance. Time price linear regression analysis was performed to estimate predictors of WTA and WTP.WTP and WTA may generate different results, and the elasticities were proportional to the estimated coefficients, with WTP about twice as responsive as WTA. An additional feature for health services research was successful piloting in a clinical setting of a brief patient-centered cost effectiveness survey.https://clinicaltrials.gov . Registration Number NCT02069015 . Registered February 19, 2014 (Retrospectively registered).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The clients' willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) for a given good or service can help elicit the monetary value of that good or service. This study aims to assess the WTA and WTP of mothers attending primary health centers for vaccines to their children during 2019 in Kermanshah city, western Iran.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional study on a total of 667 mothers attending primary health centers for vaccines to their children aged two to 18?months. A multistage sampling technique was employed to involve the mothers in the study, and data were collected using a self-administrated open-ended questionnaire. The multivariate linear regression model was used to identify the factors associated with the mothers' WTP and WTA for vaccines to their children.<h4>Results</h4>The study indicated that 94.2 and 93.1% of the mothers respectively had WTA and WTP values greater than zero, with their corresponding mean values of US$ 6.8 and US$ 4.4. The mothers in the higher monthly household income category, mothers born in the urban areas, and being a female child showed statistically significant positive associations with the mothers' WTA for the vaccines. While there was a statistically significant positive relationship between monthly household income and the mothers' WTP; a statistically significant negative relationship exists between the mothers' age and their WTP for the vaccine to their children.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings indicated the mothers' WTA to WTP ratio of greater than one for the vaccines to their children. The most important factor associated with the mothers' WTA and WTP was the monthly household income. Thus, improving the socio-economic standards of women in the study area might contribute to reinforcing their immunization services seeking behavior to their children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A greater emphasis on providing high-value orthopaedic interventions has resulted in increased health economic reporting. The contingent-valuation method (CVM) is used to determine consumer valuation of the benefits provided by healthcare interventions. CVM is an important value-based health economic tool that is underutilized in orthopaedic surgery.<h4>Questions/purposes</h4>The purpose of this study was to (1) identify previously published CVM studies in the orthopaedic literature, (2) assess the methodologies used for CVM research, and (3) understand how CVM has been used in the orthopaedic cost-benefit analysis framework.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic review of the literature using the MEDLINE database was performed to compile CVM studies. Search terms incorporated the phrase <i>willingness to pay</i> (WTP) or <i>willingness to accept</i> (WTA) in combination with orthopaedic clinical key terms. Study methodology was appraised using previously defined empirical and conceptual criteria for CVM studies.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 160 studies retrieved, 22 (13.8%) met our inclusion criteria. The economics of joint arthroplasty (<i>n?=</i>?6, 27.3%) and non-operative osteoarthritis care (<i>n?=</i>?4, 18.2%) were the most common topics. Most studies used CVM for pricing and/or demand forecasting (<i>n?=</i>?16, 72.7%); very few studies used CVM for program evaluation (<i>n?=</i>?6). WTP was used in all included studies, and one study used both WTP and WTA. Otherwise, there was little consistency among included studies in terms of CVM methodology. Open-ended questioning was used by only ten studies (45.5%), a significant number of studies did not perform a sensitivity analysis (<i>n?=</i>?9, 40.9%), and none of the studies accounted for the risk preference of subjects. Only two of the included studies applied CVM within a cost-benefit analysis framework.<h4>Conclusion</h4>CVM is not commonly reported in orthopaedic surgery and is seldom used in the context of cost-benefit analysis. There is wide variability in the methods used to perform CVM. We propose that CVM is an appropriate and underappreciated method for understanding the value of orthopaedic interventions. Increased attention should be paid to consumer valuations for orthopaedic interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) reduces HIV risk behaviors and improves access to HIV-related services among drug users. In this study, we assessed the uptake and willingness of MMT patients to refer HIV testing and counseling (HTC) service to their sexual partners and relatives.<h4>Methods</h4>Health status, HIV-related risk behaviors, and HTC uptake and referrals of 1,016 MMT patients in Hanoi and Nam Dinh were investigated. Willingness to pay (WTP) for HTC was elicited using a contingent valuation technique. Interval and logistic regression models were employed to determine associated factors.<h4>Results</h4>Most of the patients (94.2%) had received HTC, 6.6 times on average. The proportion of respondents willing to refer their partners, their relatives and to be voluntary peer educators was 45.7%, 35.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. Attending MMT integrated with HTC was a facilitative factor for HTC uptake, greater WTP, and volunteering as peer educators. Older age, higher education and income, and HIV positive status were positively related to willingness to refer partners or relatives, while having health problems (mobility, usual care, pain/discomfort) was associated with lower likelihood of referring others or being a volunteer. Over 90% patients were willing to pay an average of US $17.9 for HTC service.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results highlighted the potential role of MMT patients as referrers to HTC and voluntary peer educators. Integrating HIV testing with MMT services and applying users' fee are potential strategies to mobilize resources and encourage HIV testing among MMT patients and their partners.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This paper examines the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) expressed by people who attended the healthcare system as well as the association of attitude towards risk and other personal characteristics with their response. METHODS: Health-state preferences, measured by EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L), were combined with WTP for recovering a perfect health state. WTP was assessed using close-ended, iterative bidding, contingent valuation method. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as usage of health services by the subjects were collected. The attitude towards risk was evaluated by collecting risky behaviors data, by the subject's self-evaluation, and through lottery games. RESULTS: Six hundred and sixty two subjects participated and 449 stated a utility inferior to 1. WTP/QALY ratios varied significantly when payments with personal money (mean €10,119; median €673) or through taxes (mean €28,187; median €915) were suggested. Family income, area income, higher education level, greater use of healthcare services, and the number of co-inhabitants were associated with greater WTP/QALY ratios. Age and female gender were associated with lower WTP/QALY ratios. Risk inclination was independently associated with a greater WTP/QALY when "out of pocket" payments were suggested. Clear discrepancies were demonstrated between linearity and neutrality towards risk assumptions and experimental results. CONCLUSIONS: WTP/QALY ratios vary noticeably based on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the subject, but also on their attitude towards risk. Knowing the expression of preferences by patients from this outcome measurement can be of interest for health service planning.
Project description:A gambling or "game" phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39-2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25-5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age. The main factors affecting WTA are gender and attention to the environment, age, marital status, local birth, and location in the main village.