ALS-associated mutation SOD1G93A leads to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in osteocytes.
ABSTRACT: While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1G93A (G93A). Here we further provide a mechanistic understanding of the bone loss in ALS animal and cellular models. Combining mitochondrial fluorescent indicators and confocal live cell imaging, we discovered abnormalities in mitochondrial network and dynamics in primary osteocytes derived from the same ALS mouse model G93A. Those mitochondrial defects occur in ALS mice after the onset of neuromuscular symptoms, indicating that mitochondria in bone cells respond to muscle atrophy during ALS disease progression. To examine whether ALS mutation has a direct contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction independent of muscle atrophy, we evaluated mitochondrial morphology and motility in cultured osteocytes (MLO-Y4) with overexpression of mitochondrial targeted SOD1G93A. Compared with osteocytes overexpressing the wild type SOD1 as a control, the SOD1G93A osteocytes showed similar defects in mitochondrial network and dynamic as that of the primary osteocytes derived from the ALS mouse model. In addition, we further discovered that overexpression of SOD1G93A enhanced the expression level of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key protein promoting mitochondrial fission activity, and reduced the expression level of optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), a key protein related to mitochondrial fusion. A specific mitochondrial fission inhibitor (Mdivi-1) partially reversed the effect of SOD1G93A on mitochondrial network and dynamics, indicating that SOD1G93A likely promotes mitochondrial fission, but suppresses the fusion activity. Our data provide the first evidence that mitochondria show abnormality in osteocytes derived from an ALS mouse model. The accumulation of mutant SOD1G93A protein inside mitochondria directly causes dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics in cultured MLO-Y4 osteocytes. In addition, the ALS mutation SOD1G93A-mediated dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics is associated with an enhanced apoptosis in osteocytes, which could be a potential mechanism underlying the bone loss during ALS progression.
Project description:Bone erosion is a frequent complication of gout and is strongly associated with tophi, which are lesions comprising inflammatory cells surrounding collections of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Osteocytes are important cellular mediators of bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effects of MSU crystals and indirect effects of MSU crystal-induced inflammation on osteocytes.For direct assays, MSU crystals were added to MLO-Y4 osteocyte cell line cultures or primary mouse osteocyte cultures. For indirect assays, the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was cultured with or without MSU crystals, and conditioned medium from these cultures was added to MLO-Y4 cells. MLO-Y4 cell viability was assessed using alamarBlue® and LIVE/DEAD® assays, and MLO-Y4 cell gene expression and protein expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Histological analysis was used to examine the relationship between MSU crystals, inflammatory cells, and osteocytes in human joints affected by tophaceous gout.In direct assays, MSU crystals reduced MLO-Y4 cell and primary mouse osteocyte viability but did not alter MLO-Y4 cell gene expression. In contrast, conditioned medium from MSU crystal-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages did not affect MLO-Y4 cell viability but significantly increased MLO-Y4 cell expression of osteocyte-related factors including E11, connexin 43, and RANKL, and inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Inhibition of COX-2 in MLO-Y4 cells significantly reduced the indirect effects of MSU crystals. In histological analysis, CD68+ macrophages and MSU crystals were identified in close proximity to osteocytes within bone. COX-2 expression was also observed in tophaceous joint samples.MSU crystals directly inhibit osteocyte viability and, through interactions with macrophages, indirectly promote a shift in osteocyte function that favors bone resorption and inflammation. These interactions may contribute to disordered bone remodeling in gout.
Project description:We examined the effects of osteocyte secreted factors on myogenesis and muscle function. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell conditioned media (CM) (10%) increased ex vivo soleus muscle contractile force by ~25%. MLO-Y4 and primary osteocyte CM (1-10%) stimulated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, but 10% osteoblast CMs did not enhance C2C12 cell differentiation. Since WNT3a and WNT1 are secreted by osteocytes, and the expression level of Wnt3a is increased in MLO-Y4 cells by fluid flow shear stress, both were compared, showing WNT3a more potent than WNT1 in inducing myogenesis. Treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with WNT3a at concentrations as low as 0.5ng/mL mirrored the effects of both primary osteocyte and MLO-Y4 CM by inducing nuclear translocation of ?-catenin with myogenic differentiation, suggesting that Wnts might be potential factors secreted by osteocytes that signal to muscle cells. Knocking down Wnt3a in MLO-Y4 osteocytes inhibited the effect of CM on C2C12 myogenic differentiation. Sclerostin (100ng/mL) inhibited both the effects of MLO-Y4 CM and WNT3a on C2C12 cell differentiation. RT-PCR array results supported the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway by MLO-Y4 CM and WNT3a. These results were confirmed by qPCR showing up-regulation of myogenic markers and two Wnt/?-catenin downstream genes, Numb and Flh1. We postulated that MLO-Y4 CM/WNT3a could modulate intracellular calcium homeostasis as the trigger mechanism for the enhanced myogenesis and contractile force. MLO-Y4 CM and WNT3a increased caffeine-induced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of C2C12 myotubes and the expression of genes directly associated with intracellular Ca2+ signaling and homeostasis. Together, these data show that in vitro and ex vivo, osteocytes can stimulate myogenesis and enhance muscle contractile function and suggest that Wnts could be mediators of bone to muscle signaling, likely via modulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling and the Wnt/?-Catenin pathway.
Project description:In the osteoblast 2T3 cell model, 326 genes significantly increase in expression as subconfluent fibroblastic 2T3 cells become confluent and cuboidal. This gene set includes BMP2/4, Dlx2/5, Runx2, Osterix and Lrp5, as well as TGFbeta regulated genes. Both activated or total nuclear Smad158 and Smad2 levels increase as they become confluent, and beta-catenin protein expression increases as 2T3 cells become confluent, reflecting a set of genes involved in early preosteoblast to osteoblast commitment, as observed in vitro and in vivo. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) demonstrated that this 326 dataset is very similar to several early osteoblast geneset signatures. The MLO-Y4 cell model is a well-known in vitro osteocyte model. The MLO-Y4 expression pattern was directly compared with the 2T3 osteoblast cell model. 181 genes that are highly expressed in MLO-Y4 osteocytes compared to osteoblasts were identified. Very few genes expressed in MLO-Y4 cells are found in osteocytes directly isolate from bone, suggesting that osteocyte specific gene programs most likely require the osteocytes to be embedded in the proper mineralized matrix. The MLO-Y4 dataset includes few established in vivo osteocyte markers, but does include several transcription factors such as Vitamin D receptor, Tcf7, and Irx5, whose expression was confirmed in osteocytes in vivo. Gene expression signatures in MLO-Y4 cells, as determined by functional clustering and interaction maps, suggest active prostaglandin-PKA pathways, genes involved in dendrite formation, acute/defense response pathways, TGFbeta signaling, and interferon/chemokine pathways. GSEA demonstrated that MLO-Y4 expression pattern is similar to macrophages, mesenchymal fibroblasts, and early osteoblasts.
Project description:Serum amyloid A (A-SAA/Saa3) was shown before to affect osteoblastic metabolism. Here, using RT-quantitative PCR and/or immunoblotting, we show that expression of mouse Saa3 and human SAA1 and SAA2 positively correlates with increased cellular maturation toward the osteocyte phenotype. Expression is not detected in C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts but is successively higher in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, late osteoblastic MLO-A5 cells, and MLO-Y4 osteocytes, consistent with findings using primary bone cells from newborn mouse calvaria. Recombinant Saa3 protein functionally inhibits osteoblast differentiation as reflected by reductions in the expression of osteoblast markers and decreased mineralization in newborn mouse calvaria. Yet, Saa3 protein enhances osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophages/monocytes based on the number of multinucleated and tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase-positive cells and Calcr mRNA expression. Depletion of Saa3 in MLO osteocytes results in the loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype. Recombinant osteocalcin, which is reciprocally regulated with Saa3 at the osteoblast/osteocyte transition, attenuates Saa3 expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Mechanistically, Saa3 produced by MLO-Y4 osteocytes is integrated into the extracellular matrix of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, where it associates with the P2 purinergic receptor P2rx7 to stimulate Mmp13 expression via the P2rx7/MAPK/ERK/activator protein 1 axis. Our data suggest that Saa3 may function as an important coupling factor in bone development and homeostasis.
Project description:Since little is known regarding osteocytes, cells embedded within the mineralized bone matrix, a proteomics approach was used to discover proteins more highly expressed in osteocytes than in osteoblasts to determine osteocyte-specific function. Two proteomic profiles obtained by two different proteomic approaches using total cell lysates from the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 and the osteoblast cell line MC3T3 revealed unique differences. Three protein clusters, one related to glycolysis (Phosphoglycerate kinase 1, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, hypoxia up-regulated 1 [ORP150], triosephosphate isomerase), one to protein folding (Mitochondrial Stress-70 protein, ORP150, Endoplasmin), and one to actin cytoskeleton regulation (Macrophage-capping protein [CapG], destrin, forms of lamin A and vimentin) were identified. Higher protein expression of ORP-150, Cap G, and destrin in MLO-Y4 cells compared with MC3T3 cells was validated by gene expression, Western blotting, and in vivo expression. These proteins were shown to be selective in osteocytes in vivo using immuno-staining of mouse ulnae. Destrin was most highly expressed in embedding osteoid osteocytes, GapG in embedded osteocytes, and ORP150 in deeply embedded osteocytes. In summary, the proteomic approach has yielded important information regarding molecular mechanisms used by osteocytes for embedding in matrix, the formation of dendritic processes, and protection within a hypoxic environment.
Project description:Within mineralized bone, osteocytes form dendritic processes that travel through canaliculi to make contact with other osteocytes and cells on the bone surface. This three-dimensional syncytium is thought to be necessary to maintain viability, cell-to-cell communication, and mechanosensation. E11/gp38 is the earliest osteocyte-selective protein to be expressed as the osteoblast differentiates into an osteoid cell or osteocyte, first appearing on the forming dendritic processes of these cells. Bone extracts contain large amounts of E11, but immunostaining only shows its presence in early osteocytes compared to more deeply embedded cells, suggesting epitope masking by mineral. Freshly isolated primary osteoblasts are negative for E11 expression but begin to express this protein in culture, and expression increases with time, suggesting differentiation into the osteocyte phenotype. Osteoblast-like cell lines 2T3 and Oct-1 also show increased expression of E11 with differentiation and mineralization. E11 is highly expressed in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells compared to osteoblast cell lines and primary osteoblasts. Differentiated, mineralized 2T3 cells and MLO-Y4 cells subjected to fluid flow shear stress show an increase in mRNA for E11. MLO-Y4 cells show an increase in dendricity and elongation of dendrites in response to shear stress that is blocked by small interfering RNA specific to E11. In vivo, E11 expression is also increased by a mechanical load, not only in osteocytes near the bone surface but also in osteocytes more deeply embedded in bone. Maximal expression is observed not in regions of maximal strain but in a region of potential bone remodeling, suggesting that dendrite elongation may be occurring during this process. These data suggest that osteocytes may be able to extend their cellular processes after embedment in mineralized matrix and have implications for osteocytic modification of their microenvironment.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the effect of CCN2 (cellular communication network factor 2), previously termed connective tissue growth factor, deposited in bone matrix on osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. To mimic the bone matrix environment, osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells had been embedded in collagen-gel with recombinant CCN2 (rCCN2), and mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were inoculated on the gel and treated with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). NFATc1 and cathepsin K (CTSK) productions were more increased in the combination of RAW264.7 and MLO-Y4 cells treated with rCCN2 than the combination without rCCN2. Next, we isolated an osteocyte-enriched population of cells and osteoclast progenitor cells from wild type and tamoxifen-inducible Ccn2-deficient (KO) mice and performed similar analysis. NFATc1 and CTSK productions were decreased in the KO osteocyte-enriched population at 6 months after the tamoxifen injection, regardless of the origin of the osteoclast progenitor cells. Interestingly, CTSK production was rather increased in KO osteocytes at 1 year after the injection. Finally, the combination of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 and MLO-Y4 cells in rCCN2-containing bone matrix revealed the up-regulation of osteoblastic marker genes. These findings suggest that CCN2 supplied by osteocytes regulates both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Mechanical loads are required for optimal bone mass. One mechanism whereby mechanical loads are transduced into localized cellular signals is strain-induced fluid flow through lacunae and canaliculi of bone. Gap junctions (GJs) between osteocytes and osteoblasts provides a mechanism whereby flow-induced signals are detected by osteocytes and transduced to osteoblasts. We have demonstrated the importance of GJ and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in intracellular calcium and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) increases in response to flow. Unapposed connexons, or hemichannels, are themselves functional and may constitute a novel mechanotransduction mechanism. Using MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and MLO-Y4 osteocytes, we examined the time course and mechanism of hemichannel activation in response to fluid flow, the composition of the hemichannels, and the role of hemichannels in flow-induced ATP release. We demonstrate that fluid flow activates hemichannels in MLO-Y4, but not MC3T3-E1, through a mechanism involving protein kinase C, which induces ATP and PGE(2) release.
Project description:Tooth movement is a biological process of bone remodeling induced by mechanical force. Sclerostin secreted by osteocytes is mechanosensory and important in bone remodeling. However, little is known regarding the role of sclerostin in tooth movement. In this study, models of experimental tooth movement were established in rats and mice. Sclerostin expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry staining, and osteoclastic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells underwent uniaxial compression and tension stress or were cultured in hypoxia conditions. Expression of sclerostin was assessed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. MLO-Y4 cells were cultured with recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) interference and then co-cultured with RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor cells. Expressions of RANKL and OPG were analyzed by RT-qPCR, and osteoclastic activity was assessed by TRAP staining. During tooth movement, sclerostin was expressed differently in compression and tension sites. In SOST knock-out mice, there were significantly fewer TRAP-positive cells than in WT mice during tooth movement in compression sites. In-vitro studies showed that the expression of sclerostin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells was not different under a uniaxial compression and tension force, whereas hypoxia conditions significantly increased sclerostin expression in MLO-Y4 cells. rhSCL interference increased the expression of RANKL and the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells and the osteoclastic induction ability of MLO-Y4 cells in experimental osteocyte-osteoclast co-culture. These data suggest that sclerostin plays an important role in the bone remodeling of tooth movement.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor in humans. However, the cell of origin of OSA is not clearly defined although there is evidence that osteoblasts may serve as OSA progenitors. The role of osteocytes, terminally differentiated osteoblasts, as OSA progenitors has yet to be described. Analysis of patient cDNA from publicly available microarray data revealed that patients with OSA have increased expression of dentin matrix phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), a marker of osteocytes. Analysis of multiple murine, human, and canine OSA cell lines revealed DMP1 expression. To test the tumorigenic potential of osteocytes, MLO-Y4, a SV-40 immortalized murine osteocyte cell line, was injected into subcutaneous and orthotopic (intratibial) sites of mice. Tumor growth occurred in both locations. Orthotopic MLO-Y4 tumors produced mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic radiographic lesions; a hallmark of OSA. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that osteocytes can serve as OSA progenitors.