Inhibiting mevalonate pathway enzymes increases stromal cell resilience to a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin.
ABSTRACT: Animal health depends on the ability of immune cells to kill invading pathogens, and on the resilience of tissues to tolerate the presence of pathogens. Trueperella pyogenes causes tissue pathology in many mammals by secreting a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin (PLO), which targets stromal cells. Cellular cholesterol is derived from squalene, which is synthesized via the mevalonate pathway enzymes, including HMGCR, FDPS and FDFT1. The present study tested the hypothesis that inhibiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway to reduce cellular cholesterol increases the resilience of stromal cells to PLO. We first verified that depleting cellular cholesterol with methyl-?-cyclodextrin increased the resilience of stromal cells to PLO. We then used siRNA to deplete mevalonate pathway enzyme gene expression, and used pharmaceutical inhibitors, atorvastatin, alendronate or zaragozic acid to inhibit the activity of HMGCR, FDPS and FDFT1, respectively. These approaches successfully reduced cellular cholesterol abundance, but mevalonate pathway enzymes did not affect cellular resilience equally. Inhibiting FDFT1 was most effective, with zaragozic acid reducing the impact of PLO on cell viability. The present study provides evidence that inhibiting FDFT1 increases stromal cell resilience to a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin.
Project description:Statins and nitrogenous bisphosphonates (NBP) inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase (HMGCR) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), respectively, leading to depletion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and disruption of protein prenylation. Squalene synthase (SQS) utilizes FPP in the first committed step from the mevalonate pathway toward cholesterol biosynthesis. Herein, we have identified novel bisphosphonates as potent and specific inhibitors of SQS, including the tetrasodium salt of 9-biphenyl-4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (compound 5). Compound 5 reduced cholesterol biosynthesis and lead to a substantial intracellular accumulation of FPP without reducing cell viability in HepG2 cells. At high concentrations, lovastatin and zoledronate impaired protein prenylation and decreased cell viability, which limits their potential use for cholesterol depletion. When combined with lovastatin, compound 5 prevented lovastatin-induced FPP depletion and impairment of protein farnesylation. Compound 5 in combination with the NBP zoledronate completely prevented zoledronate-induced impairment of both protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation. Cotreatment of cells with compound 5 and either lovastatin or zoledronate was able to significantly prevent the reduction of cell viability caused by lovastatin or zoledronate alone. The combination of an SQS inhibitor with an HMGCR or FDPS inhibitor provides a rational approach for reducing cholesterol synthesis while preventing nonsterol isoprenoid depletion.
Project description:Preventing postpartum uterine disease depends on the ability of endometrial cells to tolerate the presence of the bacteria that invade the uterus after parturition. Postpartum uterine disease and endometrial pathology in cattle are most associated with the pathogen Trueperella pyogenes. Trueperella pyogenes secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which causes cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of endometrial stromal cells. The aim of the present study was to identify cell-intrinsic pathways that increase bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin. Pyolysin caused dose-dependent cytolysis of bovine endometrial stromal cells and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase into supernatants. Cell tolerance to pyolysin was increased by inhibitors that target the mevalonate and cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase, cell cycle, or metabolic pathways. Cellular cholesterol was reduced and cell tolerance to pyolysin was increased by supplying the mevalonate-derived isoprenoid farnesyl pyrophosphate, or by inhibiting farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 or geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 to increase the abundance of farnesyl pyrophosphate. Supplying the mevalonate-derived isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate also increased cell tolerance to pyolysin, but independent of changes in cellular cholesterol. However, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate inhibits nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H receptors (NR1H, also known as liver X receptors), and reducing the expression of the genes encoding NR1H3 or NR1H2 increased stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin. In conclusion, mevalonate-derived isoprenoids increased bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin, which was associated with reducing cellular cholesterol and inhibiting NR1H receptors.
Project description:Sterol-regulated HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) degradation and SREBP-2 cleavage are two major feedback regulatory mechanisms governing cholesterol biosynthesis. Reportedly, lanosterol selectively stimulates HMGCR degradation, and cholesterol is a specific regulator of SREBP-2 cleavage. However, it is unclear whether other endogenously generated sterols regulate these events. Here, we investigated the sterol intermediates from the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis using a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic engineering approach. With a constructed HeLa cell line expressing the mevalonate transporter, we individually deleted genes encoding major enzymes in the mevalonate pathway, used lipidomics to measure sterol intermediates, and examined HMGCR and SREBP-2 statuses. We found that the C4-dimethylated sterol intermediates, including lanosterol, 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol, testis meiosis activating sterol, and dihydro-testis meiosis activating sterol, were significantly upregulated upon mevalonate loading. These intermediates augmented both degradation of HMGCR and inhibition of SREBP-2 cleavage. The accumulated lanosterol induced rapid degradation of HMGCR, but did not inhibit SREBP-2 cleavage. The newly synthesized cholesterol from the mevalonate pathway is dispensable for inhibiting SREBP-2 cleavage. Together, these results suggest that lanosterol is a bona fide endogenous regulator that specifically promotes HMGCR degradation, and that other C4-dimethylated sterol intermediates may regulate both HMGCR degradation and SREBP-2 cleavage.
Project description:L-Theanine is a nonprotein amino acid in tea, and its immunomodulatory function has been confirmed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of L-theanine addition on cytokines secretion in rat splenic lymphocytes and explore its potential immunomodulatory effects on the mevalonate biosynthetic pathway. Our results showed that L-theanine treatment did not influence the proliferation and division indexes of the splenic lymphocytes subsets. Interestingly, L-theanine treatment had regulated the contents of IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-???(P < 0.001) except IL-6 and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1A (Rap1A), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPs) (P < 0.001). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between Rap1A and HMGCR proteins expression and IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-6 levels. In conclusion, L-theanine regulated the secretion of cytokines probably by activating expression of Rap1A and HMGCR proteins involved in the mevalonate biosynthetic pathway in rat splenic lymphocytes. Therefore, L-theanine might be a promising potential drug candidate as immunopotentiator.
Project description:Acne is the eighth most common disease worldwide. Disease burden of acne such as anxiety, reduced self-esteem, and facial scarring lowers the life quality of acne patients. Isotretinoin is the most potent treatment for moderate-severe acne. However, the adverse events of isotretinoin especially teratogenicity limit its use. This study aims at investigating the therapeutical mechanisms of isotretinoin using bioinformatics analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were filtered from microarray datasets GSE10432, GSE10433, and GSE11792. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were also conducted based on DEGs. Using isotretinoin for 1 week, LCN2, PTGES, and GDF15 were upregulated and might mediate sebocytes apoptosis and thus decreased sebum production; CCL2 originated from activated TNF signaling pathway and S100A7 could be related with "acne-flare". While treating with isotretinoin for 8 weeks, key genes were downregulated, including HMGCS1, HMGCR, FDFT1, MVD, IDI1, and FDPS, which may be associated with decreased sebum synthesis; HMGCS1, HMGCR, and FDFT1 also probably associated with apoptosis of sebocytes. There were only two common genes including ACSBG1 and BCAT2 which worked in both 1 week and 8 weeks and could associate with decreased sebum synthesis and apoptosis of sebocytes, respectively. These results indicate potential therapeutics and side effect mechanisms of isotretinoin in the acne treatment and provide a research direction to further investigate the therapeutic mechanism of isotretinoin and thus develop retinoid-like compounds with similar curative effect and without teratogenicity.
Project description:Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates multiple signaling pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in response to changes in hormonal and nutrient status. Cell culture studies have shown that AMPK phosphorylation and inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A (CoA) reductase (HMGCR) at serine-871 (Ser871; human HMGCR Ser872) suppresses cholesterol synthesis. In order to evaluate the role of AMPK-HMGCR signaling in vivo, we generated mice with a Ser871-alanine (Ala) knock-in mutation (HMGCR KI). Cholesterol synthesis was significantly suppressed in wild-type (WT) but not in HMGCR KI hepatocytes in response to AMPK activators. Liver cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol levels were significantly up-regulated in HMGCR KI mice. When fed a high-carbohydrate diet, HMGCR KI mice had enhanced triglyceride synthesis and liver steatosis, resulting in impaired glucose homeostasis. Conclusion: AMPK-HMGCR signaling alone is sufficient to regulate both cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis under conditions of a high-carbohydrate diet. Our findings highlight the tight coupling between the mevalonate and fatty acid synthesis pathways as well as revealing a role of AMPK in suppressing the deleterious effects of a high-carbohydrate diet.
Project description:The mevalonate pathway is essential for the synthesis of isoprenoids and cholesterol. Adipose tissue is known as a major site for cholesterol storage; however, the role of the local mevalonate pathway and its synthesized isoprenoids remains unclear. In this study, adipose-specific mevalonate pathway-disrupted (aKO) mice were generated through knockout of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR). aKO mice showed serious lipodystrophy accompanied with glucose and lipid metabolic disorders and hepatomegaly. These metabolic variations in aKO mice were dramatically reversed after fat transplantation. In addition, HMGCR-disrupted adipocytes exhibited loss of lipid accumulation and an increase of cell death, which were ameliorated by the supplementation of mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not farnesyl pyrophosphate and squalene. Finally, we found that apoptosis may be involved in adipocyte death induced by HMGCR down-regulation. Our findings indicate that the mevalonate pathway is essential for adipocytes and further suggest that this pathway is an important regulator of adipocyte turnover.
Project description:The virulence of many Gram-positive bacteria depends on cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), which form pores in eukaryotic cell plasma membranes. Pyolysin (PLO) from Trueperella pyogenes provided a unique opportunity to explore cellular responses to CDCs because it does not require thiol activation. Sublytic concentrations of PLO stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK ERK and p38 in primary stromal cells, and induced autophagy as determined by protein light-chain 3B cleavage. Although, inhibitors of MAPK or autophagy did not affect PLO-induced cytolysis. However, 10 ?M 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-hydrazide (Dynasore), a dynamin guanosine 5'-triphosphatase inhibitor, protected stromal cells against PLO-induced cytolysis as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (85 ± 17% versus 50 ± 9% cell viability), measuring extracellular ATP, and kinetic assays. This was a generalized mechanism because Dynasore also protected HeLa cells against streptolysin O. Furthermore, the effect was reversible, with stromal cell sensitivity to PLO restored within 30 minutes of Dynasore removal. The protective effect of Dynasore was not conferred by dynamin inhibition, induction of ERK phosphorylation, or Dynasore binding to PLO. Rather, Dynasore reduced cellular cholesterol and disrupted plasma membrane lipid rafts, similar to positive control methyl-?-cyclodextrin. Dynasore is a tractable tool to explore the complexity of cholesterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells and to develop strategies to counter CDCs.
Project description:Statins are a well-established family of drugs that lower cholesterol levels via the competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). In addition, the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins on T cells make them attractive as therapeutic drugs in T-cell-driven autoimmune disorders. Since statins do not exclusively target HMGCR and thus might have varying effects on different cell types, we generated a new mouse strain allowing for the tissue-specific deletion of HMGCR. Deletion of HMGCR expression in T cells led to a severe decrease in their numbers with the remaining cells displaying an activated phenotype, with an increased proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in particular. However, deletion of HMGCR specifically in Tregs resulted in severe autoimmunity, suggesting that this enzyme is also essential for the maintenance of Tregs. We were able to prevent the death of HMGCR-deficient lymphocytes by the addition of either the direct metabolite of HMGCR, namely mevalonate, or the downstream metabolite geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which is essential for protein prenylation. However, the addition of cholesterol, which is the final product of the mevalonate pathway, did not inhibit cell death, indicating that protein prenylation rather than the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is indispensible for T-cell survival.
Project description:Dysregulation of cell metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The mevalonate pathway in lipid metabolism has been implicated as a potential target of cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The role of the Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor in HCC development has been well documented, however, its involvement in cancer metabolism of HCC has not been fully determined. Here, we hypothesized that FoxM1 is involved in the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis in HCC. Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway by statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), resulted in reduced expression of FoxM1 and increased cell death in human hepatoma cells. Re-exposure of mevalonate, a product of HMGCR, restored these effects. Likewise, knockdown of HMGCR reduced FoxM1 expression, indicating that FoxM1 expression was regulated by the mevalonate pathway in HCC. Mechanistically, protein geranylgeranylation was found to be responsible for FoxM1 expression and geranylgeranylated proteins, including RhoA, Rac1 or Cdc42, were shown to be involved in this process. In surgically resected human HCC tissues, the gene expression of FoxM1 had a positive correlation with that of the mevalonate pathway-related genes, such as HMGCR or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). Furthermore, the gene expression of FoxM1 along with that of HMGCR or SREBP2 defined prognosis of HCC patients, suggesting the clinical significance of the mevalonate-FoxM1 pathway in human HCC. Our data indicate that FoxM1 links the mevalonate pathway to oncogenic signals in HCC. Thus, we propose a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit FoxM1 by targeting the mevalonate pathway for HCC.