SP174 Antibody Lacks Specificity for NRAS Q61R and Cross-Reacts With HRAS and KRAS Q61R Mutant Proteins in Malignant Melanoma.
ABSTRACT: HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, highly homologous proteins, are often mutationally activated in cancer. Usually, mutations cluster in codons 12, 13, and 61 and are detected by molecular genetic testing of tumor DNA. Recently, immunohistochemistry with SP174 antibody has been introduced to detect NRAS Q61R-mutant protein. Studies on malignant melanomas showed that such an approach could be a viable alternative to molecular genetic testing. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the value of SP174 immunohistochemistry for detection of NRAS Q61R-mutant isoform. Two hundred ninety-two malignant melanomas were evaluated using Leica Bond-Max automated immunostainer. Twenty-nine tumors (10%) showed positive immunoreactivity. NRAS codon 61 was polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced in 24 positive and 92 negative cases using Sanger sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing approaches. A c.182A>G substitution leading to NRAS Q61R mutation was identified in 22 tumors. Two NRAS wild-type tumors revealed c.182A>G substitutions in HRAS and KRAS codon 61, respectively. Both mutations were detected by next-generation sequencing and independently confirmed by Sanger sequencing. None of 85 NRAS codon 61 wild-type tumors and 7 NRAS mutants other than Q61R showed immunoreactivity with SP174 antibody. Thus, SP174 antibody was 100% sensitive in detecting NRAS Q61R-mutant isoform in malignant melanoma, but not fully specific as it cross-reacted with HRAS and KRAS Q61R-mutant proteins. Therefore, molecular testing is needed to determine which RAS gene is mutated. The rarity of HRAS and KRAS Q61R mutants in malignant melanoma let previous investigations erroneously conclude that SP174 is specific for NRAS Q61R-mutant protein.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Known factors related to distant metastases in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) included age, primary tumor size, and invasiveness. Distant metastasis is a main cause of death in FTC patients. Several studies showed that the presence of RAS mutations is also associated with poor clinical outcomes. We analyzed RAS mutations in FTC with distant metastases, FTC without a distant metastasis, follicular adenoma (FA), and nodular hyperplasia (NH). Furthermore, we elucidated the relationship between RAS mutations and clinical outcomes in FTC patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We selected patients who underwent a thyroidectomy for FTC with distant metastases (n=28), size matched FTC specimens without a distant metastasis (n=28), FA (n=17), and NH (n=12). NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations were assessed using direct sequencing.<h4>Results</h4>Among 85 patients, 39 patients (46%) had RAS mutations. The NRAS codon 61 mutation (n=21; 25%) was the most common point mutation. HRAS codon 61, KRAS codon 12/13, and KRAS codon 61 mutations were found in 7, 6, and 4 patients, respectively. A NRAS codon 12/13 mutation was found in only 1 patient, and a HRAS codon 12/13 mutation was not found. RAS mutations were significantly more common in the FTC than FA or NH groups. Especially, the NRAS codon 61 mutation was associated with distant metastasis in patients with FTC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The presence of a RAS mutation, especially a NRAS codon 61 mutation, was significantly associated with the distant metastasis. The NRAS codon 61 mutation status might be a potential prognostic factor in FTC patients.
Project description:There is a rise in the incidence of thyroid nodules in pediatric patients. Most of them are benign tissues, but part of them can cause papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The aim of this study was to detect the mutations in commonly investigated genes as well as in novel PTC-causing genes in thyroid nodules and to correlate the found mutations with clinical and pathological data. The cohort of 113 pediatric samples consisted of 30 benign lesions and 83 PTCs. DNA from samples was used for next-generation sequencing to identify mutations in the following genes: HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, IDH1, CHEK2, PPM1D, EIF1AX, EZH1 and for capillary sequencing in case of the TERT promoter. RNA was used for real-time PCR to detect RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements. Total detection rate of mutations was 5/30 in benign tissues and 35/83 in PTCs. Mutations in RAS genes (HRAS G13R, KRAS G12D, KRAS Q61R, NRAS Q61R) were detected in benign lesions and HRAS Q61R and NRAS Q61K mutations in PTCs. The RET/PTC rearrangement was identified in 18/83 of PTCs and was significantly associated with higher frequency of local and distant metastases. The BRAF V600E mutation was identified in 15/83 of PTCs and significantly correlated with higher age of patients and classical variant of PTC. Germline variants in the genes IDH1, CHEK2 and PPM1D were found. In conclusion, RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations were associated with different clinical and histopathological features of pediatric PTC. RAS mutations were detected with high frequency in patients with benign nodules; thus, our results suggest that these patients should be followed up intensively.
Project description:An activating point mutation in codon 12 of the HRAS gene was the first somatic point mutation identified in a human cancer and established the role of somatic mutations as the common driver of oncogenesis. Since then, there have been over 11,000 mutations in the three RAS (HRAS, KRAS and NRAS) genes in codons 12, 13 and 61 reported in the literature. We report here the identification of recurrent somatic missense mutations at alanine 146, a highly conserved residue in the guanine nucleotide binding domain. In two independent series of colorectal cancers from Hong Kong and the United States we detected KRAS A146 mutations in 7/126 and 2/94 cases, respectively, giving a combined frequency of 4%. We also detected KRAS A146 mutations in 2/40 (5%) colorectal cell lines, including the NCI-60 colorectal cancer line HCC2998. Codon 146 mutations thus are likely to make an equal or greater contribution to colorectal cancer than codon 61 mutations (4.2% in our combined series, 1% in the literature). Lung adenocarcinomas and large cell carcinomas did not show codon 146 mutations. We did, however, identify a KRAS A146 mutation in the ML-2 acute myeloid leukemia cell line and an NRAS A146 mutation in the NALM-6 B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia line, suggesting that the contribution of codon 146 mutations is not entirely restricted to colorectal cancers or to KRAS.
Project description:Ras GTPases are mutated at codons 12, 13, and 61, with different frequencies in KRas, HRas, and NRas and in a cancer-specific manner. The G13D mutant appears in 25% of KRas-driven colorectal cancers, while observed only rarely in HRas or NRas. Structures of Ras G13D in the three isoforms show an open active site, with adjustments to the D13 backbone torsion angles and with disconnected switch regions. KRas G13D has unique features that destabilize the nucleotide-binding pocket. In KRas G13D bound to GDP, A59 is placed in the Mg2+ binding site, as in the HRas-SOS complex. Structure and biochemistry are consistent with an intermediate level of KRas G13D bound to GTP, relative to wild-type and KRas G12D, observed in genetically engineered mouse models. The results explain in part the elevated frequency of the G13D mutant in KRas over the other isoforms of Ras.
Project description:Ras oncogenes (Hras, Kras and Nras) are important drivers of carcinogenesis. However, tumors with Ras mutations often show loss of the corresponding wild-type (WT) allele, suggesting that proto-oncogenic forms of Ras can function as a suppressor of carcinogenesis. In vitro studies also suggest that WT Ras proteins can suppress the tumorigenic properties of alternate mutant Ras family members, but in vivo evidence for these heterologous interactions is lacking. We have investigated the genetic interactions between different combinations of mutant and WT Ras alleles in vivo using carcinogen-induced lung and skin carcinogenesis in mice with targeted deletion of different Ras family members. The major suppressor effect of WT Kras is observed only in mutant Kras-driven lung carcinogenesis, where loss of one Kras allele led to increased tumor number and size. Deletion of one Hras allele dramatically reduced the number of skin papillomas with Hras mutations, consistent with Hras as the major target of mutation in these tumors. However, skin carcinoma numbers were very similar, suggesting that WT Hras functions as a suppressor of progression from papillomas to invasive squamous carcinomas. In the skin, the Kras proto-oncogene functions cooperatively with mutant Hras to promote papilloma development, although the effect is relatively small. In contrast, the Hras proto-oncogene attenuated the activity of mutant Kras in lung carcinogenesis. Interestingly, loss of Nras increased the number of mutant Kras-induced lung tumors, but decreased the number of mutant Hras-induced skin papillomas. These results show that the strongest suppressor effects of WT Ras are only seen in the context of mutation of the cognate Ras protein, and only relatively weak effects are detected on tumor development induced by mutations in alternative family members. The data also underscore the complex and context-dependent nature of interactions between proto-oncogenic and oncogenic forms of different Ras family members during tumor development.
Project description:The colorectal cancer paradigm explains how genetic and histological changes lead normal epithelial cell to transform into pre-malignant adenomas then progress to malignant carcinomas. Using the Genetic Alterations in Cancer Knowledge System intragenic allele loss and gene mutation data from approximately 9000 colorectal tumors were compared to the model of colorectal tumor development. The distribution of mutations along the TP53 codons as a function of tumorigenesis also was analyzed. Alterations of APC, KRAS and TP53 were observed in a higher percentage of adenocarcinomas compared to adenomas (P<0.05) indicating that the alterations accumulated with malignancy. Alterations in BRAF, CTNNB, HRAS and NRAS were infrequent regardless of morphology. Differences were observed in the distribution of TP53 mutations with tumorigenesis. Mutations (single base substitutions) occurred most frequently at codons 175 and 273 in both tumor types; however, in adenocarcinomas the mutation incidence at codon 248 was approximately three times that reported in adenomas. It is proposed that the higher incidence of mutation at codon 248 is a later event in colorectal tumorigenesis that occurs as the tumors become malignant.
Project description:The inhibitors of mutant BRAF that are used to treat metastatic melanoma induce squamoproliferative lesions. We conducted a prospective histopathological and molecular study on 27 skin lesions from 12 patients treated with vemurafenib. Mutation hot spots in HRAS, NRAS, KRAS, BRAF, and Pi3KCA were screened. HPV and HPyV infection status were also determined. The lesions consisted of 19 verrucal papillomas, 1 keratoacanthoma and 7 squamous cell carcinomas. No mutations were found within BRAF and NRAS. KRAS, HRAS, and Pi3KCA oncogenic mutations were found in 10 (83.3%), 7 (58.3%), and 4 (33.3%) patients respectively; however, these mutations were not consistent within all tumors of a given patient. Pi3KCA mutation was always associated with a mutation in HRAS. Finally, no correlation was found between the mutated gene or type of mutation and the type of cutaneous tumor or clinical response to vemurafenib. P16 protein level was not indicative of HPV infection. HPV was detected in only two lesions. Two cases had MCPyV, and one had HPyV7. In conclusion, neither HPV nor HPyV seem to be involved in the development of squamoproliferative lesions induced by verumafenib. By contrast, HRAS and KRAS play a predominant role in the physiopathology of these tumors.
Project description:Targeted therapies have the potential to revolutionize cancer care by providing personalized treatment strategies that are less toxic and more effective but it is clear that for most solid tumors suppression of a single target is not sufficient to prevent development of resistance. A powerful method to identify mechanisms of resistance and targets for combination therapy is to use an in vivo genetic approach. We have developed a novel retroviral gene delivery mouse model of melanoma that permits control of gene expression post-delivery using the tetracycline (tet)-regulated system. In this study we used this melanoma model to select for resistant tumors following genetic inhibition of mutant NRAS. Analysis of tumors that became resistant to NRAS suppression revealed that the most common mechanism of resistance was overexpression of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Importantly, inhibition of Met overcomes NRAS resistance in this context. Analysis of NRAS mutant human melanoma cells revealed that inhibition of MEK is also associated with adaptive RTK signaling. Furthermore, co-inhibition of RTK signaling and MEK overcomes acquired MEK inhibitor resistance in NRAS mutant melanoma. These data suggest that combined inhibition of RTK and MEK signaling is a rational therapeutic strategy in mutant NRAS driven melanoma. Reversible NRAS Q61R expression in the melanocytes of DCT-TVA;Ink4a/Arf lox/lox mice (FVB/n) was achieved by transducing the animals with Tet-off and TRE-NRASQ61R-IRES-Cre avian leukosis viruses. After tumor initiation, the expression of NRAS Q61R was turned off by administrating doxycycline. Despite initial regression, tumors in 40% of mice developed resistance to NRAS Q61R withdraw. Seven resistant tumors and one control tumor where NRAS Q61R expression was not interrupted were subjected to genome-wide gene expression profiling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) presents distinct histologic subtypes and molecular genotyping. The preoperative diagnosis of FVPTC through fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is challenging.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed 59 archival thyroid FNAC specimens of surgically confirmed FVPTC according to histologic subtype: encapsulated FVPTC (n = 30) and infiltrative FVPTC (n = 29). Galectin-3 immunostaining and molecular analyses for BRAF and three RAS genes (NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS) were performed.<h4>Results</h4>FNAC diagnoses of FVPTC included benign (5%), atypia of undetermined significance (19%), follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm (14%), suspicious for PTC (29%), and PTC (34%). Galectin-3 immunostaining was positive in 50% of FNAC specimens. A BRAF mutation was found only in 14 (24%) tumors with the FNAC diagnosis of PTC or suspicious for PTC: 13 cases with the usual c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation and 1 case with a 3 base-pair deletion (c.1799_1801delTGA), resulting in a deletion of lysine at codon 601 and a deletion c.1799_1801delTGA that results in a valine-to-glutamate substitution at codon 600 (p.V600_K601>E) while preserving the reading frame. A BRAF K601E mutation was not found. RAS mutations were observed in 18 (33%) tumors (NRAS, 22%; HRAS, 6%; KRAS, 6%). Mutations of the three RAS genes were detected in codon 61 but not in codons 12 and 13. There was a decreasing trend of RAS mutation rates associated with an increasing risk of malignancy in the FNAC diagnostic categories. The triage efficacy of FNAC to make a recommendation for surgery was 73% for encapsulated tumors and 79% for infiltrative tumors. Addition of galectin-3 or the BRAF test to FNAC showed no significant improvement in the triage efficacy. However, RAS mutations significantly improved the triage efficacy of FNAC. There was no significant difference in the triage efficacy of FNAC, galectin-3 expression, and the prevalence of somatic mutations between encapsulated and infiltrative tumors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Thyroid FNAC has a low sensitivity for the detection of FVPTC regardless of histologic subtype. Encapsulated FVPTC and infiltrative FVPTC have similar molecular profiles and rates of galectin-3 expression. RAS mutational analysis is more useful than BRAF testing to improve the triage efficacy of FNAC for FVPTC.
Project description:About a third of tumors have activating mutations in HRAS, NRAS, or KRAS, genes encoding guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) of the RAS family. In these tumors, wild-type RAS cooperates with mutant RAS to promote downstream effector activation and cell proliferation and transformation, suggesting that upstream activators of wild-type RAS are important modulators of mutant RAS-driven oncogenesis. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SOS1 mediates KRAS-driven proliferation, but little is understood about the role of SOS2. We found that RAS family members have a hierarchical requirement for the expression and activity of SOS2 to drive cellular transformation. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), SOS2 critically mediated mutant KRAS-driven, but not HRAS-driven, transformation. Sos2 deletion reduced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of wild-type HRAS and phosphorylation of the kinase AKT in cells expressing mutant RAS isoforms. Assays using pharmacological inhibitors revealed a hierarchical requirement for signaling by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in promoting RAS-driven cellular transformation that mirrored the requirement for SOS2. KRAS-driven transformation required the GEF activity of SOS2 and was restored in Sos2-/- MEFs by expression of constitutively activated PI3K. Finally, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of SOS2 reduced EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and synergized with MEK inhibition to revert the transformed phenotype of human KRAS mutant pancreatic and lung tumor cells. These results indicate that SOS2-dependent PI3K signaling mediates mutant KRAS-driven transformation, revealing therapeutic targets in KRAS-driven cancers. Our data also reveal the importance of three-dimensional culture systems in investigating the mediators of mutant KRAS.