Helicobacter-induced gastric inflammation alters the properties of gastric tissue stem/progenitor cells.
ABSTRACT: Although Helicobacter-induced gastric inflammation is the major predisposing factor for gastric carcinogenesis, the precise mechanism by which chronic gastritis causes gastric cancer remains unclear. Intestinal and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is considered as precancerous lesions, changes in epithelial tissue stem/progenitor cells after chronic inflammation has not been clarified yet. In this study, we utilized three-dimensional gastric epithelial cell culture systems that could form organoids, mimicking gastric epithelial layer, and characterized the changes in epithelial cells after chronic Helicobacter felis infection.We used three mice model; 1) long-term H. felis infection, 2) H. felis eradication, and 3) MNU chemical carcinogenesis model. We performed cRNA microarray analysis after organoid culture, and analyzed the effects of chronic gastric inflammation on tissue stem cells, by the size of organoid, mRNA expression profile and immunohistochemical analysis.The number of organoids cultured from gastric epithelial cells was significantly higher in organoids isolated from H. felis-infected mice compared with those from uninfected gastric mucosa. Based on the mRNA expression profile, we found that possible stem cell markers such as Cd44, Dclk1, and genes associated with the intestinal phenotype, such as Villin, were increased in organoids isolated from H. felis-infected mucosa compared with the control. The upregulation of these genes were cancelled after H. felis eradication. In a xenograft model, tumors were generated only from organoids cultured from carcinogen-treated gastric mucosa, not from H. felis infected mucosa or control organoids.Our results suggested that, as a possible mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation induced by H. felis infection increased the number of tissue stem/progenitor cells and the expression of stem cell markers. These findings suggest that chronic inflammation may alter the direction of differentiation toward undifferentiated state and that drawbacks may enable cells to redifferentiate to intestinal metaplasia or neoplasia.
Project description:Background/Aim:Although IL-6-mediated activation of the signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis is involved in inflammation and cancer, the role of STAT3 in Helicobacter-associated gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis is unclear. This study investigated the role of STAT3 in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis and examined the molecular mechanism of Helicobacter-induced gastric phenotypes. Methods:To evaluate the contribution of STAT3 to gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis, we used wild-type (WT) and gastric epithelial conditional Stat3-knockout (Stat3?gec ) mice. Mice were infected with Helicobacter felis and euthanized at 18 months postinfection. Mouse gastric organoids were treated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6) or rIL-11 and a JAK inhibitor (JAKi) to assess the role of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in vitro. Results:Inflammation and mucous metaplasia were more severe in WT mice than in Stat3?gec mice. The epithelial cell proliferation rate and STAT3 activation were increased in WT mice. Application of rIL-6 and rIL-11 induced expression of intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, such as Tff2; this induction was suppressed by JAKi administration. Conclusions:Loss of STAT3 signaling in the gastric mucosa leads to decreased epithelial cell proliferation, atrophy, and metaplasia in the setting of Helicobacter infection. Therefore, activation of STAT3 signaling may play a key role in Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation increases the risk of cancer by mechanisms that are not well understood. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a heme-binding enzyme that regulates the immune response via catabolization and regulation of tryptophan availability for immune cell uptake. IDO1 expression is increased during the transition from chronic inflammation to gastric metaplasia. We investigated whether IDO1 contributes to the inflammatory response that mediates loss of parietal cells leading to metaplasia. METHODS:Chronic gastric inflammation was induced in Ido1-/- and CB57BL/6 (control) mice by gavage with Helicobacter felis or overexpression of interferon gamma in gastric parietal cells. We also performed studies in Jh-/- mice, which are devoid of B cells. Gastric tissues were collected and analyzed by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Plasma samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gastric tissues were obtained from 20 patients with gastric metaplasia and 20 patients without gastric metaplasia (controls) and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; gastric tissue arrays were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We collected genetic information on gastric cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. RESULTS:H felis gavage induced significantly lower levels of pseudopyloric metaplasia in Ido1-/- mice, which had lower frequencies of gastric B cells, than in control mice. Blood plasma from H felis-infected control mice had increased levels of autoantibodies against parietal cells, compared to uninfected control mice, but this increase was lower in Ido1-/- mice. Chronically inflamed stomachs of Ido1-/- mice had significantly lower frequencies of natural killer cells in contact with parietal cells, compared with stomachs of control mice. Jh-/- mice had lower levels of pseudopyloric metaplasia than control mice in response to H felis infection. Human gastric pre-neoplasia and carcinoma specimens had increased levels of IDO1 messenger RNA compared with control gastric tissues, and IDO1 protein colocalized with B cells. Co-clustering of IDO1 messenger RNA with B-cell markers was corroborated by The Cancer Genome Atlas database. CONCLUSIONS:IDO1 mediates gastric metaplasia by regulating the B-cell compartment. This process appears to be associated with type II hypersensitivity/autoimmunity. The role of autoimmunity in the progression of pseudopyloric metaplasia warrants further investigation.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor of gastric carcinoma, and inflammation with H.pylori infection has widely been suggested to trigger gastric carcinogenesis through "inflammation-carcinoma chain" (non-atrophic gastritis (NAG) → chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) → intestinal metaplasia (IM) → dysplasia (DYS) and gastric carcinoma (GC)). Connexin43 (Cx43) is a major constituent of gap junction in normal gastric mucosa (NGM) and it is continuously down-regulated from normal gastric mucosa to precancerous lesions or ultimate gastric carcinoma, which shows novel target against gastric carcinoma by preventing the Cx43 decline. Our previous studies demonstrated that H. pylori infection in gastric mucosa down-regulates Cx43 expression, but its mechanism remains unknown. The transcriptional factor, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) is the key to regulate adaptive immune response, which possibly relates to inflammation toward malignant transformation. Here the substantial rising of GATA-3 was screened by transcriptional factor microarray along the developmental stages of H. pylori associated gastric carcinoma. Moreover, the increased GATA-3 and inhibited Cx43 were confirmed in clinical specimens, Mongolian gerbils and normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 with H. pylori infection. GATA-3 silencing generated the Cx43 restoration both in intermediate differentiation gastric cancer cells BGC-803 and in H. pylori infected GES-1 cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay further revealed the GATA-3 as one of Cx43 down-regulators by directly binding to its promoters. Together, the incremental GATA-3 is found in H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis, which is responsible for Cx43 inhibition as well.
Project description:Chronic infectious diseases, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, can promote cancer in a large part through induction of chronic inflammation. Oncogenic K-ras mutation in epithelial cells activates inflammatory pathways, which could compensate for a lack of infectious stimulus. Gastric histopathology and putative progenitor markers [doublecortin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like 1 (Dcamkl1) and keratin 19 (K19)] in K19-K-ras-V12 (K19-kras) transgenic mice were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of age, in comparison with Helicobacter felis-infected wild-type littermates. Inflammation was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR of proinflammatory cytokines, and K19-kras mice were transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled bone marrow. Both H. felis infection and K-ras mutation induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, expansion of Dcamkl1(+) cells, and progression to oxyntic atrophy, metaplasia, hyperplasia, and high-grade dysplasia. K19-kras transgenic mice uniquely displayed mucous metaplasia as early as 3 months and progressed to high-grade dysplasia and invasive intramucosal carcinoma by 20 months. In bone marrow-transplanted K19-kras mice that progressed to dysplasia, a large proportion of stromal cells were GFP(+) and bone marrow-derived, but only rare GFP(+) epithelial cells were observed. GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells included leukocytes and CD45(-) stromal cells that expressed vimentin or ? smooth muscle actin and were often found surrounding clusters of Dcamkl1(+) cells at the base of gastric glands. In conclusion, the expression of mutant K-ras in K19(+) gastric epithelial cells can induce chronic inflammation and promote the development of dysplasia.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to the development of cancer. Dicarbonyl electrophiles, such as isolevuglandins (isoLGs), are generated from lipid peroxidation during the inflammatory response and form covalent adducts with amine-containing macromolecules. Thus, we sought to determine the role of dicarbonyl electrophiles in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>The formation of isoLG adducts was analyzed in the gastric tissues of patients infected with Helicobacter pylori from gastritis to precancerous intestinal metaplasia, in human gastric organoids, and in patients with colitis and colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC). The effect on cancer development of a potent scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles, 5-ethyl-2-hydroxybenzylamine (EtHOBA), was determined in transgenic FVB/N insulin-gastrin (INS-GAS) mice and Mongolian gerbils as models of H pylori-induced carcinogenesis and in C57BL/6 mice treated with azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium as a model of CAC. The effect of EtHOBA on mutations in gastric epithelial cells of H pylori-infected INS-GAS mice was assessed by whole-exome sequencing.<h4>Results</h4>We show increased isoLG adducts in gastric epithelial cell nuclei in patients with gastritis and intestinal metaplasia and in human gastric organoids infected with H pylori. EtHOBA inhibited gastric carcinoma in infected INS-GAS mice and gerbils and attenuated isoLG adducts, DNA damage, and somatic mutation frequency. Additionally, isoLG adducts were elevated in tissues from patients with colitis, colitis-associated dysplasia, and CAC as well as in dysplastic tumors of C57BL/6 mice treated with azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium. In this model, EtHOBA significantly reduced adduct formation, tumorigenesis, and dysplasia severity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dicarbonyl electrophiles represent a link between inflammation and somatic genomic alterations and are thus key targets for cancer chemoprevention.
Project description:Gli1 is necessary for the progression from chronic gastric inflammation to metaplasia in the stomach. We therefore compared the expression patterns between 6-month H. felis infected WT and Gli1-/- stomachs. Overall design: Pooled tissue from the gastric fundi of 3 mice per group. Groups are WT, WT + H. felis (6 months), Gli1-/-, and Gli1-/- +H. felis (6 months). All the infected and control mice were obtained from the same experiment.
Project description:Gli1 is necessary for the progression from chronic gastric inflammation to metaplasia in the stomach. We therefore compared the expression patterns between 6-month H. felis infected WT and Gli1-/- stomachs. Pooled tissue from the gastric fundi of 3 mice per group. Groups are WT, WT + H. felis (6 months), Gli1-/-, and Gli1-/- +H. felis (6 months). All the infected and control mice were obtained from the same experiment.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori are responsible for the induction of chronic gastric inflammation progressing to atrophy, metaplasia, and gastric cancer. The overexpression of Cathepsin X/Z (Ctsz) in H. pylori-infected mucosa and gastric cancer is mediated predominantly by an augmented migration of ctsz(-/-)positive macrophages and the up-regulation of Ctsz in tumor epithelium. To explore the Ctsz-function in the context of chronic inflammation and the development of preneoplastic lesions, we used Ctsz-deficient mice in a H. pylori gastritis model. Ctsz (-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice were infected with H. pylori strain SS1. The mice were sacrificed at 24, 36, and 50 weeks post infection (wpi). The stomach was removed, and gastric strips were snap-frozen or embedded and stained with H&E. Tissue sections were scored for epithelial lesions and inflammation. Ki-67 and F4/80 immunostaining were used to measure epithelial cell proliferation and macrophage infiltration, respectively. The upregulation of compensating cathepsins and cytokines were confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. SS1-infected wt and ctsz (-/-) mice showed strong inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia, atrophy, and cystically-dilated glands. However, at 50 wpi, ctsz (-/-) mice developed significantly more severe spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), showed enhanced epithelial proliferation, and higher levels of infiltrating macrophages. Induction of cytokines was higher and significantly prolonged in ctsz (-/-) mice compared to wt. Ctsz deficiency supports H. pylori-dependent development of chronic gastritis up to metaplasia, indicating a protective, but not proteolytic, function of Ctsz in inflammatory gastric disease.
Project description:This study investigated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling in gastric metaplasia in the insulin-gastrin (InsGas) hypergastrinaemic mouse +/- Helicobacter felis (H. felis) infection. Sonic hedgehog gene and protein expression was reduced in pre-metaplastic lesions from non-infected mice (90% gene reduction, P<0.01) compared to normal mucosa. Sonic hedgehog was reactivated in gastric metaplasia of H. felis-infected mice (3.5-fold increase, P<0.01) compared to pre-metaplastic lesions. Additionally, the Shh target gene, glioma-associated oncogene (Gli)-1, was significantly reduced in the gastric glands of InsGas mice (75% reduction, P<0.05) and reactivated with H. felis infection (P<0.05, base of glands, P<0.01 stroma of metaplastic glands). The ability of H. felis to activate the Shh pathway was investigated by measuring the effect of target cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), on Shh expression in AGS and MGLVA1 cells, which was shown to induce Shh expression at physiological concentrations. H. felis induced the expression of NF-kappaB in inflammatory infiltrates in vivo, and the expression of the IL-8 mouse homologue, protein KC, in inflammatory infiltrates and metaplastic lesions. Sonic hedgehog pathway reactivation was paralleled with an increase in proliferation of metaplastic lesions (15.75 vs 4.39% in infected vs non-infected mice, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, Shh overexpression increased the growth rate of the gastric cancer cell line, AGS. The antiapoptotic protein, bcl-2, was expressed in the stroma of infected mice, along with a second Shh target gene, patched-1 (P=0.0001, stroma of metaplastic gland). This study provides evidence suggesting reactivation of Shh signalling from pre-metaplastic to advanced metaplastic lesions of the stomach and outlines the importance of the Shh pathway as a potential chemoprophylactic target for gastric carcinogenesis.