Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Strain F4244, a 4b Serotype.
ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic invasive foodborne pathogen. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of L. monocytogenes strain F4244 (serotype 4b) using Illumina sequencing. The sequence showed 94.5% identity with strain F2365, serotype 4b, and 90.6% with EGD-e, serotype 1/2a.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, food-borne pathogen that causes disease in both humans and animals. There are three major genetic lineages of L. monocytogenes and 13 serovars. To further our understanding of the differences that exist between different genetic lineages/serovars of L. monocytogenes, we analyzed the global protein expression of the serotype 1/2a strain EGD and the serotype 4b strain F2365 during early-stationary-phase growth at 37 degrees C. Using multidimensional protein identification technology with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 1,754 proteins from EGD and 1,427 proteins from F2365, of which 1,077 were common to both. Analysis of proteins that had significantly altered expression between strains revealed potential biological differences between these two L. monocytogenes strains. In particular, the strains differed in expression of proteins involved in cell wall physiology and flagellar biosynthesis, as well as DNA repair proteins and stress response proteins.
Project description:More than 98% of reported human listeriosis cases are caused by specific serotypes within genetic lineages I and II. The genome sequence of Listeria monocytogenes lineage III strain HCC23 (serotype 4a) enables whole genomic comparisons across all three L. monocytogenes lineages. Protein cluster analysis indicated that strain HCC23 has the most unique protein pairs with nonpathogenic species Listeria innocua. Orthology analysis of the genome sequences of representative strains from the three L. monocytogenes genetic lineages and L. innocua (CLIP11262) identified 319 proteins unique to nonpathogenic strains HCC23 and CLIP11262 and 58 proteins unique to pathogenic strains F2365 and EGD-e. BLAST comparison of these proteins with all the sequenced L. monocytogenes and L. innocua revealed 126 proteins unique to serotype 4a and/or L. innocua; 14 proteins were only found in pathogenic serotypes. Some of the 58 proteins unique to pathogenic strains F2365 and EGD-e were previously published and are already known to contribute to listerial virulence.
Project description:The genomes of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes that have been associated with food-borne illness in the USA were subjected to whole genome comparative analysis. A total of 51, 97 and 69 strain-specific genes were identified in L.monocytogenes strains F2365 (serotype 4b, cheese isolate), F6854 (serotype 1/2a, frankfurter isolate) and H7858 (serotype 4b, meat isolate), respectively. Eighty-three genes were restricted to serotype 1/2a and 51 to serotype 4b strains. These strain- and serotype-specific genes probably contribute to observed differences in pathogenicity, and the ability of the organisms to survive and grow in their respective environmental niches. The serotype 1/2a-specific genes include an operon that encodes the rhamnose biosynthetic pathway that is associated with teichoic acid biosynthesis, as well as operons for five glycosyl transferases and an adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase. A total of 8603 and 105 050 high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the draft genome sequences of strain H7858 and strain F6854, respectively, when compared with strain F2365. Whole genome comparative analyses revealed that the L.monocytogenes genomes are essentially syntenic, with the majority of genomic differences consisting of phage insertions, transposable elements and SNPs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes infections with a high-mortality rate and has served as an invaluable model for intracellular parasitism. Here, we report complete genome sequences for two L. monocytogenes strains belonging to serotype 4a (L99) and 4b (CLIP80459), and transcriptomes of representative strains from lineages I, II, and III, thereby permitting in-depth comparison of genome- and transcriptome -based data from three lineages of L. monocytogenes. Lineage III, represented by the 4a L99 genome is known to contain strains less virulent for humans. RESULTS: The genome analysis of the weakly pathogenic L99 serotype 4a provides extensive evidence of virulence gene decay, including loss of several important surface proteins. The 4b CLIP80459 genome, unlike the previously sequenced 4b F2365 genome harbours an intact inlB invasion gene. These lineage I strains are characterized by the lack of prophage genes, as they share only a single prophage locus with other L. monocytogenes genomes 1/2a EGD-e and 4a L99. Comparative transcriptome analysis during intracellular growth uncovered adaptive expression level differences in lineages I, II and III of Listeria, notable amongst which was a strong intracellular induction of flagellar genes in strain 4a L99 compared to the other lineages. Furthermore, extensive differences between strains are manifest at levels of metabolic flux control and phosphorylated sugar uptake. Intriguingly, prophage gene expression was found to be a hallmark of intracellular gene expression. Deletion mutants in the single shared prophage locus of lineage II strain EGD-e 1/2a, the lma operon, revealed severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. CONCLUSION: Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes strains from three lineages implicate prophage genes in intracellular adaptation and indicate that gene loss and decay may have led to the emergence of attenuated lineages.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, food-borne microorganism responsible for invasive infections with a high overall mortality. L. monocytogenes is among the very few microorganisms that can induce uptake into the host cell and subsequently enter the host cell cytosol by breaching the vacuolar membrane. We infected the murine macrophage cell line P388D1 with L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e and examined the gene expression profile of L. monocytogenes inside the vacuolar and cytosolic environments of the host cell by using whole-genome microarray and mutant analyses. We found that approximately 17% of the total genome was mobilized to enable adaptation for intracellular growth. Intracellularly expressed genes showed responses typical of glucose limitation within bacteria, with a decrease in the amount of mRNA encoding enzymes in the central metabolism and a temporal induction of genes involved in alternative-carbon-source utilization pathways and their regulation. Adaptive intracellular gene expression involved genes that are associated with virulence, the general stress response, cell division, and changes in cell wall structure and included many genes with unknown functions. A total of 41 genes were species specific, being absent from the genome of the nonpathogenic Listeria innocua CLIP 11262 strain. We also detected 25 genes that were strain specific, i.e., absent from the genome of the previously sequenced L. monocytogenes F2365 serotype 4b strain, suggesting heterogeneity in the gene pool required for intracellular survival of L. monocytogenes in host cells. Overall, our study provides crucial insights into the strategy of intracellular survival and measures taken by L. monocytogenes to escape the host cell responses.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular facultative pathogen that causes listeriosis, a foodborne zoonotic infection. There are differences in the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes subtypes and strains. Comparison of the genome sequences among L. monocytogenes pathogenic strains EGD-e and F2365 with nonpathogenic L. innocua CLIP1182 and L. monocytogenes strain HCC23 revealed a set of proteins that were present in pathogenic strains and had no orthologs among the nonpathogenic strains. Among the candidate virulence factors are five proteins: putrescine carbamoyltransferase; InlH/InlC2 family class 1 internalin; phosphotransferase system (PTS) fructose transporter subunit EIIC; putative transketolase; and transcription antiterminator BglG family. To determine if these proteins have a role in adherence and invasion of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and/or contribute to virulence, five mutant strains were constructed. F2365?inlC2, F2365?eiic, and F2365?tkt exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in adhesion to Caco-2 cells compared to parent F2365 strain. The invasion of F2365?aguB, F2365?inlC2, and F2365?bglG decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the parent strain. Bacterial loads in mouse liver and spleen infected by F2365 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than it was for F2365?aguB, F2365?inlC2, F2365?eiic, F2365?tkt, and F2365?bglG strains. This study demonstrates that aguB, inlC2, eiic, tkt, and bglG play a role in L. monocytogenes pathogenicity.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes strain F2365 was the first strain representative of serotype 4b (lineage I) to be sequenced in 2004, suggesting it could become the model organism for this serotype, which is associated with most human outbreaks of listeriosis worldwide to date. F2365 itself is an outbreak strain involved in the Mexican-style soft cheese outbreak in California in 1985. In this study we show through phenotypic and transcriptomic analysis that L. monocytogenes strain F2365 has reduced ability to respond to stress due to the absence of a functional σB-dependent stress response system. F2365 shows no B-dependent ability to survive acid or oxidative stress nor B-dependent ability to infect Caco-2 epithelial cell in vitro or guinea pigs in vivo. Therefore, there is substantial evidence that F2365 is an atypical strain and is not a suitable representative of outbreak-associated serotype 4b strains. Independent RNA isolations were performed for F2365 and ΔsigB strains from cells grown to early stationary phase. Three biological replicates were used in competitive whole-genome microarray experiments. For each set of hybridizations, RNA from a L. monocytogenes wildtype strain was hybridized with RNA from its isogenic ΔsigB null mutant.
Project description:The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes a significant percentage of the fatalities among foodborne illnesses in humans. Surface proteins specifically expressed in a wide range of L. monocytogenes serotypes under selective enrichment culture conditions could serve as potential biomarkers for detection and isolation of this pathogen via antibody-based methods. Our study aimed to identify such biomarkers. Interrogation of the L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain F2365 genome identified 130 putative or known surface proteins. The homologues of four surface proteins, LMOf2365_0578, LMOf2365_0581, LMOf2365_0639, and LMOf2365_2117, were assessed as biomarkers due to the presence of conserved regions among strains of L. monocytogenes which are variable among other Listeria species. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the four recombinant proteins revealed the expression of only LMOf2365_0639 on the surface of serotype 4b strain LI0521 cells despite PCR detection of mRNA transcripts for all four proteins in the organism. Three of 35 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to LMOf2365_0639, MAbs M3643, M3644, and M3651, specifically recognized 42 (91.3%) of 46 L. monocytogenes lineage I and II isolates grown in nonselective brain heart infusion medium. While M3644 and M3651 reacted with 14 to 15 (82.4 to 88.2%) of 17 L. monocytogenes lineage I and II isolates, M3643 reacted with 22 (91.7%) of 24 lineage I, II, and III isolates grown in selective enrichment media (UVM1, modified Fraser, Palcam, and UVM2 media). The three MAbs exhibited only weak reactivities (the optical densities at 414 nm were close to the cutoff value) to some other Listeria species grown in selective enrichment media. Collectively, the data indicate the potential of LMOf2365_0639 as a surface biomarker of L. monocytogenes, with the aid of specific MAbs, for pathogen detection, identification, and isolation in clinical, environmental, and food samples.L. monocytogenes is traditionally divided into at least 12 serotypes. Currently, there are no monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) available that are capable of binding to the surface of L. monocytogenes strains representing all 12 serotypes. Such antibodies would be useful and are needed for the development of methods to detect and isolate L. monocytogenes from food samples. In our study, we aimed to identify surface proteins that possess regions of well-conserved amino acid sequences among various serotypes and then to employ them as antigen targets (biomarkers) for the development of MAbs. Through bioinformatics and protein expression analysis, we identified one of the four putative surface protein candidates, LMOf2365_0639, encoded by the genome of the L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain F2365, as a useful surface biomarker. Extensive assessment of 35 MAbs raised against LMOf2365_0639 in our study revealed three MAbs (M3643, M3644, and M3651) that recognized a wide range of L. monocytogenes isolates.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe that is the causative agent of the disease listeriosis. The infectious ability of this bacterium is dependent upon resistance to stressors encountered within the gastrointestinal tract, including bile. Previous studies have indicated bile salt hydrolase activity increases under anaerobic conditions, suggesting anaerobic conditions influence stress responses. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if reduced oxygen availability increased bile resistance of L. monocytogenes. Four strains representing three serovars were evaluated for changes in viability and proteome expression following exposure to bile in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Viability for F2365 (serovar 4b), EGD-e (serovar 1/2a), and 10403S (serovar 1/2a) increased following exposure to 10% porcine bile under anaerobic conditions (P < 0.05). However, HCC23 (serovar 4a) exhibited no difference (P > 0.05) in bile resistance between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that oxygen availability does not influence resistance in this strain. The proteomic analysis indicated F2365 and EGD-e had an increased expression of proteins associated with cell envelope and membrane bioenergetics under anaerobic conditions, including thioredoxin-disulfide reductase and cell division proteins. Interestingly, HCC23 had an increase in several dehydrogenases following exposure to bile under aerobic conditions, suggesting that the NADH:NAD+ is altered and may impact bile resistance. Variations were observed in the expression of the cell shape proteins between strains, which corresponded to morphological differences observed by scanning electron microscopy. These data indicate that oxygen availability influences bile resistance. Further research is needed to decipher how these changes in metabolism impact pathogenicity in vivo and also the impact that this has on susceptibility of a host to listeriosis.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne illness. The population of L. monocytogenes is divided into four lineages (I to IV), and serotype 4b in lineage I has been involved in numerous outbreaks. Several serotype 4b epidemic-associated clonal groups (ECI, -II, and -Ia) have been identified. In this study, we characterized a panel of strains of serotype 4b that produced atypical results with a serotype-specific multiplex PCR and possessed the lmo0734 to lmo0739 gene cassette that had been thought to be specific to lineage II. The cassette was harbored in a genomically syntenic locus in these isolates and in lineage II strains. Three distinct clonal groups (groups 1 to 3) were identified among these isolates based on single-nucleotide polymorphism-based multilocus genotyping (MLGT) and DNA hybridization data. Groups 1 and 2 had MLGT haplotypes previously encountered among clinical isolates and were composed of clinical isolates from multiple states in the United States. In contrast, group 3 consisted of clinical and environmental isolates solely from North Carolina and exhibited a novel haplotype. In addition, all group 3 isolates had DNA that was resistant to MboI, suggesting methylation of adenines at GATC sites. Sequence analysis of the lmo0734 to lmo0739 gene cassette from two strains (group 1 and group 3) revealed that the genes were highly conserved (>99% identity). The data suggest relatively recent horizontal gene transfer from lineage II L. monocytogenes into L. monocytogenes serotype 4b and subsequent dissemination among at least three distinct clonal groups of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, one of which exhibits restrictions in regional distribution.