Racial and Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Hospitalization in US Men and Women With Heart Failure.
ABSTRACT: Prior studies have documented racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization among patients with heart failure (HF). However, racial/ethnic differences in trajectories of hospitalization following the diagnosis of HF have not been well characterized. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in individual-level trajectories of hospitalization in older adults with diagnosed HF.Data from a nationally representative prospective cohort of US men and women aged 45 years and older were used to examine the number of hospitalizations reported every 24 months. Participants who were non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic with a reported diagnosis of HF (n=3011) were followed from 1998 to 2014. Results showed a quadratic change in the number of reported hospitalizations following HF diagnosis, with an average of 2.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-2.53; P<0.001) hospitalizations within 24 months that decreased by 0.35 (95% CI, -0.45 to -0.25; P<0.001) every 24 months and subsequently increased by 0.03 (95% CI, 0.02-0.05; P<0.001) thereafter. In men, there were no racial/ethnic differences in hospitalizations reported at the time of diagnosis; however, Hispanic men had significant declines in hospitalizations after diagnosis (Hispanic×time=-0.52; 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.05 [P=0.031]) followed by a sizeable increase in hospitalizations at later stages of disease (Hispanic×time2=0.06; 95% CI, 0.00-0.12 [P=0.047]). In women, hospitalizations were consistently high following their diagnosis and black women had significantly more hospitalizations throughout follow-up than white women (black=0.28; 95% CI, 0.00-0.55 [P=0.048]). Racial/ethnic disparities varied by geography and the differences remained significant after adjusting for multiple sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors.There were significant racial/ethnic differences in trajectories of hospitalization following the diagnosis of HF in US men and women. Racial/ethnic disparities varied by place of residence and the differences persisted after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The findings have important implications that may be crucial to planning the immediate and long-term delivery of care in patients with HF to reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations.
Project description:Importance:Differences in readmission rates among racial and ethnic minorities have been reported, but data among people with diabetes are lacking despite the high burden of diabetes and its complications in these populations. Objectives:To examine racial/ethnic differences in all-cause readmission among US adults with diabetes and categorize patient- and system-level factors associated with these differences. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study includes 272 758 adult patients with diabetes, discharged alive from the hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, and stratified by race/ethnicity. An administrative claims data set of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries across the United States was used. Data analysis took place between October 2016 and February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Unplanned all-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge and individual-, clinical-, economic-, index hospitalization-, and hospital-level risk factors for readmission. Results:A total of 467 324 index hospitalizations among 272 758 adults with diabetes (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.7]; 143 498 [52.6%] women) were examined. The rates of 30-day all-cause readmission were 10.2% (33 683 of 329 264) among white individuals, 12.2% (11 014 of 89 989) among black individuals, 10.9% (4151 of 38 137) among Hispanic individuals, and 9.9% (980 of 9934) among Asian individuals (P < .001). After adjustment for all factors, only black patients had a higher risk of readmission compared with white patients (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08). This increased readmission risk among black patients was sequentially attenuated, but not entirely explained, by other demographic factors, comorbidities, income, reason for index hospitalization, or place of hospitalization. Compared with white patients, both black and Hispanic patients had the highest observed-to-expected (OE) readmission rate ratio when their income was low (annual household income <$40 000 among black patients: OE ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09-1.14; among Hispanic patients: OE ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16) and when they were hospitalized in nonprofit hospitals (black patients: OE ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.12; among Hispanic patients: OE ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12), academic hospitals (black patients: OE ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.20; Hispanic patients: OE ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.19), or large hospitals (ie, with ≥400 beds; black patients: OE ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09-1.14; Hispanic patients: OE ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, black patients with diabetes had a significantly higher risk of readmission than members of other racial/ethnic groups. This increased risk was most pronounced among lower-income patients hospitalized in nonprofit, academic, or large hospitals. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying and addressing the many reasons for persistent racial/ethnic differences in health care quality and outcomes.
Project description:Background:American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) may be uniquely vulnerable to coccidioidomycosis given the large population residing in the Southwestern United States. We describe coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits during 2001-2014 in the Indian Health Service (IHS) system and compare hospitalizations with data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methods:We identified hospitalizations in the IHS and the NIS and outpatient visits in the IHS using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 114.0-114.9. We calculated average annual hospitalization and outpatient visit rates per 1 000 000 population and used Poisson regression to calculate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with IHS hospitalization. Results:AI/ANs had the highest average annual hospitalization rate (58.0; 95% CI, 49.5-66.6) of any racial/ethnic group in the NIS, compared with 13.4 (95% CI, 12.7-14.2) for non-Hispanic whites. IHS data showed a hospitalization rate of 37.0; the median length of stay (interquartile range) was 6 (3-10) days. The average annual outpatient visit rate in IHS was 764.2, and it increased from 529.9 in 2001 to 845.9 in 2014. Male sex, age ?65 years, diabetes, and extrapulmonary or progressive coccidioidomycosis were independently associated with increased risk for hospitalization. Twenty-four percent of patients had ICD-9-CM codes for community-acquired pneumonia in the 3 months before coccidioidomycosis diagnosis. Conclusions:AI/ANs experience high coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalization rates, high morbidity, and possible missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Yearly trends in IHS data were similar to the general increase in hospitalizations and reported cases nationwide in the same period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The higher risk of heart failure (HF) in African-American and Hispanic women compared with white women is related to the higher burden of risk factors (RFs) in minorities. However, it is unclear if there are differences in the association between the number of RFs for HF and the risk of development of HF and death within racial/ethnic groups. METHODS AND RESULTS:In the WHI (Women's Health Initiative; 1993-2010), African-American (n=11 996), white (n=18 479), and Hispanic (n=5096) women with 1, 2, or 3+ baseline RFs were compared with women with 0 RF within their respective racial/ethnic groups to assess risk of developing HF or all-cause mortality before and after HF, using survival analyses. After adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, and hormone therapy, the subdistribution hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing HF increased as number of RFs increased (P<0.0001, interaction of race/ethnicity and RF number P=0.18)-African-Americans 1 RF: 1.80 (1.01-3.20), 2 RFs: 3.19 (1.84-5.54), 3+ RFs: 7.31 (4.26-12.56); Whites 1 RF: 1.27 (1.04-1.54), 2 RFs: 1.95 (1.60-2.36), 3+ RFs: 4.07 (3.36-4.93); Hispanics 1 RF: 1.72 (0.68-4.34), 2 RFs: 3.87 (1.60-9.37), 3+ RFs: 8.80 (3.62-21.42). Risk of death before developing HF increased with subsequent RFs (P<0.0001) but differed by racial/ethnic group (interaction P=0.001). The number of RFs was not associated with the risk of death after developing HF in any group (P=0.25; interaction P=0.48). CONCLUSIONS:Among diverse racial/ethnic groups, an increase in the number of baseline RFs was associated with higher risk of HF and death before HF but was not associated with death after HF. Early RF prevention may reduce the burden of HF across multiple racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:Introduction While disparities in low birth weight (LBW) incidence by racial/ethnic group are well known, differences in LBW incidence by maternal birthplace within racial/ethnic groups, and particularly, differences after adjustment for pregnancy complications, are less clear. Methods We conducted a population-based study of LBW using 113,760 singleton, live birth records from King County, Washington (2008-2012), a region in the Pacific Northwest with a large immigrant population. Study participants were Asian, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and non-Hispanic white women. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate relative risk of LBW (<2500 g) related to maternal race/ethnicity and birthplace (defined by the Millennium Development Goals Regional Groupings). Results Compared with non-Hispanic white women, non-Hispanic black, Asian Indian, Filipino, Japanese, and Vietnamese women had 1.57-2.23-fold higher, statistically significant, risk of having a LBW infant, and NHOPI and Mexican women had 1.30-1.33-fold, statistically significant, higher risk. LBW risk was lower for Asian women from Eastern Asia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.85), non-Hispanic black women from Sub-Saharan Africa (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.73), and non-Hispanic white women from other developed countries (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.00), as compared with their US-born racial/ethnic counterparts. Results were, in general, similar after adjustment for pregnancy complications. Conclusions Compared with most other racial/ethnic groups, non-Hispanic whites had lower risk of LBW. Foreign-born women had lower risk of LBW compared with their US-born counterparts in the majority of racial/ethnic groups. Pregnancy complications had minimal effect on the associations.
Project description:Importance:Breast cancer incidence trends by age and race/ethnicity have been documented; it is less clear whether incidence trends of breast cancer molecular subtypes, which differ in risk factors and prognosis, also vary by age and race/ethnicity. Objective:To estimate annual percentage changes and trends in breast cancer molecular subtype-specific incidence rates by age at diagnosis and race/ethnicity in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants:This population-based cross-sectional study included data from 18 cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, capturing 27.8% of the US population. Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, Black, and Asian/Pacific Islander women aged 25 to 84 years who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 2010 to 2016 were included. Data were analyzed from September 2019 to February 2020. Exposures:Age and racial/ethnic groups. Main Outcomes and Measures:Annual percentage change (APC) and 95% CIs for age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates stratified by 15-year age groups at diagnosis and race/ethnicity. Results:Of 320?124 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2010 to 2016, 232?558 (72.6%) had luminal A, 35?869 (11.2%) had luminal B, 15?472 (4.8%) had ERBB2-enriched, and 36?225 (11.3%) had triple-negative breast cancer subtypes. Luminal A breast cancer incidence rates increased in non-Hispanic White (APC from 2010-2014, 2.3%; 95% CI, 0.3% to 4.2%) and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (APC from 2010-2016, 2.5%; 95% CI, 0.6% to 4.5%) women aged 40 to 54 years, and in non-Hispanic Black women aged 55 to 69 years women (APC from 2010-2012, 4.9%; 95% CI, 4.0% to 5.7%). Luminal B breast cancer incidence rates increased in all age groups for non-Hispanic White women (age 25-39 years: APC, 4.3%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 7.%2; age 40-54 years: APC, 3.5%; 95% CI, 1.4% to 5.6%; age 55-69 years: APC, 3.3%; 95% CI, 1.6% to 5.0%; age 70-84 years: APC, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 6.0%) and Hispanic women (age 25-39 years: APC, 8.4%; 95% CI, 5.8% to 11.2%; age 40-54 years: APC, 6.1%; 95% CI, 4.2% to 8.0%; age 55-69 years: APC, 5.1%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 8.8%; age 70-84 years: APC, 7.1%; 95% CI, 4.6% to 9.6%) and in non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander women aged 55 to 69 years (APC, 6.1%; 95% CI, 3.2% to 9.0%). ERBB2-enriched breast cancer incidence rates increased in non-Hispanic White women aged 25 to 39 years (APC, 4.7%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 8.0%). Triple-negative breast cancer incidence rates decreased in non-Hispanic White women aged 40 to 54 years (APC, -2.3%; 95% CI, -3.8% to -0.7%) and 55 to 69 years (APC, -3.6%; 95% CI, -5.1% to -2.1%) and in non-Hispanic Black women aged 55 to 69 years (APC, -1.4%; 95% CI, -2.2% to -0.7%). Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that between 2010 and 2016, luminal A and luminal B breast cancer incidence rates increased for many racial/ethnic and age groups, with the largest increases observed for luminal B breast cancer. ERBB2-enriched breast cancer incidence rates increased for young non-Hispanic White women, while triple-negative breast cancer incidence rates decreased for midlife non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women. These trends may suggest changes in breast cancer risk factor profiles across age and racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Racial/ethnic minority groups have a higher burden of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but RCC among Hispanic Americans (HAs) and American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) are clinically not well characterized. We explored variations in age at diagnosis and frequencies of RCC histologic subtypes across racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups using National Cancer Database (NCDB) and Arizona Cancer Registry Data. METHODS:Adult RCC cases with known race/ethnicity were included. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds and 95% confidence interval (CI) of early-onset (age at diagnosis <50 years) and diagnosis with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) or papillary RCC. RESULTS:A total of 405 073 RCC cases from NCDB and 9751 cases from ACR were identified and included. In both datasets, patients from racial/ethnic minority groups had a younger age at diagnosis than non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients. In the NCDB, AIs/ANs had twofold increased odds (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.88-2.59) of early-onset RCC compared with NHWs. HAs also had twofold increased odds of early-onset RCC (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.79-2.55) in the ACR. In NCDB, ccRCC was more prevalent in AIs (86.3%) and Mexican Americans (83.5%) than NHWs (72.5%). AIs/ANs had twofold increased odds of diagnosis with ccRCC (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.85-2.58) in the NCDB, but the association was stronger in the ACR (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 2.08-3.85). Similarly, Mexican Americans had significantly increased odds of diagnosis with ccRCC (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.78-2.23) in the NCDB. CONCLUSIONS:This study reports younger age at diagnosis and higher frequencies of ccRCC histologic subtype in AIs/ANs and Hispanic subgroups. These variations across racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups may have potential clinical implications.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine whether racial and ethnic differences exist in the frequency of and indications for cesarean delivery and to assess whether application of labor management strategies intended to reduce cesarean delivery rates is associated with patient's race and ethnicity. METHODS:This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational obstetric cohort. Trained research personnel abstracted maternal and neonatal records of greater than 115,000 pregnant women from 25 hospitals (2008-2011). Women at term with singleton, nonanomalous, vertex, liveborn neonates were included in two cohorts: 1) nulliparous women (n=35,529); and 2) multiparous women with prior vaginal deliveries only (n=39,871). Women were grouped as non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the following outcomes: overall cesarean delivery frequency, indications for cesarean delivery, and utilization of labor management strategies intended to safely reduce cesarean delivery. RESULTS:A total of 75,400 women were eligible for inclusion, of whom 47% (n=35,529) were in the nulliparous cohort and 53% (n=39,871) were in the multiparous cohort. The frequencies of cesarean delivery were 25.8% among nulliparous women and 6.0% among multiparous women. For nulliparous women, the unadjusted cesarean delivery frequencies were 25.0%, 28.3%, 28.7%, and 24.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic women, respectively. Among nulliparous women, the adjusted odds of cesarean delivery were higher in all racial and ethnic groups compared with non-Hispanic white women (non-Hispanic black adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.36-1.59; Asian adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40; Hispanic adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.27) as a result of greater odds of cesarean delivery both for nonreassuring fetal status and labor dystocia. Nonapplication of labor management strategies regarding failed induction, arrest of dilation, arrest of descent, or cervical ripening did not contribute to increased odds of cesarean delivery for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, Hispanic women were actually less likely to experience elective cesarean delivery (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.87) or cesarean delivery for arrest of dilation before 4 hours (adjusted OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.92). Additionally, compared with non-Hispanic white women, Asian women were more likely to experience cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status (adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.53) and to have had that cesarean delivery be performed in the setting of a 1-minute Apgar score 7 or greater (adjusted OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07-3.00). A similar trend was seen among multiparous women with prior vaginal deliveries. CONCLUSION:Although racial and ethnic disparities exist in the frequency of cesarean delivery, differential use of labor management strategies intended to reduce the cesarean delivery rate does not appear to be associated with these racial and ethnic disparities.
Project description:Among individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), African Americans have lower spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) than Caucasians, and women have higher clearance than men. Few studies report racial/ethnic differences in acute HCV in HIV infected, or Hispanic women. We examined racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance in a population of HCV mono- and co-infected women.We conducted a cross sectional study of HCV seropositive women (897 HIV infected and 168 HIV uninfected) followed in the US multicenter, NIH-funded Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), to determine the association of race/ethnicity with spontaneous HCV clearance, as defined by undetectable HCV RNA at study entry.Among HIV and HCV seropositive women, 18.7 % were HCV RNA negative, 60.9 % were African American, 19.3 % Hispanic and 17.7 % Caucasian. HIV infected African American women were less likely to spontaneously clear HCV than Hispanic (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.38-0.93, p = 0.022) or Caucasian women (OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.36-0.93, p = 0.023). Among HIV uninfected women, African Americans had less HCV clearance than Hispanics (OR 0.18, 95 % CI 0.07-0.48, p = 0.001) or Caucasians (OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.09-0.79, p = 0.017). There were no significant differences in HCV clearance between Hispanics and Caucasians, among either HIV infected (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.57-1.66, p = 0.91) or uninfected (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 0.56-3.8, p = 0.45) women.African Americans were less likely to spontaneously clear HCV than Hispanics or Caucasians, regardless of HIV status. No significant differences in spontaneous HCV clearance were observed between Caucasian and Hispanic women. Future studies incorporating IL28B genotype may further explain these observed racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Study, a longitudinal prospective cohort evaluation of postmenopausal women recruited from 40 clinical centers.<h4>Methods</h4>Lung cancer diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by pathology review. Baseline survey questionnaires collected sociodemographic and health information. Logistic regression models estimated incidence and mortality odds by race/ethnicity adjusted for age, education, calcium/vitamin D, body mass index, smoking (status, age at start, duration, and pack-years), alcohol, family history, oral contraceptive, hormones, physical activity, and diet.<h4>Results</h4>The cohort included 129,951 women--108,487 (83%) non-Hispanic white (NHW); 10,892 (8%) non-Hispanic black (NHB); 4,882 (4%) Hispanic; 3,696 (3%) Asian/Pacific Islander (API); 534 (< 1%) American Indian/Alaskan Native; and 1,994 (1%) other. In unadjusted models, Hispanics had 66% lower odds of lung cancer compared with NHW (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.5), followed by API (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) and NHB (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95). In fully adjusted multivariable models, the decreased lung cancer risk for Hispanic compared with NHW women attenuated to the null (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.99). In unadjusted models Hispanic and API women had decreased risk of death compared with NHW women (OR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.62] and 0.34 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.75, respectively); however, no racial/ethnic differences were found in risk of lung cancer death in fully adjusted models.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality are associated with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. These findings suggest modifiable exposures and behaviors may contribute to differences in incidence of and mortality by race/ethnicity for postmenopausal women. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is limited research on the racial/ethnic differences in long-term outcomes for men with untreated, localized prostate cancer. METHODS:Men diagnosed with localized, Gleason ?7 prostate cancer who were not treated within 1 year of diagnosis from 1997-2007 were identified. Cumulative incidence rates of the following events were calculated; treatment initiation, metastasis, death due to prostate cancer and all-cause mortality, accounting for competing risks. The Cox model of all-cause mortality and Fine-Gray sub distribution model to account for competing risks were used to test for racial/ethnic differences in outcomes adjusted for clinical factors. RESULTS:There were 3925 men in the study, 749 Hispanic, 2415 non-Hispanic white, 559 non-Hispanic African American, and 202 non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (API). Median follow-up was 9.3 years. At 19 years, overall cumulative incidence of treatment, metastasis, death due to prostate cancer, and all-cause mortality was 25.0%, 14.7%, 11.7%, and 67.8%, respectively. In adjusted models compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans had higher rates of treatment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15-1.68); they had an increased risk of metastasis beyond 10 years after diagnosis (HR = 4.70, 95% CI = 2.30-9.61); API and Hispanic had lower rates of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84, and HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85, respectively), and API had lower rates of prostate cancer mortality in the first 10 years after diagnosis (HR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09-0.90) and elevated risks beyond 10 years (HR = 5.41, 95% CI = 1.39-21.11). CONCLUSIONS:Significant risks of metastasis and prostate cancer mortality exist in untreated men beyond 10 years after diagnosis, but are not equally distributed among racial/ethnic groups.