Brain insulin resistance impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory by increasing GluA1 palmitoylation through FoxO3a.
ABSTRACT: High-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic diseases cause detrimental effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory through molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HFD increases palmitic acid deposition in the hippocampus and induces hippocampal insulin resistance leading to FoxO3a-mediated overexpression of the palmitoyltransferase zDHHC3. The excess of palmitic acid along with higher zDHHC3 levels causes hyper-palmitoylation of AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluA1, hindering its activity-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, AMPAR current amplitudes and, more importantly, their potentiation underlying synaptic plasticity were inhibited, as well as hippocampal-dependent memory. Hippocampus-specific silencing of Zdhhc3 and, interestingly enough, intranasal injection of the palmitoyltransferase inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate, counteract GluA1 hyper-palmitoylation and restore synaptic plasticity and memory in HFD mice. Our data reveal a key role of FoxO3a/Zdhhc3/GluA1 axis in the HFD-dependent impairment of cognitive function and identify a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between metabolic and cognitive disorders.
Project description:The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. It is broadly expressed in the nervous system and regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Previous in vitro studies revealed that palmitoylation of NCAM is required for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-stimulated neurite outgrowth and identified the zinc finger DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys)-containing proteins ZDHHC3 and ZDHHC7 as specific NCAM-palmitoylating enzymes. Here, we verified that FGF2 controlled NCAM palmitoylation in vivo and investigated molecular mechanisms regulating NCAM palmitoylation by ZDHHC3. Experiments with overexpression and pharmacological inhibition of FGF receptor (FGFR) and Src revealed that these kinases control tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 and that ZDHHC3 is phosphorylated by endogenously expressed FGFR and Src proteins. By site-directed mutagenesis, we found that Tyr18 is an FGFR1-specific ZDHHC3 phosphorylation site, while Tyr295 and Tyr297 are specifically phosphorylated by Src kinase in cell-based and cell-free assays. Abrogation of tyrosine phosphorylation increased ZDHHC3 autopalmitoylation, enhanced interaction with NCAM, and upregulated NCAM palmitoylation. Expression of ZDHHC3 with tyrosine mutated in cultured hippocampal neurons promoted neurite outgrowth. Our findings for the first time highlight that FGFR- and Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 modulates ZDHHC3 enzymatic activity and plays a role in neuronal morphogenesis.
Project description:Ca2+-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) containing GluA1 but lacking GluA2 subunits contribute to multiple forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP), but mechanisms regulating CP-AMPARs are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 150 scaffolds kinases and phosphatases to regulate GluA1 phosphorylation and trafficking, and trafficking of AKAP150 itself is modulated by palmitoylation on two Cys residues. Here, we developed a palmitoylation-deficient knockin mouse to show that AKAP150 palmitoylation regulates CP-AMPAR incorporation at hippocampal synapses. Using biochemical, super-resolution imaging, and electrophysiological approaches, we found that palmitoylation promotes AKAP150 localization to recycling endosomes and the postsynaptic density (PSD) to limit CP-AMPAR basal synaptic incorporation. In addition, we found that AKAP150 palmitoylation is required for LTP induced by weaker stimulation that recruits CP-AMPARs to synapses but not stronger stimulation that recruits GluA2-containing AMPARs. Thus, AKAP150 palmitoylation controls its subcellular localization to maintain proper basal and activity-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR subunit composition.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to investigate both the long-term and short-term impacts of high-fat diets (HFD) or high-sucrose diets (HSD) on the normal diurnal pattern of cognitive function, protein expression, and the molecular clock in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>This study used both 6-month and 4-week feeding strategies by providing male C57BL/6J mice access to either a standard chow, HFD, or HSD. Spatial working memory and synaptic plasticity were assessed both day and night, and hippocampal tissue was measured for changes in NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits (GluN2B, GluA1), as well as molecular clock gene expression.<h4>Results</h4>HFD and HSD both disrupted normal day/night fluctuations in spatial working memory and synaptic plasticity. Mice fed HFD altered their food intake to consume more calories during the day. Both diets disrupted normal hippocampal clock gene expression, and HFD reduced GluN2B levels in hippocampal tissue.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken together, these results suggest that both HFD and HSD induce a loss of day/night performance in spatial working memory and synaptic plasticity as well as trigger a cascade of changes that include disruption to the hippocampal molecular clock.
Project description:Synaptic cadherin adhesion complexes are known to be key regulators of synapse plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate activity-induced modifications in cadherin localization and adhesion and the subsequent changes in synapse morphology and efficacy remain unknown. We demonstrate that the intracellular cadherin binding protein ?-catenin is transiently palmitoylated by DHHC5 after enhanced synaptic activity and that palmitoylation increases ?-catenin-cadherin interactions at synapses. Both the palmitoylation of ?-catenin and its binding to cadherin are required for activity-induced stabilization of N-cadherin at synapses and the enlargement of postsynaptic spines, as well as the insertion of GluA1 and GluA2 subunits into the synaptic membrane and the concomitant increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude. Notably, context-dependent fear conditioning in mice resulted in increased ?-catenin palmitoylation, as well as increased ?-catenin-cadherin associations at hippocampal synapses. Together these findings suggest a role for palmitoylated ?-catenin in coordinating activity-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion molecules, synapse structure and receptor localization that are involved in memory formation.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus, Arc is mainly expressed in the upper (dorsal) blade at the basal state. GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient (GluA1C811S) mice showed enhanced seizure susceptibility and disturbed synaptic plasticity without impaired gross anatomy or basal synaptic transmission. These mutant mice also exhibited an increased expression of IEG products, c-Fos and Arc proteins, in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In this report, we further analyzed excitability and Arc expression pattern in the dentate gyrus of GluA1C811S mice.<br><br><b>Methods and results: </b>Electrophysiological analysis of granule neurons to measure the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current/evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current ratio revealed that excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance was normal in GluA1C811S mice. In contrast, immunohistochemical staining showed an abnormal distribution of Arc-positive cells between upper and lower (ventral) blades of the dentate gyrus in these mutant mice. These data suggest that deficiency of GluA1 palmitoylation causes perturbed neuronal inputs from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus, which potentially underlies the excessive excitability in response to seizure-inducing stimulation.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Our findings conclude that an appropriate regulation of Arc expression in the dentate gyrus, ensured by AMPA receptor palmitoylation, may be critical for stabilizing hippocampal neural circuits and may suppress excess excitation.
Project description:The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3), a regulator of local protein synthesis, is the mouse homolog of ApCPEB, a functional prion protein in Aplysia. Here, we provide evidence that CPEB3 is activated by Neuralized1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. In hippocampal cultures, CPEB3 activated by Neuralized1-mediated ubiquitination leads both to the growth of new dendritic spines and to an increase of the GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of AMPA receptors, two CPEB3 targets essential for synaptic plasticity. Conditional overexpression of Neuralized1 similarly increases GluA1 and GluA2 and the number of spines and functional synapses in the hippocampus and is reflected in enhanced hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity. By contrast, inhibition of Neuralized1 reduces GluA1 and GluA2 levels and impairs hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity. These results suggest a model whereby Neuralized1-dependent ubiquitination facilitates hippocampal plasticity and hippocampal-dependent memory storage by modulating the activity of CPEB3 and CPEB3-dependent protein synthesis and synapse formation.
Project description:We previously showed that the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 (SGK3) increases the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 protein in the plasma membrane. The activation of AMPA receptors by NMDA-type glutamate receptors eventually leads to postsynaptic neuronal plasticity. Here, we show that SGK3 mRNA is upregulated in the hippocampus of new-born wild type Wistar rats after NMDA receptor activation. We further demonstrate in the Xenopus oocyte expression system that delivery of GluA1 protein to the plasma membrane depends on the small GTPase RAB11. This RAB-dependent GluA1 trafficking requires phosphorylation and activation of phosphoinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase (PIKfyve) and the generation of PI(3,5)P(2). In line with this mechanism we could show PIKfyve mRNA expression in the hippocampus of wild type C57/BL6 mice and phosphorylation of PIKfyve by SGK3. Incubation of hippocampal slices with the PIKfyve inhibitor YM201636 revealed reduced CA1 basal synaptic activity. Furthermore, treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with YM201636 altered the GluA1 expression pattern towards reduced synaptic expression of GluA1. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an involvement of PIKfyve and PI(3,5)P(2) in NMDA receptor-triggered synaptic GluA1 trafficking. This new regulatory pathway of GluA1 may contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory.
Project description:Palmitoylation is emerging as one of the most important posttranslational modifications of excitatory synaptic proteins in mammalian brain cells. As a reversible and regulatable modification sensitive to changing synaptic inputs, palmitoylation of ionotropic glutamate receptors contributes not only to the modulation of normal receptor and synaptic activities but also to the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report that palmitoylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is regulated by the psychostimulant, cocaine, and such regulation is involved in cocaine action.We tested palmitoylation and surface expression of AMPA receptors in striatal neurons and psychomotor behavior in response to cocaine in rats.All four AMPA receptor subunits (GluA1-4 or GluR1-4) are palmitoylated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of adult rats. Among them, GluA1 and GluA3 are preferentially upregulated in their palmitoylation levels by a systemic injection of cocaine. The upregulated GluA1 and 3 palmitoylation is a transient and reversible event. Consequently, it increases the susceptibility of surface-expressed GluA1 and 3 to internalization trafficking, leading to a temporal loss of surface receptor expression. Blockade of the regulated GluA1/3 palmitoylation with a palmitoylation inhibitor in the local NAc reverses the loss of surface GluA1/3. The inhibition of palmitoylation concurrently sustains behavioral responsivity to cocaine as well.Our data identify a novel drug-palmitoylation coupling in the center of limbic reward circuits. Through palmitoylating selective AMPA receptor subunits, cocaine activity dependently regulates trafficking and subcellular localization of the receptor in NAc neurons and dynamically controls psychomotor sensitivity to the psychoactive drug in vivo.
Project description:The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain and are important for synaptic plasticity. In particular, the rapid insertion of the GluA1 homomeric (GluA1-homo) AMPARs into the postsynaptic membrane is considered to be critical in the expression of hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), which is important for certain forms of learning and memory. However, how the formation and trafficking of GluA1-homo AMPARs are regulated remains poorly understood. Here, we report that p97 specifically interacts with and promotes the formation of GluA1-homo AMPARs. The association with p97 retains GluA1-homo AMPARs in the intracellular compartment under basal conditions, and its dissociation allows GluA1-homo AMPARs to be rapidly inserted into the postsynaptic membrane shortly after LTP induction. Thus, our results shed lights into the molecular mechanisms by which p97 regulates GluA1-homo AMPARs formation and trafficking, thereby playing a critical role in mediating synaptic plasticity.