Robust genetic transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using differentiating embryogenic callus induced from immature embryos.
ABSTRACT: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is one of the world's most important cereal crops grown for multiple applications and has been identified as a potential biofuel crop. Despite several decades of study, sorghum has been widely considered as a recalcitrant major crop for transformation due to accumulation of phenolic compounds, lack of model genotypes, low regeneration frequency and loss of regeneration potential through sub-cultures. Among different explants used for genetic transformation of sorghum, immature embryos are ideal over other explants. However, the continuous supply of quality immature embryos for transformation is labour intensive and expensive. In addition, transformation efficiencies are also influenced by environmental conditions (light and temperature). Despite these challenges, immature embryos remain the predominant choice because of their success rate and also due to non-availability of other dependable explants without compromising the transformation efficiency.We report here a robust genetic transformation method for sorghum (Tx430) using differentiating embryogenic calli (DEC) with nodular structures induced from immature embryos and maintained for more than a year without losing regeneration potential on modified MS media. The addition of lipoic acid (LA) to callus induction media along with optimized growth regulators increased callus induction frequency from 61.3 ± 3.2 to 79 ± 6.5% from immature embryos (1.5-2.0 mm in length) isolated 12-15 days after pollination. Similarly, the regeneration efficiency and the number of shoots from DEC tissue was enhanced by LA. The optimized regeneration system in combination with particle bombardment resulted in an average transformation efficiency (TE) of 27.2 or 46.6% based on the selection strategy, 25% to twofold higher TE than published reports in Tx430. Up to 100% putative transgenic shoots were positive for npt-II by PCR and 48% of events had < 3 copies of transgenes as determined by digital droplet PCR. Reproducibility of this method was demonstrated by generating ~ 800 transgenic plants using 10 different gene constructs.This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing sorghum transformation methods using PDS, also enables quick hypothesis testing in the production of various high value products in sorghum.
Project description:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) ranks as the fifth most widely planted cereal in the world and is used for food as well as a biomass plant for ethanol production. Use of the TX430 non-tannin sorghum variety has enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation. These protocols could not be applied, however, to other tannin producing sorghum varieties such as the BTx623 model cultivar for sorghum with full genome information of sorghum. Here we report an improved protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tannin-producing sorghum variety BTx623. We successfully developed modification of root regeneration condition for generation of transgenic plant of BTx623. We inoculated immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pMDC32-35S-GFP to generate transgenic plants. In the root regeneration step, we found that regeneration from transformed calli was affected by tannin. For root regeneration, shoots that appeared were not transferred to agar plate, but instead transferred to vermiculite in a plastic pod. Direct planting of regenerated shoots into vermiculite prevented the toxic effect of tannin. Root regeneration efficiency from calli emerged shoots in vermiculite was 78.57%. Presence of sGFP transgene in the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and sGFP expression was confirmed in transgenic plants. This improved protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for tannin-producing sorghum BTx623 could be a useful tool for functional genomics using this plant.
Project description:The applications of plant callus regeneration has been widely spreaded in agricultural improvement. By using immature sorghum embryos as explants, progress in successful genetic transformation has been made in sorghum. However, the underlying mechanism of callus differentiation is still largely unknown in sorghum. Here, we described three types of callus with different abilities of redifferentiation (Callus I-III), undergoing distinct induction from immature embryo in the variety of Hiro-1. In comparison to the non-embryonic Callus III who lost the ability of regeneration, the Callus I produced only some characterized adventitious roots and the embryonic Callus II is sufficient to regenerate whole plants. Genome-wide transcriptome profiles were performed to reveal the underlying mechenisms. The numbers of differentially expressed genes for the three types of callus vary from 5906 to 8029. Principal component analysis analysis demonstrated that gene expression patterns of Callus I and II were totally different from that of Callus III and differential leaves from Callus II, indicating that the compassions of Callus I and II provide clues for revealing regulations of regeneration in sorghum callus. Notably, KEGG and GO analysis showed that plant ribosome, lignin metabolic process, and metabolism of starch and sucrose are main processes that are associated with callus differentiation. Taken together, the results contributed the elucidation of molecular regulation in three types of callus with several regeneration abilities in sorghum. Overall design: mRNA profiles of three types of sorghum callus (namely Callus I, II and III) were generated by deep sequencing,using Illumina HiSeq.
Project description:Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation frequency has been enhanced significantly via medium optimization using immature embryos from sorghum variety TX430 as the target tissue. The new transformation protocol includes the addition of elevated copper sulfate and 6-benzylaminopurine in the resting and selection media. Using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, the transformation frequency reached over 10% using either of two different selection marker genes, moPAT or PMI, and any of three different vectors in large-scale transformation experiments. With Agrobacterium strain AGL1, the transformation frequencies were as high as 33%. Using quantitative PCR analyses of 1,182 T0 transgenic plants representing 675 independent transgenic events, data was collected for T-DNA copy number, intact or truncated T-DNA integration, and vector backbone integration into the sorghum genome. A comparison of the transformation frequencies and molecular data characterizing T-DNA integration patterns in the transgenic plants derived from LBA4404 versus AGL1 transformation revealed that twice as many transgenic high-quality events were generated when AGL1 was used compared to LBA4404. This is the first report providing molecular data for T-DNA integration patterns in a large number of independent transgenic plants in sorghum.
Project description:Sorghum has been considered a recalcitrant plant in vitro and suffers from a lack of regeneration protocols that function broadly and efficiently across a range of genotypes. This study was initiated to identify differential genotype-in vitro protocol responses across a range of bioenergy sorghum parental lines and the common grain sorghum genotype Tx430 in order to characterize response profiles for use in future genetic studies. Two different in vitro protocols, LG and WU, were used for comparisons. Distinct genotype-protocol responses were observed, and the WU protocol performed significantly better for plantlet regeneration. Most bioenergy genotypes performed as well, if not better than Tx430, with Rio and PI329311 as the top regenerating lines. Genotypes displayed protocol-dependent, differential phenolic exudation responses, as indicated by medium browning. During the callus induction phase, genotypes prone to medium browning exhibited a response on WU medium which was either equal or greater than on LG medium. Genotype- and protocol-dependent albino plantlet regeneration was also noted, with three of the bioenergy genotypes showing albino plantlet regeneration. Grassl, Rio and Pink Kafir were susceptible to albino plantlet regeneration, with the response strongly associated with the WU protocol. These bioenergy parental genotypes, and their differential responses under two in vitro protocols, provide tools to further explore and assess the role of genetic loci, candidate genes, and allelic variants in the regulation of in vitro responsiveness in sorghum.
Project description:Sorghum is the fifth most widely planted cereal crop in the world and is commonly cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions such as Africa. Despite its importance as a food source, sorghum genetic improvement through transgenic approaches has been limited because of an inefficient transformation system. Here, we report a ternary vector (also known as cohabitating vector) system using a recently described pVIR accessory plasmid that facilitates efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum. We report regeneration frequencies ranging from 6% to 29% in Tx430 using different selectable markers and single copy, backbone free 'quality events' ranging from 45% to 66% of the total events produced. Furthermore, we successfully applied this ternary system to develop transformation protocols for popular but recalcitrant African varieties including Macia, Malisor 84-7 and Tegemeo. In addition, we report the use of this technology to develop the first stable CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts in Tx430.
Project description:The availability of reproducible regeneration system through tissue culture is a major bottleneck in wheat improvement program. The present study has considered to develop an efficient callus induction and regeneration system using mature and immature embryos as explants in recently released agronomically superior spring wheat varieties. An efficient sterilization process was standardized using 0.1% HgCl2 and 70% ethanol for both seeds and embryos. The maximum possible combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were evaluated for their effect on different wheat regeneration processes through tissue culture starting from callus to root induction. Picloram is found as an effective auxin with 87.63-98.67% callus induction efficiency in both explants. Supplementation of CuSO4 along with 2,4-D, zeatin in regeneration medium significantly enhanced the multiple shoot induction. The shoot development was achieved using full strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium and root induction using half MS medium without PGRs. The optimized medium and method has resulted up to 100% regeneration irrespective of the genotype used with high reproducibility. Thus, the standardized regeneration system can be used in the regeneration of healthy plants from embryos rescued from interspecies crosses, transgenic production, induced mutation breeding and recently developed genome editing techniques for the procreation of wheat plants having novel traits.
Project description:Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is well established in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. However, most protocols employ immature embryos because of their better regenerative capacity. A major problem associated with the immature embryo system is that they are available only during a limited time window of growing plants. In this study, we have developed an optimized Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol that utilizes mature embryos. We have adopted seed shearing and photoautotrophic rooting (PR) in callus induction and root regeneration, respectively, with evident significant improvement in these aspects. We have also revealed that the newly developed chemical inducer Fipexide (FPX) had the ability to induce callus, shoots, and roots. By comparison, we have demonstrated that FPX shows higher efficiency in shoot generation than other frequently used chemicals in our mature embryo-based system. In addition, we demonstrated that the age of embryogenetic callus severely affects the transformation efficiency (TE), with the seven-week-old embryogenetic callus having the highest TE reaching 52.6%, which is comparable with that in immature embryo transformation. The new methodologies reported here will advance the development and utilization of Brachypodium as a new model system for grass genomics.
Project description:Maize somatic embryogenesis (SE) requires the induction of embryogenic callus and establishment of proliferation before plant regeneration. The molecular mechanisms underlying callus embryogenic potential are not well understood. Here we explored the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) and the accumulation of their target transcripts in maize SE at the dedifferentiation step using VS-535 zygotic embryos collected at distinct developmental stages and displaying contrasting in vitro embryogenic potential and morphology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs), heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs) populations and their RNA targets were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Abundances of specific miRNAs, tasiRNAs and targets were validated by qRT-PCR. Unique accumulation patterns were found for immature embryo at 15 Days After Pollination (DAP) and for the callus induction from this explant, as compared to 23 DAP and mature embryos. miR156, miR164, miR166, tasiARFs and the 24 nt hc-siRNAs displayed the most strikingly different patterns between explants and during dedifferentiation. According to their role in auxin responses and developmental cues, we conclude that sRNA-target regulation operating within the 15 DAP immature embryo explant provides key molecular hints as to why this stage is relevant for callus induction with successful proliferation and plant regeneration.
Project description:Long-read sequencing technologies have greatly facilitated assemblies of large eukaryotic genomes. In this paper, Oxford Nanopore sequences generated on a MinION sequencer are combined with Bionano Genomics Direct Label and Stain (DLS) optical maps to generate a chromosome-scale de novo assembly of the repeat-rich Sorghum bicolor Tx430 genome. The final assembly consists of 29 scaffolds, encompassing in most cases entire chromosome arms. It has a scaffold N50 of 33.28 Mbps and covers 90% of the expected genome length. A sequence accuracy of 99.85% is obtained after aligning the assembly against Illumina Tx430 data and 99.6% of the 34,211 public gene models align to the assembly. Comparisons of Tx430 and BTx623 DLS maps against the public BTx623 v3.0.1 genome assembly suggest substantial discrepancies whose origin remains to be determined. In summary, this study demonstrates that informative assemblies of complex plant genomes can be generated by combining nanopore sequencing with DLS optical maps.
Project description:Slow callus growth is a barrier to efficient genetic transformation in some gramineous species. A reformulation of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, with additional magnesium sulphate, potassium phosphate, copper sulphate, proline and glutamine, termed WPBS medium, has been developed which improves all aspects of in vitro culture when compared with MS based media. Embryogenic callus could be produced more rapidly from responsive genotypes of sixteen cereal, forage, model and energy grass species, whether using embryos, shoot tips or proliferated meristems as explants. Three species were not transformed due to contamination or unsuitable explant, but thirteen species were transformed using an identical Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, selection and regeneration protocol, including Avena sativa and Oryza sativa. Readily transformable species such as Lolium perenne, Brachypodium distachyon and Festuca arundinacea and recalcitrant species such as Lolium temulentum and Miscanthus sinensis were reliably transformed, while two new species Phalaris arundinacea and viviparous Deschampsia cespitosa were transformed at the first attempt. It is hoped that the use of WPBS media and this general transformation protocol may help to improve the efficiency of grass and cereal transformation.