Converging Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) and Ubiquitin Signaling: Improved Methodology Identifies Co-modified Target Proteins.
ABSTRACT: Post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) including small chemical groups and small proteins, belonging to the ubiquitin family, are essential for virtually all cellular processes. In addition to modification by a single PTM, proteins can be modified by a combination of different modifiers, which are able to influence each other. Because little is known about crosstalk among different ubiquitin family members, we developed an improved method enabling identification of co-modified proteins on a system-wide level using mass spectrometry. We focused on the role of crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin during proteasomal degradation. Using two complementary approaches, we identified 498 proteins to be significantly co-modified by SUMO and ubiquitin upon MG132 treatment. These targets included many enzymatic components of PTM machinery, involved in SUMOylation and ubiquitylation, but also phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation, revealing a highly complex interconnected network of crosstalk among different PTMs. In addition, various other biological processes were found to be significantly enriched within the group of co-modified proteins, including transcription, DNA repair and the cell cycle. Interestingly, the latter group mostly consisted of proteins involved in mitosis, including a subset of chromosome segregation regulators. We hypothesize that group modification by SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases regulates the stability of the identified subset of mitotic proteins, which ensures proper chromosome segregation. The mitotic regulators KIF23 and MIS18BP1 were verified to be co-modified by SUMO and ubiquitin on inhibition of the proteasome and subsequently identified as novel RNF4 targets. Both modifications on MIS18BP1 were observed to increase simultaneously during late mitosis, whereas the total protein level decreased immediately afterward. These results confirm the regulation of MIS18BP1 via SUMO-ubiquitin crosstalk during mitosis. Combined, our work highlights extensive crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin, providing a resource for further unraveling of SUMO-ubiquitin crosstalk.
Project description:Post translational protein modifications (PTMs) including small chemical groups and small proteins, belonging to the ubiquitin family, are essential for virtually all cellular processes. In addition to modification by a single PTM, proteins can be modified by a combination of different modifiers, which are able to influence each other. Since little is known about crosstalk between different ubiquitin family members, we developed an improved method enabling identification of co-modified proteins on a system-wide level using mass spectrometry. We focused on the role of crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin during proteasomal degradation. Using two complementary approaches, we identified 498 proteins to be significantly co-modified by SUMO and ubiquitin upon MG132 treatment. These targets included many enzymatic components of PTM machinery, involved in SUMOylation and ubiquitylation, but also phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation, revealing a highly complex interconnected network of crosstalk between different PTMs. In addition various other biological processes were found to be significantly enriched within the group of co-modified proteins, including transcription, DNA repair and the cell cycle. Interestingly, the latter group mostly consisted of proteins involved in mitosis, including a subset of chromosome segregation regulators. We hypothesize that group modification by SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases regulates the stability of the identified subset of mitotic proteins, which ensures proper chromosome segregation. The mitotic regulators KIF23 and MIS18BP1 were verified to be co-modified by SUMO and ubiquitin upon inhibition of the proteasome and subsequently identified as novel RNF4 targets. Both modifications on MIS18BP1 were observed to increase simultaneously during late mitosis, while the total protein level decreased immediately afterwards. These results confirm the regulation of MIS18BP1 via SUMO-ubiquitin crosstalk during mitosis. Combined, our work highlights extensive crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin, providing a resource for further unraveling of SUMO-ubiquitin crosstalk.
Project description:Post-translational modification (PTM) crosstalk is recognized as a major cell-regulatory mechanism, and studies of several proteins have validated the premise that PTMs work in concert. Previous work by our group investigated the potential PTM crosstalk on proteins in the EGFR-Ras-c-Fos axis by utilizing a comprehensive set of PTM reagents termed Signal-Seeker toolkits. In this study, these tools were used to investigate the potential PTM crosstalk that occurs in acetylated mitochondrial proteins in response to a mitochondrial stress-inducing agent hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Mitochondrial protein acetylation has been shown to participate in PTM crosstalk as exemplified by the regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex via kinase, phosphatase, acetyltransferase, and deacetylase activities. Changes in the acetylated state of mitochondrial proteins were investigated, in response to H?O?, using a novel anti acetyl lysine (Ac-K) antibody. Signal-Seeker PTM detection tools were used to validate the acetylation state of ten mitochondrial targets, as well as their endogenous acetylation state in response to H?O?. Importantly, the endogenous acetylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation 2/3, and tyrosine phosphorylation state of four target mitochondrial proteins were also investigated with the toolkit. Each of the four proteins had unique PTM profiles, but diverging acetylation and ubiquitin or SUMO 2/3 signals appeared to be a common theme. This proof-of-concept study identifies the Signal-Seeker toolkits as a useful tool to investigate potential PTM crosstalk.
Project description:Recent studies have indicated that different post-translational modifications (PTMs) synergistically orchestrate specific biological processes by crosstalks. However, the preference of the crosstalk among different PTMs and the evolutionary constraint on the PTM crosstalk need further dissections. In this study, the in situ crosstalk at the same positions among three tyrosine PTMs including sulfation, nitration and phosphorylation were systematically analyzed. The experimentally identified sulfation, nitration and phosphorylation sites were collected and integrated with reliable predictions to perform large-scale analyses of in situ crosstalks. From the results, we observed that the in situ crosstalk between sulfation and nitration is significantly under-represented, whereas both sulfation and nitration prefer to co-occupy with phosphorylation at same tyrosines. Further analyses suggested that sulfation and nitration preferentially co-occur with phosphorylation at specific positions in proteins, and participate in distinct biological processes and functions. More interestingly, the long-term evolutionary analysis indicated that multi-PTM targeting tyrosines didn't show any higher conservation than singly modified ones. Also, the analysis of human genetic variations demonstrated that there is no additional functional constraint on inherited disease, cancer or rare mutations of multiply modified tyrosines. Taken together, our systematic analyses provided a better understanding of the in situ crosstalk among PTMs.
Project description:SUMOylation and ubiquitination are two essential post translational modifications (PTMs) involved in the regulation of important biological processes in eukaryotic cells. Identification of ubiquitin (Ub) and small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-conjugated lysine residues in proteins is critical for understanding the role of ubiquitination and SUMOylation, but remains experimentally challenging. We have developed a powerful in vitro Ub/SUMO assay using a novel high density peptide array incorporated within a microfluidic device that allows rapid identification of ubiquitination and SUMOylation sites on target proteins. We performed the assay with a panel of human proteins and a microbial effector with known target sites for Ub or SUMO modifications, and determined that 80% of these proteins were modified by Ub or specific SUMO isoforms at the sites previously determined using conventional methods. Our results confirm the specificity for both SUMO isoform and individual target proteins at the peptide level. In summary, this microfluidic high density peptide array approach is a rapid screening assay to determine sites of Ub and SUMO modification of target substrates, which will provide new insights into the composition, selectivity and specificity of these PTM target sites.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination, the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins, has emerged as one of the most prevalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), regulating nearly every cellular pathway. The diversity of signaling associated with this particular PTM stems from the myriad ways in which a target protein can be modified by ubiquitin, e.g., monoubiquitin, multi-monoubiquitin, and polyubiquitin linkages. In this Review, we focus on developments in both enzymatic and chemical methods that engender ubiquitin with new chemical and physical properties. Moreover, we highlight how these methods have enabled studies directed toward (i) characterizing enzymes responsible for reversing the ubiquitin modification, (ii) understanding the influence of ubiquitin on protein function and crosstalk with other PTMs, and (iii) uncovering the impact of polyubiquitin chain linkage and length on downstream signaling events.
Project description:Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) downregulates eukaryotic gene activity by demethylating mono- and dimethylated Lys4 in histone H3. Elucidating the biochemical crosstalk of LSD1 with histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is essential for developing LSD1-targeted therapeutics in human cancers. We interrogated the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-driven regulation of LSD1 activity with semisynthetic nucleosomes containing site-specifically methylated and sumoylated histones. We discovered that nucleosomes containing sumoylated histone H4 (suH4), a modification associated with gene repression, stimulate LSD1 activity by a mechanism dependent upon the SUMO-interaction motif in CoREST. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of suH4 was spatially limited and did not extend to the demethylation of adjacent nonsumoylated nucleosomes. Thus, we have identified histone modification by SUMO as the first PTM that stimulates intranucleosomal demethylation by the developmentally critical LSD1-CoREST complex.
Project description:Proteomics studies have revealed that SUMOylation is a widely used post-translational modification (PTM) in eukaryotes. However, how SUMO E1/2/3 complexes use different SUMO isoforms and recognize substrates remains largely unknown. Using a human proteome microarray-based activity screen, we identified over 2500 proteins that undergo SUMO E3-dependent SUMOylation. We next constructed a SUMO isoform- and E3 ligase-dependent enzyme-substrate relationship network. Protein kinases were significantly enriched among SUMOylation substrates, suggesting crosstalk between phosphorylation and SUMOylation. Cell-based analyses of tyrosine kinase, PYK2, revealed that SUMOylation at four lysine residues promoted PYK2 autophosphorylation at tyrosine 402, which in turn enhanced its interaction with SRC and full activation of the SRC-PYK2 complex. SUMOylation on WT but not the 4KR mutant of PYK2 further elevated phosphorylation of the downstream components in the focal adhesion pathway, such as paxillin and Erk1/2, leading to significantly enhanced cell migration during wound healing. These studies illustrate how our SUMO E3 ligase-substrate network can be used to explore crosstalk between SUMOylation and other PTMs in many biological processes.
Project description:The structural, functional, and mechanistic characterization of several types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is well-documented. PTMs, however, may interact or interfere with one another when regulating protein function. Yet, characterization of the structural and functional signatures of their crosstalk has been hindered by the scarcity of data. To this end, we developed a unified sequence-based predictor of 23 types of PTM sites that, we believe, is a useful tool in guiding biological experiments and data interpretation. We then used experimentally determined and predicted PTM sites to investigate two particular cases of potential PTM crosstalk in eukaryotes. First, we identified proteins statistically enriched in multiple types of PTM sites and found that they show preferences toward intrinsically disordered regions as well as functional roles in transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and developmental processes. Second, we observed that target sites modified by more than one type of PTM, referred to as shared PTM sites, show even stronger preferences toward disordered regions than their single-PTM counterparts; we explain this by the need for these regions to accommodate multiple partners. Finally, we investigated the influence of single and shared PTMs on differential regulation of protein-protein interactions. We provide evidence that molecular recognition features (MoRFs) show significant preferences for PTM sites, particularly shared PTM sites, implicating PTMs in the modulation of this specific type of macromolecular recognition. We conclude that intrinsic disorder is a strong structural prerequisite for complex PTM-based regulation, particularly in context-dependent protein-protein interactions related to transcriptional and developmental processes.www.modpred.org.
Project description:Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) provide dynamic regulation of the cellular proteome, which is critical for both normal cell growth and for orchestrating rapid responses to environmental stresses, e.g. genotoxins. Key PTMs include ubiquitin, the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier SUMO, and phosphorylation. Recently, SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) were found to integrate signaling through the SUMO and ubiquitin pathways. In general, STUbLs are recruited to target proteins decorated with poly-SUMO chains to ubiquitinate them and drive either their extraction from protein complexes, and/or their degradation at the proteasome. In fission yeast, reducing or preventing the formation of SUMO chains can circumvent the essential and DNA damage response functions of STUbL. This result indicates that whilst some STUbL "targets" have been identified, the crucial function of STUbL is to antagonize SUMO chain formation. Herein, by screening for additional STUbL suppressors, we reveal crosstalk between the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A-Pab1B55 and the SUMO pathway. A hypomorphic Pab1B55 mutant not only suppresses STUbL dysfunction, but also mitigates the phenotypes associated with deletion of the SUMO protease Ulp2, or mutation of the STUbL cofactor Rad60. Together, our results reveal a novel role for PP2A-Pab1B55 in modulating SUMO pathway output, acting in parallel to known critical regulators of SUMOylation homeostasis. Given the broad evolutionary functional conservation of the PP2A and SUMO pathways, our results could be relevant to the ongoing attempts to therapeutically target these factors.
Project description:Sirtuins are protein deacetylases that play a protective role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), as well as many other diseases. Absence of sirtuins can lead to hyperacetylation of both nuclear and mitochondrial proteins leading to metabolic dysregulation. The protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to crosstalk among each other to bring about complex phenotypic outcomes. Various PTM types such as acetylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation, and so on, drive transcriptional regulation and metabolism, but such crosstalks are poorly understood. We integrated protein-protein interactions (PPI) and PTMs from several databases to integrate information on 1,251 sirtuin-interacting proteins, of which 544 are associated with cardiac diseases. Based on the ?100,000 PTM sites obtained for sirtuin interactors, we observed that the frequency of PTM sites (83 per protein), as well as PTM types (five per protein), is higher than the global average for human proteome. We found that ?60-70% PTM sites fall into ordered regions. Approximately 83% of the sirtuin interactors contained at least one competitive crosstalk (in situ) site, with half of the sites occurring in CVD-associated proteins. A large proportion of identified crosstalk sites were observed for acetylation and ubiquitination competition. We identified 614 proteins containing PTM hotspots (?5 PTM sites) and 133 proteins containing crosstalk hotspots (?3 crosstalk sites). We observed that a large proportion of disease-associated sequence variants were found in PTM motifs of CVD proteins. We identified seven proteins (TP53, LMNA, MAPT, ATP2A2, NCL, APEX1, and HIST1H3A) containing disease-associated variants in PTM and crosstalk hotspots. This is the first comprehensive bioinformatics analysis on sirtuin interactors with respect to PTMs and their crosstalks. This study forms a platform for generating interesting hypotheses that can be tested for a deeper mechanistic understanding gained or derived from big-data analytics.