Alcohol intake aggravates adipose browning and muscle atrophy in cancer-associated cachexia.
ABSTRACT: Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks. Alcohol intake upregulated ALDH1A1 expression and elevated retinoic acid (RA) content in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), which led to enhanced iWAT browning and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, accelerating fat loss. Moreover, alcohol increased muscle loss through augmenting muscle protein degradation, cell apoptosis and inflammation. In addition, alcohol reduced satellite cell density and impaired myogenesis in skeletal muscle. Taken together, alcohol aggravates cancer-associated cachexia at least partially through elevating adipose browning and muscle atrophy.
Project description:Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with elevated basal energy expenditure and loss of adipose and muscle tissues. It accompanies many chronic diseases including renal failure and cancer and is an important risk factor for mortality. Our recent work demonstrated that tumor-derived PTHrP drives adipose tissue browning and cachexia. Here, we show that PTH is involved in stimulating a thermogenic gene program in 5/6 nephrectomized mice that suffer from cachexia. Fat-specific knockout of PTHR blocked adipose browning and wasting. Surprisingly, loss of PTHR in fat tissue also preserved muscle mass and improved muscle strength. Similarly, PTHR knockout mice were resistant to cachexia driven by tumors. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP and PTH mediate wasting through a common mechanism involving PTHR, and there exists an unexpected crosstalk mechanism between wasting of fat tissue and skeletal muscle. Targeting the PTH/PTHrP pathway may have therapeutic uses in humans with cachexia.
Project description:Cachexia is a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle tissues that leads to profound weight loss and frailty. About half of all cancer patients suffer from cachexia, which impairs quality of life, limits cancer therapy and decreases survival. One key characteristic of cachexia is higher resting energy expenditure levels than in healthy individuals, which has been linked to greater thermogenesis by brown fat. How tumours induce brown fat activity is unknown. Here, using a Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia, we show that tumour-derived parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has an important role in wasting, through driving the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in adipose tissues. Neutralization of PTHrP in tumour-bearing mice blocked adipose tissue browning and the loss of muscle mass and strength. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP mediates energy wasting in fat tissues and contributes to the broader aspects of cancer cachexia. Thus, neutralization of PTHrP might hold promise for ameliorating cancer cachexia and improving patient survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Muscle wasting from chronic kidney disease (CKD) or from defective insulin signalling results in morbidity and, ultimately, mortality. We have identified an endogenous mediator of insulin resistance, signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?), which leads to cachexia in mice and is associated with cachexia in patients with CKD. METHODS:We assessed insulin signalling and mechanisms causing muscle atrophy plus white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mouse models of CKD or acute diabetes (streptozotocin treatment). We then examined these factors in mice with global knockout (KO) of SIRP? and sought mediators of metabolic responses in muscle and adipose tissues of mice with either muscle-specific or adipose tissue-specific KO of SIRP?. Metabolic responses were confirmed in primary cultures of adipose cells. RESULTS:In mice with CKD, SIRP? expression was increased in WAT (three-fold, P < 0.05), and this was associated with precursors of cachexia: 'pathologic browning', thermogenesis, and a two-fold activation of protein kinase A (P < 0.05 vs. control mice) plus loss of adipose tissue mass. In contrast, mice with SIRP? global KO and CKD or acute diabetes experienced improved insulin signalling and activation of pAkt plus 'physiologic browning' of WAT. These mice avoided losses of muscle and adipose tissues and experienced a 31% improvement in survival (P < 0.05) than did wild-type mice with CKD. In muscle-specific SIRP? KO mice with CKD, we uncovered that serum SIRP? levels (P < 0.05) were suppressed and were associated with improved insulin signalling both in skeletal muscles and in WAT. These changes were accompanied by physiologic WAT browning. However, in adipose-specific SIRP? KO mice with CKD, levels of serum SIRP? were increased over two-fold (P < 0.05), while muscle losses were minimally inhibited. Clinical implications of SIRP? signalling are suggested by our findings that include increased SIRP? expression in muscle and adipose tissues (P < 0.05 vs. healthy controls) plus higher SIRP? levels in the serum of patients with CKD (2.4-fold, P=0.000017 vs. healthy controls). CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that SIRP? plays an important role as an anti-insulin mediator regulating pathways to cachexia. In muscle-specific SIRP? KO, changes in SIRP? serum levels seem to improve insulin signalling in muscle and WAT, suggesting crosstalk between muscle and adipose tissue. Therefore, targeting SIRP? may prevent cachexia in patients with CKD or acute diabetes.
Project description:Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, adipose tissue (AT) remodeling and muscle wasting, is a malignant metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Here, we show that both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 were able to attenuate the main clinical markers of cachexia in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). AT remodelling was not found in LLC tumor-bearing (TB) TLR4-/- mice due to reduced macrophage infiltration and adipocyte atrophy. TLR4-/- mice were also resistant to cold-induced browning of subcutaneous AT (scAT). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 (Atorvastatin) reproduced the main protective effect against AT remodeling found in TLR4-/- TB mice. Moreover, the treatment was effective in prolonging survival and attenuating tumor mass growth when compared to non-treated-TB animals. Furthermore, tumor-induced elevation of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines was similarly abolished in both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4. These data suggest that TLR4 is a critical mediator and a promising target for novel anti-cachexia therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cachexia induced by cancer is a systemic wasting syndrome and it accompanies continuous body weight loss with the exhaustion of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cancer cachexia is not only a problem in itself, but it also reduces the effectiveness of treatments and deteriorates quality of life. However, effective treatments have not been found yet. Although Arctii Fructus (AF) has been studied about several pharmacological effects, there were no reports on its use in cancer cachexia. METHODS:To induce cancer cachexia in mice, we inoculated CT-26 cells to BALB/c mice through subcutaneous injection and intraperitoneal injection. To mimic cancer cachexia in vitro, we used conditioned media (CM), which was CT-26 colon cancer cells cultured medium. RESULTS:In in vivo experiments, AF suppressed expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and atrophy of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. As a result, the administration of AF decreased mortality by preventing weight loss. In adipose tissue, AF decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by restoring AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In in vitro model, CM increased muscle degradation factors and decreased adipocytes differentiation factors. However, these tendencies were ameliorated by AF treatment in C2C12 myoblasts and 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSION:Taken together, our study demonstrated that AF could be a therapeutic supplement for patients suffering from cancer cachexia.
Project description:Approximately one-third of cancer deaths are caused by cachexia, a severe form of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue wasting that affects men more than women. The heart also undergoes atrophy in cancer patients, but the mechanisms and the basis for apparent sex differences are unclear. In a mouse colon-adenocarcinoma model, cancer causes a loss of cardiac mass due to a decrease in cardiac myocyte size that is associated with reduced levels of all sarcomeric proteins. Unlike skeletal muscle cachexia, atrophic hearts do not upregulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system or its activity but increase autophagy. Thus, cancer causes cardiac atrophy by a mechanism distinct from that in skeletal muscle. Male tumor-bearing mice have a more severe phenotype than females, including greater cardiac mass loss and mortality, a more robust pro-inflammatory response to the tumor, and greater cardiac autophagy. In females, estrogen protects against cancer-induced cardiac atrophy and body weight loss by signaling through its receptor. Sex differences in cardiac atrophy need to be considered during the treatment of patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy to prevent exacerbation of cardiac dysfunction.
Project description:Cancer cachexia is a devastating metabolic syndrome characterized by systemic inflammation and massive muscle and adipose tissue wasting. Although it is responsible for approximately one-third of cancer deaths, no effective therapies are available and the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We previously identified the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 as an epigenetic regulator of muscle mass. Here we show that the pan-BET inhibitor (+)-JQ1 protects tumor-bearing mice from body weight loss and muscle and adipose tissue wasting. Remarkably, in C26-tumor-bearing mice (+)-JQ1 administration dramatically prolongs survival, without directly affecting tumor growth. By ChIP-seq and ChIP analyses, we unveil that BET proteins directly promote the muscle atrophy program during cachexia. In addition, BET proteins are required to coordinate an IL6-dependent AMPK nuclear signaling pathway converging on FoxO3 transcription factor. Overall, these findings indicate that BET proteins may represent a promising therapeutic target in the management of cancer cachexia.
Project description:Loss of body weight, especially loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle weight, characterizes cancer-associated cachexia (CAC). Clinically, therapeutic options for CAC are limited due to the complicated signaling between cancer and other organs. Recent research advances show that adipose tissues play a critical role during thermogenesis, glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism. Understanding the adipocyte lipolysis, the formation of beige adipocytes, and the activation of brown adipocytes is vital for novel therapies for metabolic syndromes like CAC. The system-level crosstalk between adipose tissue and other organs involves adipocyte lipolysis, white adipose tissue browning, and secreted factors and metabolites. Novel CAC animal models and accumulating molecular signaling knowledge have provided mechanisms that may ultimately be translated into future therapeutic possibilities that benefit CAC patients. This mini review discusses the role of adipose tissue in CAC development, mechanism, and therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer cachexia is a poorly understood metabolic consequence of cancer. During cachexia, different adipose depots demonstrate differential wasting rates. Animal models suggest adipose tissue may be a key driver of muscle wasting through fat-muscle crosstalk, but human studies in this area are lacking. We performed global gene expression profiling of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose from weight stable and cachectic cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS:Cachexia was defined as >2% weight loss plus low computed tomography-muscularity. Biopsies of SAT and VAT were taken from patients undergoing resection for oesophago-gastric cancer, and healthy controls (n = 16 and 8 respectively). RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed. cDNA was hybridised to the Affymetrix Clariom S microarray and data analysed using R/Bioconductor. Differential expression of genes was assessed using empirical Bayes and moderated-t-statistic approaches. Category enrichment analysis was used with a tissue-specific background to examine the biological context of differentially expressed genes. Selected differentially regulated genes were validated by qPCR. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for intelectin-1 was performed on all VAT samples. The previously-described cohort plus 12 additional patients from each group also had plasma I = intelectin-1 ELISA carried out. RESULTS:In VAT vs. SAT comparisons, there were 2101, 1722, and 1659 significantly regulated genes in the cachectic, weight stable, and control groups, respectively. There were 2200 significantly regulated genes from VAT in cachectic patients compared with controls. Genes involving inflammation were enriched in cancer and control VAT vs. SAT, although different genes contributed to enrichment in each group. Energy metabolism, fat browning (e.g. uncoupling protein 1), and adipogenesis genes were down-regulated in cancer VAT (P = 0.043, P = 5.4 × 10-6 and P = 1 × 10-6 respectively). The gene showing the largest difference in expression was ITLN1, the gene that encodes for intelectin-1 (false discovery rate-corrected P = 0.0001), a novel adipocytokine associated with weight loss in other contexts. CONCLUSIONS:SAT and VAT have unique gene expression signatures in cancer and cachexia. VAT is metabolically active in cancer, and intelectin-1 may be a target for therapeutic manipulation. VAT may play a fundamental role in cachexia, but the down-regulation of energy metabolism genes implies a limited role for fat browning in cachectic patients, in contrast to pre-clinical models.
Project description:Mice lacking perilipin-2 (Plin2-null) are resistant to obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver induced by Western or high-fat diets. In the current study, we found that, compared with WT mice on Western diet, Plin2-null adipose tissue was more insulin sensitive and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT) exhibited profound browning and robust induction of thermogenic and carbohydrate-responsive genetic programs at room temperature. Surprisingly, these Plin2-null responses correlated with the content of simple carbohydrates, rather than fat, in the diet, and were independent of adipose Plin2 expression. To define Plin2 and sugar effects on adipose browning, WT and Plin2-null mice were placed on chow diets containing 20% sucrose in their drinking water for 6 weeks. Compared with WT mice, iWAT of Plin2-null mice exhibited pronounced browning and striking increases in the expression of thermogenic and insulin-responsive genes on this diet. Significantly, Plin2-null iWAT browning was associated with reduced sucrose intake and elevated serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 levels, which correlated with greatly enhanced hepatic FGF21 production. These data identify Plin2 actions as novel mediators of sugar-induced adipose browning through indirect effects of hepatic FGF21 expression, and suggest that adipose browning mechanisms may contribute to Plin2-null resistance to obesity.