Gene expression profiling in the intestinal mucosa of obese rats administered probiotic bacteria.
ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the administration of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 modulate the expression of genes in the intestinal mucosa of obese Zucker rats. Forty-eight Zucker-Leprfa/fa and 16 Zucker lean Lepr+/fa rats were used. Eight Zucker lean Lepr+/fa and 8 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were euthanized as a reference. The remaining 40 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were then assigned to receive 1010 colony forming units (CFU) of one of the three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo by oral administration for 30 days. An additional group of 8 Zucker lean Lepr+/fa rats received the placebo for 30 days. Over 27,000 rat genes were studied using a DNA array. Four animals per group were used. Total RNA was extracted from intestinal mucosa and cDNA was synthesized, fragmented and labeled. Labeled cDNA was hybridized using GeneChip kits, and the latter were scanned. Intensity values of each probe were processed and normalized to obtain an individual value for each set of probes.
Project description:We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-? levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.
Project description:We have previously reported that administration of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 to obese Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats attenuates liver steatosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The goal of the present work was to investigate the modulation of gene expression in intestinal mucosa samples of obese Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats fed the probiotic strains using a DNA microarray and postgenomic techniques. We also measured secretory IgA content in the gut and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) in serum. Expression of three genes (Adamdec1, Ednrb and Ptgs1/Cox1) was up-regulated in the intestinal mucosa of the obese rats compared with that in the rats when they were still lean. Probiotic administration down-regulated expression of Adamdec1 and Ednrb at the mRNA and protein levels and that of Ptgs1/Cox1 at the mRNA level, and this effect was in part mediated by a decrease in both macrophage and dendritic cell populations. Probiotic treatment also increased secretory IgA content and diminished the LBP concentration. Based on results reported in this work and else where, we propose a possible mechanism of action for these bacterial strains.
Project description:Obesity is a chronic, complex and multifactorial disease that has reached pandemia levels and is becoming a serious health problem. Intestinal microbiota is considered a main factor that affects body weight and fat mass, which points toward a critical role in the development of obesity. In this sense, probiotic bacteria might modulate the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus and B. breve feeding on the intestinal mucosa gene expression in a genetic animal model of obesity. We used microarrays to investigate the global gene expression on intestinal mucosa after the treatment with probiotic strains. Overall design: Forty-eight Zucker-Leprfa/fa and 16 Zucker-lean+/fa male rats weighing 168-180 g were used. After 5 days of adaptation, 8 Zucker-lean+/fa (lean reference) and 8 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats (obese reference) were euthanized as a reference. The remaining 40 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were then randomly assigned to receive 10^10 CFUs of one of the three probiotic strains (probiotic strains groups), or a placebo (obese placebo) by oral administration each day for 30 days. An additional group of 8 Zucker-lean+/fa rats (control placebo) received placebo. Samples of intestinal mucosa were taken and RNA isolated to carry out a differential gene expression study. with an Affymetrix microarray (Rat Gene 1.1 ST Array Plate).
Project description:The colon microbiota plays a crucial role in human gastrointestinal health. Current attempts to manipulate the colon microbiota composition are aimed at finding remedies for various diseases. We have recently described the immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, and Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035). The goal of the present study was to analyze the compositions of the fecal microbiota of healthy adults who received one of these strains using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Bacteroides was the most abundant genus in the groups that received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 or L. paracasei CNCM I-4034. The Shannon indices were significantly increased in these two groups. Our results also revealed a significant increase in the Lactobacillus genus after the intervention with L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The initially different colon microbiota became homogeneous in the subjects who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. While some orders that were initially present disappeared after the administration of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, other orders, such as Sphingobacteriales, Nitrospirales, Desulfobacterales, Thiotrichales, and Synergistetes, were detected after the intervention. In summary, our results show that the intake of these three bacterial strains induced changes in the colon microbiota.
Project description:UNLABELLED:We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers' feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543.
Project description:The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats.
Project description:The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulator of metabolism and is implicated in pathological conditions such as obesity and diabetes. We aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in obesity. A new animal model of metabolic syndrome (MetS), named DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rats was established previously in our laboratory. In this study, we used this model to evaluate the effects of mTOR inhibition on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and glucose metabolism. DS/obese rats were treated with the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, (0.83 mg/kg per day, per os) for 4 weeks at 9 weeks of age. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr+ /Lepr+ or DS/lean) littermates of DS/obese rats were used as controls. Treatment with everolimus ameliorated hypertension, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis, and LV diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats, but had no effect on these parameters in DS/lean rats. Treatment with everolimus reduced Akt Thr308 phosphorylation in the heart of DS/obese rats. It also alleviated obesity, hyperphagia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and adipose tissue inflammation in DS/obese rats. Everolimus treatment exacerbated glucose intolerance, but did not affect Akt phosphorylation levels in the fat or liver in these rats. Pancreatic ?-cell mass was increased in DS/obese rats compared with that in DS/lean rats and this effect was attenuated by everolimus. Activation of mTOR signaling contributes to the pathophysiology of MetS and its associated complications. And mTOR inhibition with everolimus ameliorated obesity as well as cardiac and adipose tissue pathology, but exacerbated glucose metabolism in rats with MetS.
Project description:The triacylglycerol lowering effect of fatty fish and fish oils is well recognized, however we recently showed that salmon intake resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol concentration in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Since effects of salmon fillet have never before been studied in rats, the objective of this study was to compare effects of salmon intake on serum lipids in hyperlipidemic obese rats with normolipidemic lean rats. Zucker fa/fa rats and Long-Evans rats were fed diets with 25% protein from baked salmon fillet and 75% protein from casein, or casein as sole protein source (control group) for four weeks. Serum triacylglycerol concentration was higher, and cholesterol and apolipoproteinB-100 concentrations were lower in Zucker fa/fa rats fed Baked Salmon Diet compared to Zucker fa/fa rats fed Control Diet, with no differences in serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol and apolipoproteinB-100 between Long-Evans rats fed Baked Salmon Diet or Control Diet. Serum triacylglycerol fatty acid composition showed greater similarities to dietary fatty acids in Zucker fa/fa rats than in Long-Evans rats. To conclude, intake of baked salmon fillet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol concentration and lower serum cholesterol concentration in hyperlipidemic obese Zucker fa/fa rats but did not affect serum lipids in normolipidemic lean Long-Evans rats.
Project description:The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in these animals. During maintenance of this strain by mating fa/fa males and fa/+ heterozygous females, we further identified fa/fa male rats exhibiting diabetes. We then performed selective breeding using the fa/fa male rats that exhibited relatively high blood glucose levels at 10 weeks of age, resulting in establishment of a diabetic strain that we designated Hos:ZFDM-Lepr(fa) (ZFDM). These fa/fa male rats developed diabetes as early as 10 weeks of age, reaching 100% incidence by 21 weeks of age, while none of the fa/+ male rats developed diabetes. The phenotypic characteristics of this diabetic strain are distinct from those of normoglycemic ZF rats. ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D.
Project description:1. The effect of insulin (0.5, 10 and 50 munits/ml of perfusate) on glucose uptake and disposal in skeletal muscle was studied in the isolated perfused hindquarter of obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats and Osborne-Mendel rats. 2. A concentration of 0.5 munit of insulin/ml induced a significant increase in glucose uptake (approx. 2.5 mumol/min per 30 g of muscle) in lean Zucker rats and in Osborne-Mendel rats, and 10 munits of insulin/ml caused a further increase to approx. 6 mumol/min per 30 g of muscle; but 50 munits of insulin/ml had no additional stimulatory effect. In contrast, in obese Zucker rats only 10 and 50 munits of insulin/ml had a stimulatory effect on glucose uptake, the magnitude of which was decreased by 50-70% when compared with either lean control group. Since under no experimental condition tested was an accumulation of free glucose in muscle-cell water observed, the data suggest an impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose transport across the muscle-cell membrane in obese Zucker rats. 3. The intracellular disposal of glucose in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats was also insulin-insensitive: even at insulin concentrations that clearly stimulated glucose uptake, no effect of insulin on lactate oxidation (nor an inhibitory effect on alanine release) was observed; [14C]glucose incorporation into skeletal-muscle lipids was stimulated by 50 munits of insulin/ml, but the rate was still only 10% of that observed in lean Zucker rats. 4. The data indicate that the skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats is insulin-resistant with respect to both glucose-transport mechanisms and intracellular pathways of glucose metabolism, such as lactate oxidation. The excessive degree of insulin-insensitivity in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats may represent a causal factor in the development of the glucose intolerance in this species.