Emergence of Resistance Mutations in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Against Fluoroquinolones.
ABSTRACT: Background:Little is known about the evolutionary process and emergence time of resistance mutations to fluoroquinolone in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Methods:We analyzed S. Typhi isolates collected from returned travelers between 2001 and 2016. Based on ciprofloxacin susceptibility, isolates were categorized as highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ? 4 ?g/mL [CIPHR]), resistant (MIC = 1-2 ?g/mL [CIPR]), intermediate susceptible (MIC = 0.12-0.5 ?g/mL [CIPI]), and susceptible (MIC ? 0.06 ?g/mL [CIPS]). Results:A total of 107 isolates (33 CIPHR, 14 CIPR, 30 CIPI, and 30 CIPS) were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing; 2461 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. CIPS had no mutations in the gyrA or parC genes, while each CIPI had 1 of 3 single mutations in gyrA (encoding Ser83Phe [63.3%], Ser83Tyr [33.3%], or Asp87Asn [3.3%]). CIPHR had the same 3 mutations: 2 SNPs in gyrA (encoding Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn) and a third in parC (encoding Ser80Ile). CIPHR shared a common ancestor with CIPR and CIPI isolates harboring a single mutation in gyrA encoding Ser83Phe, suggesting that CIPHR emerged 16 to 23 years ago. Conclusions:Three SNPs-2 in gyrA and 1 in parC-are present in S. Typhi strains highly resistant to fluoroquinolone, which were found to have evolved in 1993-2000, approximately 10 years after the beginning of the ciprofloxacin era. Highly resistant strains with survival advantages arose from strains harboring a single mutation in gyrA encoding Ser83Phe. Judicious use of fluoroquinolones is warranted to prevent acceleration of such resistance mechanisms in the future.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To establish the relative importance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with non-classical quinolone resistance. METHODS:Eight hundred and ninety-one isolates of S. Typhi, isolated between 2004 and 2011, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility determination using disc diffusion and E-test. The mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance were studied in a sub-set of the NALS (nalidixic acid susceptible) isolates by wave nucleic acid fragment analysis of PCR products from gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE and from the plasmid borne determinants: qnrA,B,S; aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA. To assess genetic relatedness multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis was carried out using five loci. RESULTS:Eighty isolates with a nalidixic acid MIC of <32 mg/L (NALS) and a ciprofloxacin MIC of >0.064 mg/L CIPI (ciprofloxacin reduced susceptibility) were found. In 36 NALS CIPI isolates two distinct genotypes were identified when compared with 16 susceptible controls: Group B (n = 34), mutation in gyrB at codon 464, NAL MIC of 3-12 mg/L and CIP MIC of 0.064-0.5 mg/L.; and Group C, mutation in gyrA at codon 83 (n = 2) NAL MIC of 16 mg/L and CIP MIC of 0.25-0.38 mg/L. Group B isolates were found in different strain backgrounds as defined by MLVA. CONCLUSION:The use of nalidixic acid to screen for reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in S. Typhi misses CIPI-NALS isolates, an established phenotype in India.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Wide use of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin has often led to increased resistance. The resistance rate to these two agents varies in different clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Mutations of GyrA within the quinolone resistance-determining regions have been found to be the main mechanism for quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. It has been shown that only some of the mutations in the gyrA gene identified from clinical sources were involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. Whether different patterns of gyrA mutation are related to antimicrobial resistance against ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin is unclear. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were determined by the agar dilution method followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA to identify all the mutation types. The correlation between fluoroquinolone resistance and the individual mutation type was analyzed. RESULTS: Resistance differences between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were found in 327 isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli in Harbin, China and in the isolates reported in PubMed publications. GyrA mutations were found in both susceptible and resistant isolates. For the isolates with QRDR mutations, the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were also statistically different. Among the 14 patterns of alterations, two single mutations (Ser83Tyr and Ser83Ile), and three double mutations (Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn, Ser83Leu+Asp87Tyr and Ser83Phe+Asp87Asn) were associated with both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance. Two single mutations (Ser83Phe and Ser83Leu) were related with ciprofloxacin resistance but not to levofloxacin. Resistance difference between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in isolates harboring mutation Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn were of statistical significance among all Enterobacteriaceae (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Resistance rate to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were statistically different among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae harboring GyrA mutations. Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn may account for the antimicrobial resistance difference between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the prevalence and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella species isolated in Bangladesh and to compare with similar strains isolated in China.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 3789 Shigella isolates collected from Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of icddr,b, during 2004-2010 were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility. Analysis of plasmids, plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes, PFGE, and sequencing of genes of the quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) were conducted in representative strains isolated in Bangladesh and compared with strains isolated in Zhengding, China. In addition, the role of efflux-pump was studied by using the efflux-pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP).<h4>Results</h4>Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Shigella species increased from 0% in 2004 to 44% in 2010 and S. flexneri was the predominant species. Of Shigella spp, ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) strains were mostly found among S. flexneri (8.3%), followed by S. sonnei (1.5%). Within S. flexneri (n?=?2181), 14.5% were resistance to ciprofloxacin of which serotype 2a was predominant (96%). MIC of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin were 6-32 mg/L, 8-32 mg/L, and 8-24 mg/L, respectively in S. flexneri 2a isolates. Sequencing of QRDR genes of resistant isolates showed double mutations in gyrA gene (Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn/Gly) and single mutation in parC gene (Ser80Ile). A difference in amino acid substitution at position 87 was found between strains isolated in Bangladesh (Asp87Asn) and China (Asp87Gly) except for one. A novel mutation at position 211 (His?Tyr) in gyrA gene was detected only in the Bangladeshi strains. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was increased by the presence of CCCP indicating the involvement of energy dependent active efflux pumps. A single PFGE type was found in isolates from Bangladesh and China suggesting their genetic relatedness.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella undermines a major challenge in current treatment strategies which needs to be followed up by using empirical therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Spontaneous quinolone-resistant mutants obtained from Salmonella typhimurium Su694 were screened for mutations by direct DNA sequencing of an amplified PCR gyrA fragment. Substitutions Ser-83-->Phe (Ser83Phe), Ser83Tyr, Asp87Tyr, and Asp87Asn and double mutation Ala67Pro-Gly81Ser, which resulted in decreased sensitivities to ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, were found. The levels of resistance to quinolones for each mutant were determined.
Project description:The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with resistance (R) to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCsR) represents a public health threat of untreatable gonococcal infections. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and molecular mechanisms of ESCR of Shanghai N. gonorrhoeae isolates. A total of 366 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected in 2017 in Shanghai. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFM), azithromycin (AZM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), spectinomycin, penicillin, and tetracycline was determined using the agar dilution method. A subset of 124 isolates was subjected to phylogenetic analysis for nine antimicrobial resistance-associated genes, i.e., penA, porB, ponA, mtrR, 23S rRNA, gyrA, parC, 16S rRNA, and rpsE. Approximately 20.0% of the isolates exhibited CFMR [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >0.125 mg/L], and 5.5% were CROR (MIC > 0.125 mg/L). In total, 72.7% of ESCR isolates were clonal and associated with mosaic penA 10 and 60 alleles. Non-mosaic penA 18 allele and substitutions of PenA A501T, G542S, and PorB1b G213S/Y were observed in non-clonal ESCR. Approximately 6.8% of the isolates showed AZM MIC above the epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF, 1 mg/L), were associated with 23S rRNA A2059G mutation, and did not exhibit clonal distribution. Almost all isolates were CIPR (resistance to ciprofloxacin) and associated with GyrA-91/92 and ParC-85/86/87/88/89/91 alterations. Isolates with ParC S88P substitution were clustered into the ESCR clade. The Shanghai isolates exhibited a high level of ESCR and distinct resistant patterns.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are endemic in China. The objective of this investigation was to determine the molecular features of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) from blood isolates in Shenzhen, China. RESULTS: Twenty-five S. typhi and 66 S. paratyphi were isolated from 91 bacteremic patients between 2002 and 2007 at a hospital in Shenzhen, Southern China. Fifty-two percent (13/25) of S. typhi and 95.3% (61/64) of S. paratyphi A were resistant to nalidixic acid. Sixty-seven isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella (NARS) showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 0.125-1 microg/mL). All 75 NARS isolates had a single substitution in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA (Ser83-->Phe/Pro/Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly/Asn), and 90.7% of these isolates carried the substitution Ser83Phe in GyrA. No mutation was found in the QRDR of gyrB, parC, or parE. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes including qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected in any isolate. Twenty-two distinct pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed among S. typhi. Sixty-four isolates of S. paratyphi A belonged to one clone. Eighty-seven investigated inpatients were infected in the community. Six patients infected by S. paratyphi A had a travel history before infection. CONCLUSIONS: Nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and S. paratyphi A blood isolates were highly prevalent in Shenzhen, China. PFGE showed the variable genetic diversity of nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and limited genetic diversity of nalidixic acid -resistant S. paratyphi A.
Project description:A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 microg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or =0.06 microg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57-->Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 micro g/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe, Ser83-->Tyr, Asp87-->Asn, Asp87-->Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57-->Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80-->Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 microg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458-->Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80-->Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser or Ser80-->Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
Project description:BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (hereafter S. Typhi) is an important public health problem in India. There has been an increase in the number of reported clinical failures to ciprofloxacin treatment but the data on possible mechanism of failure are limited. One mechanism that has been widely reported and found associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, is the mutations in target genes in QRDR (quinolone resistance determining region). It is hypothesized that mutations in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV result in therapeutic failure under selective pressure of antibiotic while the patient is on treatment. We undertook in vitro sequential selection studies to expose the clinical isolates of S. Typhi to different concentration of ciprofloxacin to study the role of antibiotic selective pressure in the development of mutations in QRDR. METHODS: Total 26 clinical isolates were divided in to two parts: part I included six isolates obtained from three patients with relapse of enteric fever and part II included 20 isolates with different ciprofloxacin MIC levels. For in vitro induction of mutation experiment, five S. Typhi isolates were selected which included three NAS (nalidixic acid sensitive) and 2 NAR (nalidixic acid resistant) S. Typhi. These isolates were grown under increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin and mutations acquired in QRDR of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) were investigated by sequencing. RESULTS: For the isolates included in the part I of the study, it was found that the MIC to ciprofloxacin increased in the isolates obtained during the relapse of enteric fever as compare to the first isolate. All isolates had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 without additional mutation in the second isolate. In the second part of the study, the nine isolates with varying MICs to ciprofloxacin also had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 and another six had triple mutations, two mutations in gyrA gene (at S83 and D87) and one mutation in parC gene (at S80). In in vitro induction of mutation experiment, all mutated isolates showed triple mutation (two mutation in gyrA and one in parC gene) while no mutations were found in wild isolates. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Upon exposure to the step-wise increased concentration of ciprofloxacin, isolates become more tolerant to the ciprofloxacin and showed 2-4 fold higher MICs without new mutation after 8 ?g/ml. So the accumulation of mutations under continuous ciprofloxacin pressure and tolerance of the mutant isolates led to the clinical failure. These results also suggested that there could be another mechanism responsible for resistance.
Project description:Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, grows fastidiously only in cell cultures without plaque production, and only three strains have been passaged. The formation of bacterial clumps in the supernatant precludes enumeration of viable bacteria and MIC determination. We evaluated the bacteriostatic effects of fluoroquinolones against two T. whipplei isolates by measuring the inhibition of the DNA copy number increase by real-time quantitative PCR. The analysis of the T. whipplei genome database allowed the identification not only of the gyrA gene but also the parC gene encoding the alpha subunit of the natural fluoroquinolone targets DNA gyrase (GyrA) and topoisomerase IV (ParC), respectively. The parC gene was detected in actinobacteria for the first time. High ciprofloxacin MICs (4 and 8 micro g/ml) were correlated with the presence in T. whipplei GyrA and ParC sequences with an alanine residue at positions 83 and 80 (Escherichia coli numbering), respectively. Alanines at these positions have previously been associated with increased fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and mycobacteria. However, the MIC of levofloxacin was low (0.25 micro g/ml). The same T. whipplei GyrA and ParC sequences were found in two other cultured strains and in nine uncultured tissue samples from Whipple's disease patients, allowing one to speculate that T. whipplei is naturally relatively resistant to fluoroquinolones.
Project description:We characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, plasmid analysis, incompatibility grouping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI- and SpeI-digested DNA 102 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi) isolated from recent outbreaks of typhoid in three different parts of Kenya. Only 13.7% were fully susceptible, whereas another 82.4% were resistant to each of the five commonly available drugs: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline (MICs of >256 microg/ml); streptomycin (MIC, >1,024 microg/ml); and cotrimoxazole (MIC of >32 microg/ml). Resistance to these antibiotics was encoded on a 110-kb self-transferable plasmid of IncHI1 incompatibility group. The MICs of nalidixic acid (MIC, 8 to 16 micro g/ml) and ciprofloxacin (MIC of 0.25 to 0.38 micro g/ml) for 41.7% of the 102 serovar Typhi isolates were 5- and 10-fold higher, respectively, than for sensitive strains. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the genes coding for gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parE and parC) within the quinolone resistance-determining region revealed that the increase in the MICs of the quinolones had not resulted from any significant mutation. Analysis of genomic DNA from both antimicrobial agent-sensitive and multidrug-resistant serovar Typhi by PFGE identified two distinct subtypes that were in circulation in the three different parts of Kenya. As the prevalence of multidrug-resistant serovar Typhi increases, newer, more expensive, and less readily available antimicrobial agents will be required for the treatment of typhoid in Kenya.