PEPD is a pivotal regulator of p53 tumor suppressor.
ABSTRACT: p53 tumor suppressor responds to various cellular stresses and regulates cell fate. Here, we show that peptidase D (PEPD) binds and suppresses over half of nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 under normal conditions, independent of its enzymatic activity. Eliminating PEPD causes cell death and tumor regression due to p53 activation. PEPD binds to the proline-rich domain in p53, which inhibits phosphorylation of nuclear p53 and MDM2-mediated mitochondrial translocation of nuclear and cytoplasmic p53. However, the PEPD-p53 complex is critical for p53 response to stress, as stress signals doxorubicin and H2O2 each must free p53 from PEPD in order to achieve robust p53 activation, which is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Thus, PEPD stores p53 for the stress response, but this also renders cells dependent on PEPD for survival, as it suppresses p53. This finding provides further understanding of p53 regulation and may have significant implications for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global health concern largely due to its ability to persist for extended periods within the granuloma of the host. While residing within the granuloma, the tubercle bacilli are likely to be exposed to stress that can result in formation of aberrant proteins with altered structures. Bacteria encode stress responsive determinants such as proteases and chaperones to deal with misfolded or unfolded proteins. pepD encodes an HtrA-like serine protease and is thought to process proteins altered following exposure of M. tuberculosis to extra-cytoplasmic stress. PepD functions both as a protease and chaperone in vitro, and is required for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence in vivo. pepD is directly regulated by the stress-responsive two-component signal transduction system MprAB and indirectly by extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor SigE. Loss of PepD also impacts expression of other stress-responsive determinants in M. tuberculosis. To further understand the role of PepD in stress adaptation by M. tuberculosis, a proteomics approach was taken to identify binding proteins and possible substrates of this protein. Using subcellular fractionation, the cellular localization of wild-type and PepD variants was determined. Purified fractions as well as whole cell lysates from Mycobacterium smegmatis or M. tuberculosis strains expressing a catalytically compromised PepD variant were immunoprecipitated for PepD and subjected to LC-MS/MS analyses. Using this strategy, the 35-kDa antigen encoding a homolog of the PspA phage shock protein was identified as a predominant binding partner and substrate of PepD. We postulate that proteolytic cleavage of the 35-kDa antigen by PepD helps maintain cell wall homeostasis in Mycobacterium and regulates specific stress response pathways during periods of extracytoplasmic stress.
Project description:Stability and localization of p53 is essential for its tumor suppressor function. Ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is the major regulatory mechanism of p53, which induces p53 nuclear export and degradation. However, it is unclear whether ubiquitinated cytoplasmic p53 can be recycled. Here, we report that USP10, a cytoplasmic ubiquitin-specific protease, deubiquitinates p53, reversing Mdm2-induced p53 nuclear export and degradation. After DNA damage, USP10 is stabilized, and a fraction of USP10 translocates to the nucleus to activate p53. The translocation and stabilization of USP10 is regulated by ATM -mediated phosphorylation of USP10 at Thr42 and Ser337. Finally, USP10 suppresses tumor cell growth in cells with wild-type p53, with USP10 expression downregulated in a high percentage of clear cell carcinomas, known to have few p53 mutations. These findings reveal USP10 to be a novel regulator of p53, providing an alternative mechanism of p53 inhibition in cancers with wild-type p53.
Project description:Currently, one-third of the world's population is believed to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes latent infection remain largely undefined. mprAB encodes a two-component signal transduction system required by M. tuberculosis for aspects of persistent infection. MprAB regulates a large and diverse group of genetic determinants in response to membrane stress, including the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor sigE and the HtrA-like serine protease pepD. Recent studies have demonstrated that PepD functions as both a protease and chaperone in vitro. In addition, inactivation of pepD alters the virulence of M. tuberculosis in a mouse model system of infection. Here, we demonstrate that PepD plays an important role in the stress response network of Mycobacterium mediated through MprAB and SigE. In particular, we demonstrate that the protease activity of PepD requires the PDZ domain, in addition to the catalytic serine at position 317. pepD expression initiates from at least three promoters in M. tuberculosis, including one that is regulated by SigE and is located upstream of the mprA coding sequence. Deletion of pepD or mprAB in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis alters the stress response phenotypes of these strains, including increasing sensitivity to SDS and cell wall antibiotics and upregulating the expression of stress-responsive determinants, including sigE. Taking these data together, we hypothesize that PepD utilizes its PDZ domain to recognize and process misfolded proteins at the cell membrane, leading to activation of the MprAB and SigE signaling pathways and subsequent establishment of a positive feedback loop that facilitates bacterial adaptation.
Project description:The transcription factor p53 regulates the expression of genes crucial for biological processes such as cell proliferation, metabolism, cell repair, senescence and apoptosis. Activation of p53 also suppresses neoplastic transformations, thereby inhibiting the growth of mutated and/or damaged cells. p53-binding proteins, such as mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), inhibit p53 activation and thus regulate p53-mediated stress responses. Here, we found that long glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (L-GILZ), a recently identified isoform of GILZ, activates p53 and that the overexpression of L-GILZ in p53(+/+) HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells suppresses the growth of xenografts in mice. In the presence of both p53 and MDM2, L-GILZ binds preferentially to MDM2 and interferes with p53/MDM2 complex formation, making p53 available for downstream gene activation. Consistent with this finding, L-GILZ induced p21 and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression only in p53(+/+) cells, while L-GILZ silencing reversed the anti-proliferative activity of dexamethasone as well as expression of p53, p21 and PUMA. Furthermore, L-GILZ stabilizes p53 proteins by decreasing p53 ubiquitination and increasing MDM2 ubiquitination. These findings reveal L-GILZ as a regulator of p53 and a candidate for new therapeutic anti-cancer strategies for tumors associated with p53 deregulation.
Project description:The p53 tumor suppressor protein is the most well studied as a regulator of transcription in the nucleus, where it exists primarily as a tetramer. However, there are other oligomeric states of p53 that are relevant to its regulation and activities. In unstressed cells, p53 is normally held in check by MDM2 that targets p53 for transcriptional repression, proteasomal degradation, and cytoplasmic localization. Here we discovered a hydrophobic region within the MDM2 N-terminal domain that binds exclusively to the dimeric form of the p53 C-terminal domain in vitro. In cell-based assays, MDM2 exhibits superior binding to, hyperdegradation of, and increased nuclear exclusion of dimeric p53 when compared with tetrameric wild-type p53. Correspondingly, impairing the hydrophobicity of the newly identified N-terminal MDM2 region leads to p53 stabilization. Interestingly, we found that dimeric mutant p53 is partially unfolded and is a target for ubiquitin-independent degradation by the 20S proteasome. Finally, forcing certain tumor-derived mutant forms of p53 into dimer configuration results in hyperdegradation of mutant p53 and inhibition of p53-mediated cancer cell migration. Gaining insight into different oligomeric forms of p53 may provide novel approaches to cancer therapy.
Project description:The Shwachman-Bodian Diamond syndrome (SBDS)-associated gene, SBDS, is involved in rRNA synthesis and ribosome maturation, but the role of SBDS in cancer is largely elusive. In this study, we found that SBDS is often overexpressed or amplified in human cancers, and high level of endogenous SBDS is significantly associated with unfavorable prognosis. Conversely, knockdown of SBDS leads to p53 stabilization and activation through the ribosomal stress-RPL5/RPL11-MDM2 pathway, resulting in the repression of cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, ectopic SBDS in the nucleoplasm also suppresses tumor cell growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ectopically expressed SBDS triggered by, for example, ribosomal stress binds to the transactivation domain of p53 and perturbs the MDM2-p53 interaction, consequently leading to impaired p53 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Altogether, our finding for the first time demonstrates the dual functions of SBDS in cancer development by coordinating ribosome biogenesis and p53 activity.
Project description:Although the p53 tumor suppressor/transcription factor often accumulates in the cytoplasm of healthy cells, limited information is available on the cytoplasmic function of p53. Here, we show that cytoplasmic p53 suppresses cell invasion by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis revealed that this function is mediated by Bcl-2 family proteins: Cytoplasmic p53 binds Bcl-w, liberating Bax, which then binds ND5, a subunit of respiratory complex-I, thereby suppressing complex-I activity and thus ROS production. The G13289A mutation of ND5, identified in cancer patients, prevents Bax/ND5 interactions and promotes ROS production and cell invasion. We also showed that Bcl-XL and Bak can substitute for Bcl-w and Bax, respectively, regulating complex-I activity and supporting the cytoplasmic function of p53; nuclear p53 also suppresses complex-I activity by inducing Bax expression. Studies in animal models support the notion that p53 and Bcl-2 family proteins exhibit these functions in vivo. This study demonstrates a link between p53 and Bcl-2 proteins as regulators of ROS production and cellular invasiveness, and reveals complex-I, especially ND5, as their functional target.
Project description:Ribosomal proteins play a critical role in tightly coordinating p53 signaling with ribosomal biogenesis. Several ribosomal proteins have been shown to induce and activate p53 via inhibition of MDM2. Here, we report that S27a, a small subunit ribosomal protein synthesized as an 80-amino acid ubiquitin C-terminal extension protein (CEP80), functions as a novel regulator of the MDM2-p53 loop. S27a interacts with MDM2 at the central acidic domain of MDM2 and suppresses MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination, leading to p53 activation and cell cycle arrest. Knockdown of S27a significantly attenuates the p53 activation in cells in response to treatment with ribosomal stress-inducing agent actinomycin D or 5-fluorouracil. Interestingly, MDM2 in turn ubiquitinates S27a and promotes proteasomal degradation of S27a in response to actinomycin D treatment, thus forming a mutual-regulatory loop. Altogether, our results reveal that S27a plays a non-redundant role in mediating p53 activation in response to ribosomal stress via interplaying with MDM2.
Project description:Mdm2 regulates the p53 tumor suppressor by promoting its proteasome-mediated degradation. Mdm2 and p53 engage in an autoregulatory feedback loop that maintains low p53 activity in nonstressed cells. We now report that Mdm2 regulates p53 levels also by targeting ribosomal protein L26. L26 binds p53 mRNA and augments its translation. Mdm2 binds L26 and drives its polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. In addition, the binding of Mdm2 to L26 attenuates the association of L26 with p53 mRNA and represses L26-mediated augmentation of p53 protein synthesis. Under nonstressed conditions, both mechanisms help maintain low cellular p53 levels by constitutively tuning down p53 translation. In response to genotoxic stress, the inhibitory effect of Mdm2 on L26 is attenuated, enabling a rapid increase in p53 synthesis. The Mdm2-L26 interaction thus represents an additional important component of the autoregulatory feedback loop that dictates cellular p53 levels and activity.
Project description:Mutations at the PEPD locus cause prolidase deficiency (McKusick 170100), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by iminodipeptiduria, skin ulcers, mental retardation, and recurrent infections. Four PEPD mutations from five severely affected individuals were characterized by analysis of reverse-transcribed, PCR-amplified (RT-PCR) cDNA. We used SSCP analysis on four overlapping cDNA fragments covering the entire coding region of the PEPD gene and detected abnormal SSCP bands for the fragment spanning all or part of exons 13-15 in three of the probands. Direct sequencing of the mutant cDNAs showed a G-->A, 1342 substitution (G448R) in two patients and a 3-bp deletion (delta E452 or delta E453) in another. In the other two probands the amplified products were of reduced size. Direct sequencing of these mutant cDNAs revealed a deletion of exon 5 in one patient and of exon 7 in the other. Intronic sequences flanking exons 5 and 7 were identified using inverse PCR followed by direct sequencing. Conventional PCR and direct sequencing then established the intron-exon borders of the mutant genomic DNA revealing two splice acceptor mutations: a G-->C substitution at position -1 of intron 4 and an A-->G substitution at position -2 of intron 6. Our results indicate that the severe form of prolidase deficiency is caused by multiple PEPD alleles. In this report we attempt to begin the process of describing these alleles and cataloging their phenotypic expression.