Replenishing exosomes from older bone marrow stromal cells with miR-340 inhibits myeloma-related angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT: The study of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and the exosomes they secrete is considered promising for cancer therapy. However, little is known about the effect of donor age on BMSCs. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of BMSC exosomes derived from donors of different ages using an in vivo model of hypoxic bone marrow in multiple myeloma (MM). We found that donor age was strongly related to senescent changes in BMSCs. Exosomes derived from young BMSCs significantly inhibited MM-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs. The exosomal microRNA (miRNA) expression profile was different between young and older BMSCs, despite similarities in the size and quantity of exosomes. Of note was the observation that the antiangiogenic effect of older BMSCs was enhanced by direct transfection of miR-340 that was preferentially expressed in exosomes derived from young BMSCs. We found that miR-340 inhibited angiogenesis via the hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET (HGF/c-MET) signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Our data provide new insights into exosome-based cancer therapy by modification of BMSC-derived exosomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are suspected to exert neuroprotective effects in brain injury, in part through the secretion of extracellular vesicles like exosomes containing bioactive compounds. We now investigate the mechanism by which bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs)-derived exosomes harboring the small non-coding RNA miR-29b-3p protect against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats. METHODS:We established a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cortical neuron or brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) models of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Exosomes were isolated from the culture medium of BMSCs. We treated the MCAO rats with BMSC-derived exosomes in vivo, and likewise the OGD-treated neurons and BMECs in vitro. We then measured apoptosis- and angiogenesis-related features using TUNEL and CD31 immunohistochemical staining and in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays. RESULTS:The dual luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-29b-3p targeted the protein phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). miR-29b-3p was downregulated and PTEN was upregulated in the brain of MCAO rats and in OGD-treated cultured neurons. MCAO rats and OGD-treated neurons showed promoted apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis, but overexpression of miR-29b-3p or silencing of PTEN could reverse these alterations. Furthermore, miR-29b-3p could negatively regulate PTEN and activate the Akt signaling pathway. BMSCs-derived exosomes also exerted protective effects against apoptosis of OGD neurons and cell apoptosis in the brain samples from MCAO rats, where we also observed promotion of angiogenesis. CONCLUSION:BMSC-derived exosomal miR-29b-3p ameliorates ischemic brain injury by promoting angiogenesis and suppressing neuronal apoptosis, a finding which may be of great significance in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
Project description:Exosomes, extracellular nanovesicles secreted by various cell types, modulate the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment by regulating angiogenesis, cytokine release, immune response, inflammation, and metastasis. Interactions between bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and multiple myeloma (MM) cells play crucial roles in MM development. We previously reported that BMSC-derived exosomes directly promote MM cell growth, whereas the other possible mechanisms for supporting MM progression by these exosomes are still not clear. Here, we investigated the effect of BMSC-derived exosomes on the MM BM cells with specific emphasis on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). BMSC-derived exosomes were able to be taken up by MM MDSCs and induced their expansion in vitro. Moreover, these exosomes directly induced the survival of MDSCs through activating STAT3 and STAT1 pathways and increasing the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Inhibition of these pathways blocked the enhancement of MDSC survival. Furthermore, these exosomes increased the nitric oxide release from MM MDSCs and enhanced their suppressive activity on T cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BMSC-derived exosomes activate MDSCs in the BM through STAT3 and STAT1 pathways, leading to increased immunosuppression which favors MM progression.
Project description:The aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) lead to decreased ability to maintain hematopoiesis, however, effects of aging on BMSC-derived exosomes in bone marrow microenvironment remain unclear. The aim of this study is therefore to determine the age-related change of BMSC-derived exosomal miRNAs. Human BMSCs of young (yBMSC s, age of donors: 19 and 20 years) and elderly (eBMSC s, age of donors: 68 and 72 years) donors were purchased from Lonza. BM samples were obtained from MM patients (age of donors: 62 and 77 years) in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and using protocols approved by the research Ethics Committee of Tokyo Medical University (IRB No. 2648), and BMSCs derived from MM patients (mmBMSCs) were isolated using the classical plastic adhesion method. The exosomes from culture medium of BM-MSCs were isolated by Total Exosome Isolation Reagent (Invitrogen). Exosomal miRNA profiling was done using a TaqMan low-density array (ABI), and Studentâ??s t-test was used to determine statistical significance for comparisons between young and old groups using R software.
Project description:Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have emerged as one of the most promising stem cells for cardiac protection. Recently, exosomes from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been found to facilitate cell proliferation and survival by transporting various bioactive molecules, including microRNAs (miRs). In this study, we found that BMSC-derived exosomes (BMSC-exos) significantly decreased apoptosis rates and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in CSCs after oxidative stress injury. Moreover, a stronger effect was induced by exosomes collected from BMSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (Hypoxic-exos) than those collected from BMSCs cultured under normal conditions (Nor-exos). We also observed greater miR-214 enrichment in Hypoxic-exos than in Nor-exos. In addition, a miR-214 inhibitor or mimics added to modulate miR-214 levels in BMSC-exos revealed that exosomes from miR-214-depleted BMSCs partially reversed the effects of hypoxia-induced exosomes on oxidative damage in CSCs. These data further confirmed that miR-214 is the main effector molecule in BMSC-exos that protects CSCs from oxidative damage. miR-214 mimic and inhibitor transfection assays verified that CaMKII is a target gene of miR-214 in CSCs, with exosome-pretreated CSCs exhibiting increased miR-214 levels but decreased CaMKII levels. Therefore, the miR-214/CaMKII axis regulates oxidative stress-related injury in CSCs, such as apoptosis, calcium homeostasis disequilibrium, and excessive ROS accumulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that BMSCs release miR-214-containing exosomes to suppress oxidative stress injury in CSCs through CaMKII silencing.
Project description:The aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) lead to decreased ability to maintain hematopoiesis, however, effects of aging on BMSC-derived exosomes in bone marrow microenvironment remain unclear. The aim of this study is therefore to determine the age-related change of BMSC-derived exosomal miRNAs. Human BMSCs of young (yBMSC s, age of donors: 19 and 20 years) and elderly (eBMSC s, age of donors: 68 and 72 years) donors were purchased from Lonza. BM samples were obtained from MM patients (age of donors: 62 and 77 years) in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and using protocols approved by the research Ethics Committee of Tokyo Medical University (IRB No. 2648), and BMSCs derived from MM patients (mmBMSCs) were isolated using the classical plastic adhesion method. The exosomes from culture medium of BM-MSCs were isolated by Total Exosome Isolation Reagent (Invitrogen). Exosomal miRNA profiling was done using a TaqMan low-density array (ABI), and Student’s t-test was used to determine statistical significance for comparisons between young and old groups using R software.
Project description:Exosomes, carriers to transfer endogenous molecules, derived from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been reported to play a role in the progression of bladder cancer. Here we aimed to test the functional mechanism of microRNA-9-3p (miR-9-3p)-containing exosomes derived from BMSCs in bladder cancer. BMSCs were cocultured with bladder cancer cells, and exosomes secreted from BMSCs were identified. Next, the expression of miR-9-3p and endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM1) in bladder cancer tissues and cells was determined. Then effects of miR-9-3p and ESM1 via BMSC-derived exosomes on bladder cancer cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were determined by loss- and gain-of-function experiments and on in vivo tumor growth, and metastasis was assessed in nude mice. miR-9-3p expression was decreased and ESM1 was increased in bladder cancer. BMSCs inhibited bladder cancer cell viability, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis, whereas the addition of exosome secretion inhibitor GW4869 achieved the opposite effects. Moreover, exosomal miR-9-3p upregulation or ESM1 silencing suppressed bladder cancer cell viability, migration, and invasion; induced cell apoptosis; and inhibited in vivo tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, BMSC-derived exosomal miR-9-3p suppressed the progression of bladder cancer through ESM1 downregulation, offering a potential novel therapeutic target for bladder cancer therapy.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate whether exosomes secreted by mouse GATA-4-expressing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could induce BMSC differentiation into myocyte precursors, decrease cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improve cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI). BMSCs were transduced with a lentivirus carrying a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible GATA-4 or control lentivirus, and secreted exosomes from these BMSCs were collected and co-cultured with BMSCs or cardiomyocytes under hypoxic and serum free conditions. Furthermore, exosomes were injected into mice 48?h after MI. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography at 48, 72, and 96?h after exosome treatment. Quantitative PCR showed that co-culture of BMSCs with GATA-4-BMSC exosomes increased cardiomyocyte-related marker expression. Co-culture of GATA-4-BMSC exosomes with cardiomyocytes in anoxic conditions decreased apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry. Injection of GATA-4-BMSC exosomes in mice 48?h after MI increased cardiac function over the next 96?h; increased cardiac blood vessel density and number of c-kit-positive cells and decreased apoptotic cardiomyocyte cells were also observed. Differential expression of candidate differentiation- and apoptosis-related miRNAs and proteins that may mediate these effects was also identified. Exosomes isolated from GATA-4-expressing BMSCs induce differentiation of BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells, decrease anoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improve myocardial function after infarction.
Project description:Exosomes secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) promote osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Since the long non-coding RNA PVT1 has been reported to be upregulated in osteosarcoma cells and contributes to its growth and metastasis, we aim to investigate whether BMSC-derived exosomes promote osteosarcoma growth and metastasis via transporting PVT1 into osteosarcoma cells. The PVT1 expression in BMSC-derived exosomes was markedly higher than that in osteosarcoma cell-derived exosomes. The co-culturing of BMSC-derived exosomes and osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2, MG-63, and MNNG/HOS cell lines) significantly raised PVT1 expression of osteosarcoma cells. The direct binding between PVT1 and the oncogenic protein ERG was confirmed using RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays, and the transported PVT1 promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration via inhibiting degradation and ubiquitination of ERG. PVT1 also increased ERG expression through sponging miR-183-5p. In summary, our findings indicated that BMSC-derived exosomes encapsulate PVTl and transport it into osteosarcoma cells, and the transported PVT1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting ubiquitination and promoting expression of ERG in osteosarcoma cells. These data provide a novel insight into the mechanism of BMSC-derived exosomes in affecting osteosarcoma progression.
Project description:: In rats with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of action of stroke treatment were compared between bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) derived from T1DM rats (DM-BMSCs) and BMSCs derived from normal rats (Nor-BMSCs). The novel role of microRNA-145 (miR-145) in mediating DM-BMSC treatment-induced benefits was also investigated. T1DM rats (n = 8 per group) underwent 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and were treated 24 hours later with the one of the following (5 × 106 cells administered i.v.): (a) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); (b) Nor-BMSCs; (c) DM-BMSCs; (d) DM-BMSCs with miR-145 overexpression (miR-145+/+DM-BMSCs); or (e) Nor-BMSCs with miR-145 knockdown. Evaluation of functional outcome, vascular and white-matter remodeling and microRNA expression was made, and in vitro studies were performed. In vitro, DM-BMSCs exhibited decreased miR-145 expression and increased survival compared with Nor-BMSCs. Capillary tube formation and axonal outgrowth in cultured primary cortical neurons were significantly increased by DM-BMSC-conditioned medium compared with Nor-BMSCs, and significantly decreased by miR-145+/+DM-BMSC-conditioned medium compared with DM-BMSCs. In T1DM rats in which stroke had been induced (T1DM stroke rats), DM-BMSC treatment significantly improved functional outcome, increased vascular and white matter remodeling, decreased serum miR-145 expression, and increased expression of the miR-145 target genes adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFR1), compared with Nor-BMSCs or PBS treatment. However, miR-145+/+DM-BMSCs significantly increased serum miR-145 expression and decreased brain ABCA1 and IGFR1 expression, as well as attenuated DM-BMSC-induced neurorestorative effects in T1DM-MCAo rats. DM-BMSCs exhibited decreased miR-145 expression. In T1DM-MCAo rats, DM-BMSC treatment improved functional outcome and promoted neurorestorative effects. The miR-145/ABCA1/IGFR1 pathway may contribute to the enhanced DM-BMSCs' functional and neurorestorative effects in T1DM stroke rats.In rats with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of action of stroke treatment were compared between bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) derived from T1DM rats (DM-BMSCs) and BMSCs derived from normal rats (Nor-BMSCs). In vitro, DM-BMSCs and derived exosomes decreased miR-145 expression and increased DM-BMSC survival, capillary tube formation, and axonal outgrowth, compared with Nor-BMSCs; these effects were decreased by DM-BMSCs in which miR-145 was overexpressed. In vivo, compared with Nor-BMSC or phosphate-buffered saline treatment, DM-BMSC treatment improved functional outcome and vascular and white matter remodeling, decreased serum miR-145 expression, and increased expression of the miR-145 target genes ABCA1 and IGFR1. microRNA-145 mediated the benefits induced by DM-BMSC treatment.
Project description:Exosomes are served as substitutes for stem cell therapy, playing important roles in mediating heart repair during myocardial infarction injury. Evidence have indicated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-conditioning bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and their secreted exosomes promote macrophage polarization and tissue repair in several inflammation diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated in myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to investigate whether LPS-primed BMSC-derived exosomes could mediate inflammation and myocardial injury via macrophage polarization after MI. Here, we found that exosomes derived from BMSCs, in both Exo and L-Exo groups, increased M2 macrophage polarization and decreased M1 macrophage polarization under LPS stimulation, which strongly depressed LPS-dependent NF-κB signalling pathway and partly activated the AKT1/AKT2 signalling pathway. Compared with Exo, L-Exo had superior therapeutic effects on polarizing M2 macrophage in vitro and attenuated the post-infarction inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by mediating macrophage polarization in mice MI model. Consequently, we have confidence in the perspective that low concentration of LPS pre-conditioning BMSC-derived exosomes may develop into a promising cell-free treatment strategy for clinical treatment of MI.