Intratumoural PD-L1 expression is associated with worse survival of patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the clinical relevance and prognostic impact of the overall expression of programmed cell death protein ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death protein ligand-2 (PD-L2), in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC).After reviewing 1318 consecutive cases of surgically resected or endoscopic submucosal dissected gastric cancers, the expression status of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in 120 patients with EBVaGC identified by EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridisation was retrospectively analysed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). For each IHC marker, positivity was separately in intraepithelial tumour cells (iTu-) and immune cells in the tumour stroma area (str-).Among 116 eligible patients, 57 (49.1%) and 66 patients (56.9%) were determined as iTu-PD-L1-positive and str-PD-L1-positive, respectively, whereas 23 (21.6%) and 45 patients (38.8%) were determined as iTu-PD-L2 positive and str-PD-L2 positive, respectively. Intraepithelial tumour cell PD-L1 positivity was found to be significantly associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis (P=0.012) and a poor disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.032), yet not overall survival (P=0.482). In a multivariate analysis, iTu-PD-L1 positivity was independently associated with a poor DFS (P=0.006, hazard ratio=12.085). In contrast, str-PD-L2-positivity was related to a lower T category (P=0.003), absence of LN metastasis (P=0.032) and perineural invasion (P=0.028). Intraepithelial tumour cell and str-PD-L2 positivity showed a trend towards an improved DFS, although not significant (P=0.060 and P=0.073, respectively).Intraepithelial tumour cells PD-L1 expression can be used to predict a poor outcome in patients with EBVaGC and can represent a rational approach for PD-1/PD-L pathway-targeted immunotherapy.
Project description:Even with the advance of diagnosis and the treatment, the 5-year survival rate for esophageal cancer patients is still poor. The checkpoint protein inhibition provides another choice to improve the survival. The expression of the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) was reported but the clinical relevance remained inconsistent in esophageal cancer. Besides, there were few references about the other ligand, programed death ligand-2 (PD-L2). In this study, we evaluated the expressions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and assessed their clinical relevance.From 1996 to 2011, 150 patients undergone complete surgical resection for ESCC were enrolled. Clinical data were recorded. Expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on cytoplasm in paraffin embedded tumor samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining and scored with a semi-quantitative method.Of the patients, 96 (64.0%) patients had PD-L1 overexpression and 63 (42.0%) had PD-L2 overexpression. There was a correlation between the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 (P<0.001). Patients without overexpression of PD-L1, pathological T1-2 and N0 status, pathological stage I-II and no post-operative adjuvant treatment had a better disease free survival (DFS). In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression and pathological stage were the independent prognostic factors for DFS. The expression of PD-L2 did not influence the DFS. Although not statistically significant, patients without overexpression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 seem to have a better overall survival (OS).The overexpression of PD-L1 on cytoplasm, not PD-L2, is an independent prognostic factor for DFS in patients with ESCC undergone esophagectomy. However, there is a trend which suggested that patients without overexpression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 had a better OS.
Project description:The effects of treatments to programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) on PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. PD-L1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method in 32 paired tumor specimens pre and post-NACT. The positivity of PD-L1 on tumor cells (TCs) changed from 75% to 37.5% after NACT (p?=?0.003). Cases with IHC score of 1, 2, 3 all underwent apparent decrease (p?=?0.007). However, no significant changes were observed on tumour-infiltrating immune cells (ICs) (p?=?0.337). Subgroup and semiquantitative analyses all presented similar results. Moreover, patients with response to NACT presented significantly reduced PD-L1 expression on TCs (p?=?0.004). Although it was not confirmed by the Cox proportional hazard regression model, there was an apparent difference in disease-free-survival (DFS) between negative-to-positive switch of PD-L1 status and the contrary group (median DFS: 9.6 versus 25.9, p?=?0.005). Our data revealed that antecedent chemotherapy for NSCLC may results in inconsistency of PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 expression is suggested to be monitored around treatment and on serial samples, at least, on the latest tumor specimen.
Project description:Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) -targeted immunotherapy has become a promising treatment paradigm for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical responses to checkpoint inhibition therapy in NSCLC have been associated with programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. However, the association between the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and the clinicopathological features and patient outcomes in NSCLC remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 364 patients (158 squamous cell carcinoma and 206 adenocarcinoma) who underwent complete resection between 2009 and 2012. Expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between PD-L1/PD-L2 expression and the clinicopathological features and survival parameters were analyzed and prognostic factors were identified. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with moderate/heavy smoking history and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) levels. Multivariate analysis showed patients with high PD-L1 expression had significantly shorter disease free survival (DFS, HR 1.411, P = 0.025) and overall survival (OS, HR 1.659, P = 0.004) than those with low PD-L1 expression at a 50% cutoff value. No significant association was found between PD-L2 expression and patient postoperative survival. Further stratification analysis revealed that in patients with moderate/heavy smoking history, elevated serum SCCA level, and squamous cell carcinoma, PD-L1 expression was associated with significantly shorter DFS and OS. Therefore, PD-L1 expression was correlated with moderate/heavy smoking history and elevated serum SCCA level in NSCLC patients, and was an independently poor predictor of survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study was to reveal the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancers (CRCs) showing programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) positivity, which are good candidates for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.<h4>Methods</h4>The PD-L1 expression status of 208 MSI-H CRCs was retrospectively analysed using immunohistochemistry. PD-L1 positivity in tumour cells (PD-L1+(T)) and PD-L1 positivity in immune cells (PD-L1+(I)) were separately evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>Programmed death ligand-1 positivity in tumour cells and PD-L1+(I) were observed in 26 (12.5%) and 62 (29.8%) MSI-H CRCs, respectively, and occasionally overlapped (n=12; 5.8%). Programmed death ligand-1 positivity tumours in MSI-H CRCs were significantly associated with older age, female sex, non-mucinous-type poor differentiation, infiltrating growth, tumour budding, advanced stage, CpG island methylator phenotype-high, MLH1 promoter methylation, and BRAF V600E mutations. However, PD-L1+(I) MSI-H CRCs were characterised by high-density tumour-infiltrating immune cells, including T cells and macrophages, and intense peritumoural lymphoid reactions. In patients with stage IV MSI-H CRCs who had undergone metastatectomy (n=4), the PD-L1 status of primary tumours was maintained in corresponding distant metastatic lesions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In MSI-H CRCs, PD-L1+(T) and PD-L1+(I) are linked to a sporadic hypermethylated subtype and an immune cell-rich subtype, respectively. Potential differential therapeutic implications of PD-L1+(T) and PD-L1+(I) in CRCs should be further investigated.
Project description:While the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) remains poor, PD-1 and PD-L1/L2 are promising prognostic biomarkers. We evaluated PD-1 and PD-L1/L2 expression in tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs). We determined the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status in a GC cohort (n=340), then analyzed the relationship between the expression of PD-1, PD-L1/L2 and GC prognosis. We found that PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 mRNA levels were up-regulated in GC tissues, and were positively correlated with one another (P=0.043, P=0.008 and P=0.035). PD-1 protein expression in TIICs was observed in 22.6% of GC patients. The PD-L1 and PD-L2 positivity rates were 40.3% and 53.8% in TCs, respectively, and 60.0% and 60.9% in TIICs, respectively. PD-L1 was up-regulated in EBV-infected GC patients in both TCs (P=0.009) and TIICs (P=0.003). Hp status was not associated with PD-1 or PD-L1/PD-L2 expression. In TIICs, PD-L1 expression was independently associated with better GC prognosis (HR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.53-0.99). Co-expression of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, was a favorable prognostic marker that indicated a dose effect on the mortality risk of GC patients (P-value for trend=0.005). Comprehensive evaluation of PD-1 and PD-L1 in TCs and TIICs could help predict the prognosis of gastric cancers, as well as reveal patients who might benefit from targeted treatment.
Project description:The quantity of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is regarded as a predicting factor of clinical response to anti-PD-1 axis immunotherapy. However, the expression of PD-L1 and its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients remain debated. Meanwhile, the molecular features of PD-1's other ligand, namely PD-L2, as well as its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and HCC tumor microenvironment (TME), are still poorly understood. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) data from 304 HCC patients were used to determine the clinicopathological features of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and their correlation with CD8+ T cells in HCC. Moreover, fresh clinical HCC samples were used to identify the immune cell subtypes expressing PD-L1 and PD-L2. By using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we further assessed the correlation between mutation signature, copy number variation (CNV), number of neoepitopes, immune gene expression, immune/stromal cell infiltration to the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. While membrane expression of PD-L2 was observed in 19.1% of tumor samples, no obvious expression of PD-L1 was detected on tumor cell membranes. High expression of PD-L2 on tumor membranes and PD-L1 in immune stroma were both significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes. Flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence showed that macrophages were the main immune cell subtype expressing both PD-L1 and PD-L2. Moreover, positive expression of PD-Ls was correlated with higher CD8+ T cells infiltration in immune stroma. CNV analysis showed a similarity between PD-L1 and PD-L2 in affecting gene expression. In addition, higher levels of PD-Ls correlated with higher expression of immune related genes, enhanced cytolytic activity, and larger proportions of immune/stromal cell infiltration. Collectively, our study reveals the impact of both PD-L1 and PD-L2 on the HCC tumor microenvironment for the first time, providing insight for new therapeutic options.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interferon-induced expression of programmed cell death ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2) may sustain tumour immune-evasion. Patients featuring MET amplification, a genetic lesion driving transformation, may benefit from anti-MET treatment. We explored if MET-targeted therapy interferes with Interferon-γ modulation of PD-L1/PD-L2 in MET-amplified tumours. METHODS:PD-L1/PD-L2 expression and signalling pathways downstream of MET or Interferon-γ were analysed in MET-amplified tumour cell lines and in patient-derived tumour organoids, in basal condition, upon Interferon-γ stimulation, and after anti-MET therapy. RESULTS:PD-L1 and PD-L2 were upregulated in MET-amplified tumour cells upon Interferon-γ treatment. This induction was impaired by JNJ-605, a selective inhibitor of MET kinase activity, and MvDN30, an antibody inducing MET proteolytic cleavage. We found that activation of JAKs/ STAT1, signal transducers downstream of the Interferon-γ receptor, was neutralised by MET inhibitors. Moreover, JAK2 and MET associated in the same signalling complex depending on MET phosphorylation. Results were confirmed in MET-amplified organoids derived from human colorectal tumours, where JNJ-605 treatment revoked Interferon-γ induced PD-L1 expression. CONCLUSIONS:These data show that in MET-amplified cancers, treatment with MET inhibitors counteracts the induction of PD-1 ligands by Interferon-γ. Thus, therapeutic use of anti-MET drugs may provide additional clinical benefit over and above the intended inhibition of the target oncogene.
Project description:The successful use of immune cell checkpoint inhibitors PD-1 and PD-L1, over the past 5 y has raised the concern of using immunotherapy to treat various cancers. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) exhibits high infiltration of lymphocytes and high amplification of immune-related genes including PD-L1 as distinguished from Epstein-Barr virus-non-associated gastric cancer (EBVnGC). Here, we presume that this PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may hinder the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy toward EBVaGC. These studies reveal possibility of generating PD-1-disrupted CTL by CRISPR-Cas9 system and demonstrate enhanced immune response of these PD-1-disrupted CTLs to the EBV-LMP2A antigen and superior cytotoxicity to the EBV-positive gastric cancer cell. In addition, when combined with low-dose radiotherapy, these PD-1-disrupted CTLs mediated an impressive antitumor effect in a xenograft mouse model of EBVaGC. Taken together, these studies illustrate PD-1/PD-L1-mediated immune tolerance of EBVaGC and provide a new strategy for targeting immune checkpoints to break the tolerance for the T cell-based adoptive therapy.
Project description:Recurrence or metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly intrahepatic after curative resection, demonstrating that the peritumoral environment is important but often neglected. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in intratumoral liver tissues is a poor prognosis factor whose impact is removed after curative resection. However, PD-L1 expression remains in the peritumoral liver tissues and its distribution and prognostic value are still not clear.We assessed the expression of PD-L1 by immunohistochemistry in peritumoral liver tissues from 90 HCC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy. The results were validated in an independent cohort of additional 90 HCC patients.We found PD-L1 positive expression in 31.11% (28/90) of peritumoral tissues. Peritumoral PD-L1 expression was associated with a significantly worse overall survival (OS) (P=.000) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P=.001) compared to the negative expression group. Additionally, peritumoral PD-L1 positivity significantly correlated with vascular invasion and a lower albumin level (?35 g/L). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models both revealed peritumoral PD-L1 as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=2.853, P=.002) and DFS (HR=2.362, P=.003). The prognostic value of PD-L1 positivity was validated in the independent data set.Our data suggest PD-L1 expression in peritumoral hepatocytes is an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS. This implies that future anti-cancer therapy should target not only residual tumor cells but also the "soil" for promoting tumor growth. Peritumoral PD-L1 could be a good target for adjuvant therapy after hepatectomy.
Project description:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common esophageal cancer associated with poor prognosis and additional therapeutic strategies must be implemented to optimize ESCC treatment. Meanwhile, the important biologic role and potential prognostic and therapeutic implications of a tumors immunologic microenvironment (IM) have been recognized in various cancers.In order to investigate the contexture and the prognostic relevance of the IM in ESCC, we immunohistochemically evaluated the extent of overall/intraepithelial TILs (CD3+/CD8+) and of PD-1 / PD-L1 expression in a cohort of 125 therapy-naive ESCCs, additionally assessing PD-L1 copy number status via fluorescence in-situ hybridization.High intraepithelial CD3+ TILs (CD3ihigh) and high PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (PD-L1high) were each significantly associated with improved overall- (OS) (CD3+: p = 0.019; PD-L1: p = 0.028), disease specific- (DSS) (CD3+: p = 0.05; PD-L1: p = 0.006) and disease free survival (DFS) (CD3+: p = 0.009; PD-L1: p < 0.001). CD3ihigh- and PD-L1high cases were significantly associated with one another (p < 0.001). Subgrouping of ESCC revealed decreased OS (p = 0.031), DSS (p = 0.012) and DFS (p < 0.001) for CD3ilow/PD-L1low cancers.Our data not only associate CD3ihigh- and PD-L1high ESCC with a beneficial outcome, but also demonstrate PD-L1high- and CD3ihigh status to be closely intertwined. Furthermore, our study demarcates a prognostically unfavorable, "non-immunoreactive" CD3ilow / PD-L1low ESCC-subgroup, potentially forming the basis for an immune-based stratification of ESCC.