HIF1? modulates cell fate reprogramming through early glycolytic shift and upregulation of PDK1-3 and PKM2.
ABSTRACT: Reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state drastically reconfigures the cellular anabolic requirements, thus potentially inducing cancer-like metabolic transformation. Accordingly, we and others previously showed that somatic mitochondria and bioenergetics are extensively remodeled upon derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), as the cells transit from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism. In the attempt to identify possible regulatory mechanisms underlying this metabolic restructuring, we investigated the contributing role of hypoxia-inducible factor one alpha (HIF1?), a master regulator of energy metabolism, in the induction and maintenance of pluripotency. We discovered that the ablation of HIF1? function in dermal fibroblasts dramatically hampers reprogramming efficiency, while small molecule-based activation of HIF1? significantly improves cell fate conversion. Transcriptional and bioenergetic analysis during reprogramming initiation indicated that the transduction of the four factors is sufficient to upregulate the HIF1? target pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) one and set in motion the glycolytic shift. However, additional HIF1? activation appears critical in the early upregulation of other HIF1?-associated metabolic regulators, including PDK3 and pyruvate kinase (PK) isoform M2 (PKM2), resulting in increased glycolysis and enhanced reprogramming. Accordingly, elevated levels of PDK1, PDK3, and PKM2 and reduced PK activity could be observed in iPSCs and human embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state. Overall, the findings suggest that the early induction of HIF1? targets may be instrumental in iPSC derivation via the activation of a glycolytic program. These findings implicate the HIF1? pathway as an enabling regulator of cellular reprogramming.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first established from differentiated somatic cells by gene introduction of key transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC, over a decade ago. Although iPSCs can be applicable for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug screening, several issues associated with the utilization of iPSCs such as low reprogramming efficiency and the risk of tumorigenesis, still need to be resolved. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency are yet to be elucidated. Compared with their somatic counterparts, pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and iPSCs, exhibit a high rate of glycolysis akin to aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. This is known as the Warburg effect and is essential for maintaining stem cell properties. This unique glycolytic metabolism in iPSCs can provide energy and drive the pentose phosphate pathway, which is the preferred pathway for rapid cell proliferation. During reprogramming, somatic cells undergo a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis trigged by a transient OXPHOS burst, resulting in the initiation and progression of reprogramming to iPSCs. Metabolic intermediates and mitochondrial functions are also involved in the epigenetic modification necessary for the process of iPSC reprogramming. Among the key regulatory molecules that have been reported to be involved in metabolic shift so far, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) controls the transcription of many target genes to initiate metabolic changes in the early stage and maintains glycolytic metabolism in the later phase of reprogramming. This review summarizes the current understanding of the unique metabolism of pluripotent stem cells and the metabolic shift during reprogramming, and details the relevance of HIF1 in the metabolic shift.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests the important role of metabolic reprogramming in the regulation of the innate inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we provide evidence to support a novel role for the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)-mediated Warburg effect, namely aerobic glycolysis, in the regulation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release. PKM2 interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) and activates the HIF-1?-dependent transcription of enzymes necessary for aerobic glycolysis in macrophages. Knockdown of PKM2, HIF1? and glycolysis-related genes uniformly decreases lactate production and HMGB1 release. Similarly, a potential PKM2 inhibitor, shikonin, reduces serum lactate and HMGB1 levels, and protects mice from lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. Collectively, these findings shed light on a novel mechanism for metabolic control of inflammation by regulating HMGB1 release and highlight the importance of targeting aerobic glycolysis in the treatment of sepsis and other inflammatory diseases.
Project description:The pyruvate kinase (PK) is a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, yielding one molecule of ATP. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is predominantly expressed in normal proliferating cells and tumors, and both metabolic and non-metabolic activities for the enzyme in promoting tumor cell proliferation have been identified. However, the exact roles of PKM2 in tumor initiation, growth and maintenance are not yet fully understood. Using immunoprecipitation-coupled LC-MS/MS in MCF7 cells exposed to DNA-damaging agent, we report that the nuclear PKM2 interacts directly with P53 protein, a critical safeguard for genome stability. Specifically, PKM2 inhibits P53-dependent transactivation of the P21 gene by preventing P53 binding to the P21 promoter, leading to a nonstop G1 phase. As a result, PKM2 expression provides a growth advantage for tumor cells in the presence of a DNA damage stimulus. In addition, PKM2 interferes with phosphorylation of P53 at serine 15, known to stimulate P53 activity by the ATM serine/threonine kinase. These findings reveal a new role for PKM2 in modulating the DNA damage response and illustrate a novel mechanism of PKM2 participating in tumorigenesis.
Project description:Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Herein we discover that the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), but not the related isoform PKM1, is methylated by co-activator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). PKM2 methylation reversibly shifts the balance of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells. Oxidative phosphorylation depends on mitochondrial calcium concentration, which becomes critical for cancer cell survival when PKM2 methylation is blocked. By interacting with and suppressing the expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs), methylated PKM2 inhibits the influx of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria. Inhibiting PKM2 methylation with a competitive peptide delivered by nanoparticles perturbs the metabolic energy balance in cancer cells, leading to a decrease in cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. Collectively, the CARM1-PKM2 axis serves as a metabolic reprogramming mechanism in tumorigenesis, and inhibiting PKM2 methylation generates metabolic vulnerability to InsP3R-dependent mitochondrial functions.
Project description:Th17 cell differentiation and pathogenicity depend on metabolic reprogramming inducing shifts toward glycolysis. Here, we show that the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a glycolytic enzyme required for cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression, is a key factor mediating Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmune inflammation. We found that PKM2 is highly expressed throughout the differentiation of Th17 cells in vitro and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development. Strikingly, PKM2 is not required for the metabolic reprogramming and proliferative capacity of Th17 cells. However, T cell-specific PKM2 deletion impairs Th17 cell differentiation and ameliorates symptoms of EAE by decreasing Th17 cell-mediated inflammation and demyelination. Mechanistically, PKM2 translocates into the nucleus and interacts with STAT3, enhancing its activation and thereby increasing Th17 cell differentiation. Thus, PKM2 acts as a critical nonmetabolic regulator that fine-tunes Th17 cell differentiation and function in autoimmune-mediated inflammation.
Project description:The Warburg effect, characterized by increased glucose uptake and lactate production, is a well-known universal across cancer cells and other proliferating cells. PKM2, a splice isoform of the pyruvate kinase (PK) specifically expressed in these cells, serves as a major regulator of this metabolic reprogramming with an adjustable activity subjected to numerous allosteric effectors and posttranslational modifications. Here, we have identified a posttranslational modification on PKM2, O-GlcNAcylation, which specifically targets Thr405 and Ser406, residues of the region encoded by the alternatively spliced exon 10 in cancer cells. We show that PKM2 O-GlcNAcylation is up-regulated in various types of human tumor cells and patient tumor tissues. The modification destabilized the active tetrameric PKM2, reduced PK activity, and led to nuclear translocation of PKM2. We also observed that the modification was associated with an increased glucose consumption and lactate production and enhanced level of lipid and DNA synthesis, indicating that O-GlcNAcylation promotes the Warburg effect. In vivo experiments showed that blocking PKM2 O-GlcNAcylation attenuated tumor growth. Thus, we demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation is a regulatory mechanism for PKM2 in cancer cells and serves as a bridge between PKM2 and metabolic reprogramming typical of the Warburg effect.
Project description:One hundred years ago, Otto Heinrich Warburg observed that postmitotic retinal cells are the highest oxygen-consuming cells in the body. He compared these cells to actively growing mitotic tumor cells since both cells reprogram glucose for anabolic processes, which include lipid, protein, and RNA/DNA synthesis, and for antioxidant metabolism. To achieve this metabolic reprogramming, cancer cells preferentially express a less active dimeric form, the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which shuttles glucose toward the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates that redirect cell activities into anabolic processes. Similar to cancer cells, retinal photoreceptors predominantly express the M2 isoform of PKM2. This isoform performs both metabolic and non-metabolic functions in photoreceptor cells. This review focuses on the metabolic and non-metabolic roles of pyruvate kinases in photoreceptor cell functions.
Project description:Pyruvate kinase (PK) is an important glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. Human PK isozyme M2 (PKM2), a splice variant of M1, is overexpressed in many cancer cells, and PKM2 has been investigated as a potential tumor marker for diagnostic assays and as a target for cancer therapy. To facilitate identification and characterization of PK, we studied the enzyme from pancreatic cancer cells and normal pancreatic duct cells by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and identified multiple O-methylated residues from PK. These findings advance our knowledge of the biochemical properties of PK and will be important in understanding its biological function in cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Insulin is tightly associated with cancer progression; however, mechanistic insights into such observations are poorly understood. Recent studies show that metabolic transformation is critical to cancer cell proliferation. Here, we attempt to understand the role of insulin in promotion of cancer metabolism. To this end, the role of insulin in regulating glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) was examined.<h4>Results</h4>We observed that insulin up-regulated PKM2 expression, through PI3K/mTOR mediated HIF1? induction, but significantly reduced PKM2 activity independent of this pathway. Drop in PKM2 activity was attributed to subunit dissociation leading to formation of low activity PKM2 oligomers, as assessed by density gradient centrifugation. However, tyrosine 105 phosphorylation of PKM2, known for inhibiting PKM2 activity, remained unaffected on insulin treatment. Interestingly, insulin-induced ROS was found responsible for PKM2 activity reduction. The observed changes in PKM2 status led to augmented cancer metabolism. Insulin-induced PKM2 up-regulation resulted in enhanced aerobic glycolysis as confirmed by PKM2 knockdown studies. Further, PKM2 activity reduction led to characteristic pooling of glycolytic intermediates and increased accumulation of NADPH; suggesting diversion of glucose flux towards macromolecular synthesis, necessary for cancer cell growth.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The study identifies new PKM2-mediated effects of insulin on cancer metabolism, thus, advancing the understanding of insulin's role in cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An emerging metabolic theory of pulmonary hypertension (PH) suggests that cellular and mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction underlies the pathology of this disease. We and others have previously demonstrated the existence of hyperproliferative, apoptosis-resistant, proinflammatory adventitial fibroblasts from human and bovine hypertensive pulmonary arterial walls (PH-Fibs) that exhibit constitutive reprogramming of glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, accompanied by an increased ratio of glucose catabolism through glycolysis versus the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, the mechanisms responsible for these metabolic alterations in PH-Fibs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in PH-Fibs microRNA-124 (miR-124) regulates PTBP1 (polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1) expression to control alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM) isoforms 1 and 2, resulting in an increased PKM2/PKM1 ratio, which promotes glycolysis and proliferation even in aerobic environments. METHODS:Pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts were isolated from calves and humans with severe PH (PH-Fibs) and from normal subjects. PTBP1 gene knockdown was achieved via PTBP1-siRNA; restoration of miR-124 was performed with miR-124 mimic. TEPP-46 and shikonin were used to manipulate PKM2 glycolytic function. Histone deacetylase inhibitors were used to treat cells. Metabolic products were determined by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analyses, and mitochondrial function was analyzed by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorometry. RESULTS:We detected an increased PKM2/PKM1 ratio in PH-Fibs compared with normal subjects. PKM2 inhibition reversed the glycolytic status of PH-Fibs, decreased their cell proliferation, and attenuated macrophage interleukin-1? expression. Furthermore, normalizing the PKM2/PKM1 ratio in PH-Fibs by miR-124 overexpression or PTBP1 knockdown reversed the glycolytic phenotype (decreased the production of glycolytic intermediates and byproducts, ie, lactate), rescued mitochondrial reprogramming, and decreased cell proliferation. Pharmacological manipulation of PKM2 activity with TEPP-46 and shikonin or treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS:In PH, miR-124, through the alternative splicing factor PTBP1, regulates the PKM2/PKM1 ratio, the overall metabolic, proliferative, and inflammatory state of cells. This PH phenotype can be rescued with interventions at various levels of the metabolic cascade. These findings suggest a more integrated view of vascular cell metabolism, which may open unique therapeutic prospects in targeting the dynamic glycolytic and mitochondrial interactions and between mesenchymal inflammatory cells in PH.