Topologically associating domains and chromatin loops depend on cohesin and are regulated by CTCF, WAPL, and PDS5 proteins.
ABSTRACT: Mammalian genomes are spatially organized into compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. How compartments, TADs, and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms TADs and loops by extruding chromatin loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here, we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is required for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that the cohesin unloading factor WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of loops. In the absence of WAPL and PDS5 proteins, cohesin forms extended loops, presumably by passing CTCF sites, accumulates in axial chromosomal positions (vermicelli), and condenses chromosomes. Unexpectedly, PDS5 proteins are also required for boundary function. These results show that cohesin has an essential genome-wide function in mediating long-range chromatin interactions and support the hypothesis that cohesin creates these by loop extrusion, until it is delayed by CTCF in a manner dependent on PDS5 proteins, or until it is released from DNA by WAPL.
Project description:Mammalian genomes are organized into compartments, topologically-associating domains (TADs) and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. Compartments are formed by nucleosomal interactions, but how TADs and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms these structures by extruding loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is essential for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of chromatin loops. In the absence of WAPL and PDS5 proteins, cohesin passes CTCF sites with increased frequency, forms extended chromatin loops, accumulates in axial chromosomal positions (vermicelli) and condenses chromosomes to an extent normally only seen in mitosis. These results show that cohesin has an essential genome-wide function in mediating long-range chromatin interactions and support the hypothesis that cohesin creates these by loop extrusion, until it is delayed by CTCF in a manner dependent on PDS5 proteins, or until it is released from DNA by WAPL.
Project description:Pds5 and Wpl1 act as anti-establishment factors preventing sister-chromatid cohesion until counteracted in S-phase by the cohesin acetyl-transferase Eso1. However, Pds5 is also required to maintain sister-chromatid cohesion in G2. Here, we show that Pds5 is essential for cohesin acetylation by Eso1 and ensures the maintenance of cohesion by promoting a stable cohesin interaction with replicated chromosomes. The latter requires Eso1 only in the presence of Wapl, indicating that cohesin stabilization relies on Eso1 only to neutralize the anti-establishment activity. We suggest that Eso1 requires Pds5 to counteract anti-establishment. This allows both cohesion establishment and Pds5-dependent stable cohesin binding to chromosomes.
Project description:Cohesin regulates sister chromatid cohesion but also contributes to chromosome folding by promoting the formation of chromatin loops, a process mediated by loop extrusion. Although PDS5 regulates cohesin dynamics on chromatin, the exact function of PDS5 in cohesin-mediated chromatin looping remains unclear. Two paralogs of PDS5 exist in vertebrates, PDS5A and PDS5B. Here we show that PDS5A and PDS5B co-localize with RAD21 and CTCF at loop anchors. Rapid PDS5A or PDS5B degradation in liver cancer cells using an inducible degron system reduces chromatin loops and increases loop size. RAD21 enrichment at loop anchors is decreased upon depletion of PDS5A or PDS5B. PDS5B loss also reduces CTCF signals at loop anchors and has a stronger effect on loop enlargement compared with PDS5A. Co-depletion of PDS5A and PDS5B reduces RAD21 levels at loop anchors although the amount of cohesin on chromatin is increased. Our study provides insight into how PDS5 proteins regulate cohesin-mediated chromatin looping.
Project description:The spatial organization of chromosomes influences many nuclear processes including gene expression. The cohesin complex shapes the 3D genome by looping together CTCF sites along chromosomes. We show here that chromatin loop size can be increased and that the duration with which cohesin embraces DNA determines the degree to which loops are enlarged. Cohesin's DNA release factor WAPL restricts this loop extension and also prevents looping between incorrectly oriented CTCF sites. We reveal that the SCC2/SCC4 complex promotes the extension of chromatin loops and the formation of topologically associated domains (TADs). Our data support the model that cohesin structures chromosomes through the processive enlargement of loops and that TADs reflect polyclonal collections of loops in the making. Finally, we find that whereas cohesin promotes chromosomal looping, it rather limits nuclear compartmentalization. We conclude that the balanced activity of SCC2/SCC4 and WAPL enables cohesin to correctly structure chromosomes.
Project description:The ring-shaped cohesin complex regulates transcription, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation by dynamically entrapping chromosomes to promote chromosome compaction and sister-chromatid cohesion. The cohesin ring needs to open and close to allow its loading to and release from chromosomes. Cohesin dynamics are controlled by the releasing factors Pds5 and Wapl and the cohesin stabilizer Sororin. Here, we report the crystal structure of human Pds5B bound to a conserved peptide motif found in both Wapl and Sororin. Our structure establishes the basis for how Wapl and Sororin antagonistically influence cohesin dynamics. The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes.
Project description:The cohesin complex topologically encircles chromosomes and mediates sister chromatid cohesion to ensure accurate chromosome segregation upon cell division. Cohesin also participates in DNA repair and gene transcription. The Nipped-B-Mau2 protein complex loads cohesin onto chromosomes and the Pds5-Wapl complex removes cohesin. Pds5 is also essential for sister chromatid cohesion, indicating that it has functions beyond cohesin removal. The Brca2 DNA repair protein interacts with Pds5, but the roles of this complex beyond DNA repair are unknown. Here we show that Brca2 opposes Pds5 function in sister chromatid cohesion by assaying precocious sister chromatid separation in metaphase spreads of cultured cells depleted for these proteins. By genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation we find that Pds5 facilitates SA cohesin subunit association with DNA replication origins and that Brca2 inhibits SA binding, mirroring their effects on sister chromatid cohesion. Cohesin binding is maximal at replication origins and extends outward to occupy active genes and regulatory sequences. Pds5 and Wapl, but not Brca2, limit the distance that cohesin extends from origins, thereby determining which active genes, enhancers and silencers bind cohesin. Using RNA-seq we find that Brca2, Pds5 and Wapl influence the expression of most genes sensitive to Nipped-B and cohesin, largely in the same direction. These findings demonstrate that Brca2 regulates sister chromatid cohesion and gene expression in addition to its canonical role in DNA repair and expand the known functions of accessory proteins in cohesin's diverse functions.
Project description:Cohesin is a chromatin-bound complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion and facilitates long-range interactions through DNA looping. How the transcription and replication machineries deal with the presence of cohesin on chromatin remains unclear. The dynamic association of cohesin with chromatin depends on WAPL cohesin release factor (WAPL) and on PDS5 cohesin-associated factor (PDS5), which exists in two versions in vertebrate cells, PDS5A and PDS5B. Using genetic deletion in mouse embryo fibroblasts and a combination of CRISPR-mediated gene editing and RNAi-mediated gene silencing in human cells, here we analyzed the consequences of PDS5 depletion for DNA replication. We found that either PDS5A or PDS5B is sufficient for proper cohesin dynamics and that their simultaneous removal increases cohesin's residence time on chromatin and slows down DNA replication. A similar phenotype was observed in WAPL-depleted cells. Cohesin down-regulation restored normal replication fork rates in PDS5-deficient cells, suggesting that chromatin-bound cohesin hinders the advance of the replisome. We further show that PDS5 proteins are required to recruit WRN helicase-interacting protein 1 (WRNIP1), RAD51 recombinase (RAD51), and BRCA2 DNA repair associated (BRCA2) to stalled forks and that in their absence, nascent DNA strands at unprotected forks are degraded by MRE11 homolog double-strand break repair nuclease (MRE11). These findings indicate that PDS5 proteins participate in replication fork protection and also provide insights into how cohesin and its regulators contribute to the response to replication stress, a common feature of cancer cells.
Project description:The organisation of mammalian genomes into loops and topologically associating domains (TADs) contributes to chromatin structure, gene expression and recombination. TADs and many loops are formed by cohesin and positioned by CTCF. In proliferating cells, cohesin also mediates sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Current models of chromatin folding and cohesion are based on assumptions of how many cohesin and CTCF molecules organise the genome. Here we have measured absolute copy numbers and dynamics of cohesin, CTCF, NIPBL, WAPL and sororin by mass spectrometry, fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in HeLa cells. In G1-phase, there are ~250,000 nuclear cohesin complexes, of which ~ 160,000 are chromatin-bound. Comparison with chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing data implies that some genomic cohesin and CTCF enrichment sites are unoccupied in single cells at any one time. We discuss the implications of these findings for how cohesin can contribute to genome organisation and cohesion.
Project description:Eukaryotic genomes are folded into loops. It is thought that these are formed by cohesin complexes via extrusion, either until loop expansion is arrested by CTCF or until cohesin is removed from DNA by WAPL. Although WAPL limits cohesin's chromatin residence time to minutes, it has been reported that some loops exist for hours. How these loops can persist is unknown. We show that during G1-phase, mammalian cells contain acetylated cohesinSTAG1 which binds chromatin for hours, whereas cohesinSTAG2 binds chromatin for minutes. Our results indicate that CTCF and the acetyltransferase ESCO1 protect a subset of cohesinSTAG1 complexes from WAPL, thereby enable formation of long and presumably long-lived loops, and that ESCO1, like CTCF, contributes to boundary formation in chromatin looping. Our data are consistent with a model of nested loop extrusion, in which acetylated cohesinSTAG1 forms stable loops between CTCF sites, demarcating the boundaries of more transient cohesinSTAG2 extrusion activity.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by cohesin, whose Smc1, Smc3, and kleisin (Scc1) subunits form a ring structure that entraps sister DNAs. The ring is opened either by separase, which cleaves Scc1 during anaphase, or by a releasing activity involving Wapl, Scc3, and Pds5, which bind to Scc1 and open its interface with Smc3. We present crystal structures of Pds5 from the yeast L. thermotolerans in the presence and absence of the conserved Scc1 region that interacts with Pds5. Scc1 binds along the spine of the Pds5 HEAT repeat fold and is wedged between the spine and C-terminal hook of Pds5. We have isolated mutants that confirm the observed binding mode of Scc1 and verified their effect on cohesin by immunoprecipitation and calibrated ChIP-seq. The Pds5 structure also reveals architectural similarities to Scc3, the other large HEAT repeat protein of cohesin and, most likely, Scc2.