Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its Associated Factors among Multi-ethnic Adults in Rural Areas in Xinjiang, China.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a global public health problem affecting all nations and races. Few studies on the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined multi-ethnic adults in rural areas in Xinjiang, China. We thus investigated the prevalence and risk factors of MetS there. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 15020 rural multi-ethnic adults from 2009 to 2010. Four widely used criteria (ATPIII\IDF\JIS\CDS) were used to measure the prevalence of MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of MetS. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 14.43%, 21.33%, 26.50%, and 19.89% based on the ATP III, IDF, JIS and CDS criterion, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in women and increased with age. According to JIS criterion, the prevalence of components in MetS was 57.75% for abdominal obesity, 44.05% for elevated blood pressure, 40.98% for reduced HDL-cholesterol, 23.33% for elevated triglycerides, 18.95% for raised fasting plasma glucose. Lower consumption of vegetables, milk, and higher consumption of red meat were associated with higher likelihood of having MetS. The prevalence of MetS in Xinjiang rural multi-ethnic adults was high. Diet factors were associated with the prevalence of MetS.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to update the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and explore to identify the susceptible populations. A total of 38208 subjects aged 18 to 79 years were obtained from the Henan Rural Cohort Study (n?=?39259). Five criteria (ATP ?, IDF, JIS, CDS, EGIR) were used to estimate the prevalence of MetS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of potential risk factors with MetS. The age-standardized prevalence of MetS were 27.87%, 24.63%, 27.40%, 18.00% and 8.91% according to the standard of ATP ?, IDF, JIS, CDS, and EGIR, respectively. After adjusted for the potential confounding factors, aging, females, physical activity and the state of drinking were independent risk factors of MetS. MetS is positively associated with stroke and coronary heart disease in all five criteria (P?<?0.01). The current data identify a high prevalence of MetS among Chinese rural adults. Especially for aged females with unhealthy lifestyle had a higher risk for MetS.
Project description:We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compared associations of different MetS definitions with coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a rural Chinese population.Among 4,748 residents (2,145 men and 2,603 women) aged 30+ years in rural China from 2006 to 2007, the prevalence of MetS was estimated by using five different definitions: modified World Health Organization (WHO), Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS), the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) for Asian-Americans, International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Joint Interim Statement (JIS). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were implemented to estimate the association between MetS and the prevalence of CHD, stroke and PAD, respectively.Prevalence of MetS in men was 11.5% (WHO), 14.8% (CDS), 32.4% (NCEP-ATP III), 27.5% (IDF) and 39.7% (JIS) and in women was 15.7% (WHO), 20.7% (CDS), 54.2% (NCEP-ATP III), 51.5% (IDF) and 54.2% (JIS), respectively. Respective ORs (95% CI) for associating MetS with CHD in men were 1.79 (1.02-3.17), 1.25 (0.69-2.26), 1.61 (1.01-2.58), 1.84 (1.14-2.96), and 1.53 (0.96-2.43). Corresponding ORs (95% CI) for stroke in men were 2.18 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.97), 2.20 (95% CI 1.25 to 3.89), 1.71 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.84), 1.30 (95% CI 0.77 to 2.23), and 1.61 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.68), respectively. In women, CHD and stroke were significantly associated with MetS using all five definitions of MetS. In addition, PAD was associated with all five MetS definitions in men, but not in women. Only hyperglycemia and BMI were significantly associated with PAD in women.In this rural Chinese population, the JIS, IDF and CDS criteria may not be more suitable than WHO and updated NCEP-ATPIII definitions for screening high-risk individuals and estimating the risk of CHD and stroke from MetS, especially in men.
Project description:Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC?=?0.853) and women (AUC?=?0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese adults, describe the disease components and compare utility of the existing international criteria and Chinese diagnostic criteria. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A retrospective database analysis was conducted for one hospital in Zhejiang province, China. We analysed data (collected in 2017) from a total of 64?902 participants (37?500 males and 27?402 females), aged between 18 and 97 years, and who met the eligibility criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We employed three criteria for MetS proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2005, the 2009 Joint Scientific Statement (harmonising criteria) and the China Diabetes Society (CDS) in 2013 to detect prevalence of MetS. Specifically, we analysed waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, plasma triglycerides and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RESULTS:We found an estimated age-adjusted MetS prevalence of 20.4% using IDF 2005, 30.0% based on harmonising criteria 2009 and 16.3% under the CDS 2013. This prevalence was higher in males, older adults and increased body mass index. Analysis of agreements among the criteria were 87.2% (IDF and CDS), 87.1% (IDF and harmonising criteria) and 81.6% (CDS and harmonising criteria), while their kappa coefficients were 0.641, 0.708 and 0.572 for IDF versus CDS, IDF versus harmonising criteria and CDS versus harmonising criteria, respectively. The most prevalent MetS component was abdominal obesity (50.1%), followed by dyslipidaemia (49.5%) and hypertension (46.8%) using harmonising criteria. CONCLUSION:These findings revealed moderate agreement among the three criteria with utility in Chinese clinical settings. The harmonising criteria 2009 performed better in early identification of MetS in the Chinese population.
Project description:CONTEXT:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of most non-communicable diseases; gathering information about its prevalence can be very effective in formulating preventive strategies for metabolic diseases. There are many different studies about the prevalence of MetS in Iran, but the results and the study populations of these studies are very different; therefore, it is very important to have an overall estimation of its prevalence in Iran. OBJECTIVES:This study systematically reviewed the findings of all available studies on MetS in the adult Iranian population and estimated the overall prevalence of MetS in this population. DATA SOURCES:International databases (Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for papers published from January, 2000 to December, 2013 using medical subject headings (MeSH), Emtree, and related keywords (metabolic syndrome, dysmetabolic syndrome, cardiovascular syndrome, and insulin resistance syndrome) combined with the words "prevalence" and "Iran." The Farsi equivalent of these terms and all probable combinations were used to search Persian national databases (IranMedex, Magiran, SID, and Irandoc). STUDY SELECTION:All population-based studies and national surveys that reported the prevalence of MetS in healthy Iranian adults were included. DATA EXTRACTION:After quality assessment, data were extracted according to a standard protocol. Because of between-study heterogeneity, data were analyzed by the random effect method. RESULTS:We recruited the data of 27 local studies and one national study. The overall estimation of MetS prevalence was 36.9% (95% CI: 32.7 - 41.2%) based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, 34.6% (95% CI: 31.7 - 37.6%) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and 41.5% (95% CI: 29.8 - 53.2%) based on the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) criteria. The prevalence of MetS determined by JIS was significantly higher than those determined by ATP III and IDF. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% lower in men than in women (27.7% versus 43.1%) based on the ATP III criteria, and it was 11.3% lower in men based on the IDF criteria; however according to the JIS criteria, it was 8.4% more prevalent in men. CONCLUSIONS:There is a high prevalence of MetS in the Iranian adult population, with large variations based on different measurement criteria. Therefore, prevention and control of MetS should be considered a priority.
Project description:Clustering of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk components in childhood has been linked to a higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. By using data from the 2010⁻2011 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, this study investigated epidemic patterns and correlates for the clustering of MetS risk components. A total of 1920 adolescents aged 12⁻18 years were included in this study. The MetS diagnostic criteria defined by the Taiwan Pediatric Association (TPA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for adolescents and the criteria defined by the Joint Interim Statement for adults (JIS-Adult) were used to evaluate MetS and its abnormal components. The prevalence of TPA-, IDF-, and JIS-Adult-defined MetS was 4.1%, 3.0%, and 4.0%, with 22.1%, 19.3%, and 17.7%⁻18.1% of adolescents having high fasting glucose, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and central obesity, respectively. A 0.4-to-0.5-fold decreased risk of having ≥2 MetS abnormal components was detected among adolescents who consumed ≥1 serving/week of dairy products and fresh fruits. Boys who consumed ≥7 drinks/week of soda and girls who consumed ≥7 drinks/week of tea had a 4.6- and 5.2-fold risk of MetS, respectively. In conclusion, our findings revealed significant dimensions of adolescent MetS, including detecting population-specific prevalent patterns for MetS risk components and their clustering, and emphasized on health promotion activities that reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.
Project description:Although the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has aroused wide public concern, most studies on MetS tend to examine urban and high income settings, and few studies cover nomadic areas and low earning populations. This research aims to investigate the prevalence of MetS and explore the cut-off point of waist circumference in a nomadic minority typical of low income populations in the remote northwest region of China.A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3900 Kazakh adults aged 18-84 years from 2009-2010. Three widely used criteria (ATP III\IDF\JIS) were employed to estimate the prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs to compare them with other populations. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to explore the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference.The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 13.8%, 20.9%, and 24.8% based on the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in women and increased with age. Except for reduced HDL-cholesterol, the risk of other components of MetS increased with waist circumference enlargement. The cut-off point of waist circumference in screening at least two other components of MetS was 88 cm in men (Sensitivity = 61.1%, Specificity = 62.1%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.54) and 83 cm in women (Sensitivity = 60.0%, Specificity = 59.6%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.57).The prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs is higher than the national level of China and falls in between the Euro-American and Asia levels, as their cut-off points of waist circumference differ from that recommended for Chinese. We suggest a cost-effective strategy to screen for MetS and prevent cardiovascular disease using new cut-off points of waist circumference in low earning nomadic Kazakhs.
Project description:This study examined the association between famine exposure in early life and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood during the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine. Two cross-sectional surveys involving randomly selected Chinese adults aged 35-74 years in the Qingdao area were conducted. A total of 9,588 individuals were grouped into four birth cohorts of unexposed (born between January 1, 1962, and December 31, 1975), fetal-exposed (born between January 1, 1959, and December 31, 1961), childhood-exposed (born between January 1, 1949, and December 31, 1958), and adolescence/adult-exposed cohorts (born between January 1, 1931, and December 31, 1948). We assessed the prevalence rate of MetS in relation to famine exposure according to three definitions of MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and China Diabetes Society (CDS). According to the CDS criterion, the prevalence rates of MetS were 17.8%, 25.7%, 31.1%, and 45.3% in the unexposed, fetal-, childhood-, and adolescence/adult-exposed cohorts, respectively (P < 0.001). For the CDS criteria, compared with individuals without famine exposure, odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for MetS were 1.36 (1.02-1.81), 1.36 (1.06-1.75), and 1.60 (1.06-2.41) in women and 1.10 (0.79-1.53), 1.07 (0.79-1.42), and 1.21 (0.74-1.99) in men who were exposed in the fetal, childhood, and adolescence/adult periods, respectively, after adjustment for age, study cohorts, residential areas, education levels, income levels, current smoking, and current drinking. The same trend was observed in fetal and childhood exposure for the NCEP-ATP III and IDF definitions, except for a marginal effect in adolescence/adult exposure. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the odds ratios for MetS prevalence for the CDS definition were 1.37 (1.03-1.82), 1.40 (1.09-1.79), and 1.58 (1.04-2.40) among fetal, childhood, and adolescence/adult exposure in rural areas, respectively. The CDS definition is superior to the other definitions for determining the association between famine exposure and MetS with respect to early life. Famine exposure in early life is associated with an increased risk of MetS in later life, especially in women. Early-life malnutrition and later life overnutrition were critical in determining adulthood metabolic disorders.
Project description:Objectives. We determined metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence and assessed the agreement between different diagnostic criteria in HIV-infected South Africans. Method. A random sample included 748 HIV-infected adult patients (79% women) across 17 HIV healthcare facilities in the Western Cape Province. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Statement (JIS 2009), International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2005), and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII 2005) criteria. Results. Median values were 38 years (age), 5 years (diagnosed HIV duration), and 392 cells/mm3 (CD4 count), and 93% of the participants were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). MetS prevalence was 28.2% (95%CI: 25-31.4), 26.5% (23.3-29.6), and 24.1% (21-27.1) by the JIS, IDF, and ATPIII 2005 criteria, respectively. Prevalence was always higher in women than in men (all p < 0.001), in participants with longer duration of diagnosed HIV (all p ? 0.003), and in ART users not receiving 1st-line regimens (all p ? 0.039). The agreement among the three criteria was very good overall and in most subgroups (all kappa ? 0.81). Conclusions. The three most popular diagnostic criteria yielded similarly high MetS prevalence in this relatively young population receiving care for HIV infection. Very good levels of agreement between criteria are unaffected by some HIV-specific features highlighting the likely comparable diagnostic utility of those criteria in routine HIV care settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is combination of medical disorders that increase people's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Little data exists on the prevalence of MS of rural original adults in Ningxia of China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey method was used and the participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire in rural of Ningxia in 2008. The number of research subjects was 1612. MS was defined by International Diabetes Federation IDF (2005). RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 11.8%, whereas ethnic-specific prevalence was 10.3% in Han ethnic group and 13.7% in Hui ethnic group. Components of MS and MS were more common in Hui ethnic group than Han ethnic group. The mean levels and prevalence of abnormal value increased with increasing age in both ethnic groups (Cochran-Artimage test for trend, Hui ethnic group P < 0.05, Han ethnic group P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MS was high in rural residents' adults in Ningxia. Clustering of MS components and MS was increased with age. The components of MS have big differences among different ethnic groups.