Cellulose long fibers fabricated from cellulose nanofibers and its strong and tough characteristics.
ABSTRACT: Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) with high crystallinity has great mechanical stiffness and strength. However, its length is too short to be used for fibers of environmentally friendly structural composites. This paper presents a fabrication process of cellulose long fiber from CNF suspension by spinning, stretching and drying. Isolation of CNF from the hardwood pulp is done by using (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yl) oxidanyl (TEMPO) oxidation. The effect of spinning speed and stretching ratio on mechanical properties of the fabricated fibers are investigated. The modulus of the fabricated fibers increases with the spinning speed as well as the stretching ratio because of the orientation of CNFs. The fabricated long fiber exhibits the maximum tensile modulus of 23.9?GPa with the maximum tensile strength of 383.3?MPa. Moreover, the fabricated long fiber exhibits high strain at break, which indicates high toughness. The results indicate that strong and tough cellulose long fiber can be produced by using ionic crosslinking, controlling spinning speed, stretching and drying.
Project description:Extremely high mechanical performance spun bionanocomposite fibers of chitosan (CHI), and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully achieved by gel spinning of CHI aqueous viscous formulations filled with CNFs. The microstructural characterization of the fibers by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystallization of the CHI polymer chains into anhydrous chitosan allomorph. The spinning process combining acidic-basic-neutralization-stretching-drying steps allowed obtaining CHI/CNF composite fibers of high crystallinity, with enhanced effect at incorporating the CNFs. Chitosan crystallization seems to be promoted by the presence of cellulose nanofibers, serving as nucleation sites for the growing of CHI crystals. Moreover, the preferential orientation of both CNFs and CHI crystals along the spun fiber direction was revealed in the two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns. By increasing the CNF amount up to the optimum concentration of 0.4 wt % in the viscous CHI/CNF collodion, Young's modulus of the spun fibers significantly increased up to 8 GPa. Similarly, the stress at break and the yield stress drastically increased from 115 to 163 MPa, and from 67 to 119 MPa, respectively, by adding only 0.4 wt % of CNFs into a collodion solution containing 4 wt % of chitosan. The toughness of the CHI-based fibers thereby increased from 5 to 9 MJ.m<sup>-3</sup>. For higher CNFs contents like 0.5 wt %, the high mechanical performance of the CHI/CNF composite fibers was still observed, but with a slight worsening of the mechanical parameters, which may be related to a minor disruption of the CHI matrix hydrogel network constituting the collodion and gel fiber, as precursor state for the dry fiber formation. Finally, the rheological behavior observed for the different CHI/CNF viscous collodions and the obtained structural, thermal and mechanical properties results revealed an optimum matrix/filler compatibility and interface when adding 0.4 wt % of nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) into 4 wt % CHI formulations, yielding functional bionanocomposite fibers of outstanding mechanical properties.
Project description:Human-made natural-fiber-based filaments are attractive for natural fiber-reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites. However, the composites' moisture distribution is critical, and humidity monitoring in the NFRP composites is essential to secure stability and keep their life span. In this research, high strength and humidity sensing filament was developed by blending cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and graphene oxide (GO), wet-spinning, coagulating, and drying, which can overcome the heterogeneous mechanical properties between embedded-type humidity sensors and NFRP composites. The stabilized synthesis process of the CNF-GO hybrid filament demonstrated the maximum Young's modulus of 23.9 GPa and the maximum tensile strength of 439.4 MPa. Furthermore, the achieved properties were successfully transferred to a continuous fabrication process with an additional stretching process. Furthermore, its humidity sensing behavior is shown by resistivity changes in various temperature and humidity levels. Therefore, this hybrid filament has excellent potential for in-situ humidity monitoring by embedding in smart wearable devices, natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites, and environmental sensing devices.
Project description:The two types of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) surface characteristics were evaluated by oil contact angle under ethanol-water solution at several concentrations as well as in air. Wood pulp-based 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxylradical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCNF) sheets and bamboo-derived mechanical counter collision cellulose nanofiber (ACC-CNF) sheets were fabricated by casting followed by drying. The CNF shows underwater superoleophobic mimicking fish skin properties and slippery surface mimicking Nepenthes pitcher. The underwater superoleophobic properties of CNF was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical calculation and experimental results of contact angle showed a large deviation. The roughness, zeta potential, and water absorption at different concentrations were key factors that determine the deviation. Antifouling investigation revealed that CNF was a good candidate for antifouling material.
Project description:The flexible SERS substrate were prepared base on regenerated cellulose fibers, in which the Au nanoparticles were controllably assembled on fiber through electrostatic interaction. The cellulose fiber was regenerated from waste paper through the dry-jet wet spinning method, an eco-friendly and convenient approach by using ionic liquid. The Au NPs could be controllably distributed on the surface of fiber by adjusting the conditions during the process of assembling. Finite-difference time-domain theoretical simulations verified the intense local electromagnetic fields of plasmonic composites. The flexible SERS fibers show excellent SERS sensitivity and adsorption capability. A typical Raman probe molecule, 4-Mercaptobenzoicacid (4-MBA), was used to verify the SERS cellulose fibers, the sensitivity could achieve to 10<sup>-9</sup> M. The flexible SERS fibers were successfully used for identifying dimetridazole (DMZ) from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the flexible SERS fibers were used for detecting DMZ from the surface of fish by simply swabbing process. It is clear that the fabricated plasmonic composite can be applied for the identifying toxins and chemicals.
Project description:Shape-persistent and tough cellulose hydrogels were fabricated by a stepwise solvent exchange from a homogeneous ionic liquid solution of cellulose exposure to methanol vapor. The cellulose hydrogels maintain their shapes under changing temperature, pH, and solvents. The micrometer-scale patterns on the mold were precisely transferred onto the surface of cellulose hydrogels. We also succeeded in the spinning of cellulose hydrogel fibers through a dry jet-wet spinning process. The mechanical property of regenerated cellulose fibers improved by the drawing of cellulose hydrogel fibers during the spinning process. This approach for the fabrication of tough cellulose hydrogels is a major advance in the fabrication of cellulose-based structures with defined shapes.
Project description:An electrolyte and aprotic solvent mixture were used to prepare cellulose solutions containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). All-cellulose composite fibers were then produced by dry-wet spinning these solutions. The presence of CNC in the all-cellulose fibers was demonstrated, and the effects of the CNC on the fiber properties were investigated. The all-cellulose fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and electronic tensile measurements. These results showed that CNCs were present in the mixture and that their structure was maintained in the all-cellulose fibers. No compatibility problems between the CNC and cellulose II matrix were observed. Introducing CNC enhanced the crystallinity, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the composite fibers.
Project description:This paper introduces a boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS)-reinforced cellulose nanofiber (CNF) film as a sustainable oxygen barrier film that can potentially be applied in food packaging. Most commodity plastics are oxygen-permeable. CNF exhibits an ideal oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of <1 cc/m²/day in highly controlled conditions. A CNF film typically fabricated by the air drying of a CNF aqueous solution reveals an OTR of 19.08 cc/m²/day. The addition of 0?5 wt % BNNS to the CNF dispersion before drying results in a composite film with highly improved OTR of 4.7 cc/m²/day, which is sufficient for meat and cheese packaging. BNNS as a 2D nanomaterial increases the pathway of oxygen gas and reduces the chances of pinhole formation during film fabrication involving water drying. In addition, BNNS improves the mechanical properties of the CNF films (Young's modulus and tensile strength) without significant elongation reductions, probably due to the good miscibility of CNF and BNNS in the aqueous solution. Addition of BNNS also produces negligible color change, which is important for film aesthetics. An in vitro cell experiment was performed to reveal the low cytotoxicity of the CNF/BNNS composite. This composite film has great potential as a sustainable high-performance food-packaging material.
Project description:The mixture of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was employed to dissolve microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). A 10 wt % cellulose dope solution was prepared for spinning cellulose hollow fibers (CHFs) under a mild temperature of 50 °C by a dry?wet spinning method. The defect-free CHFs were obtained with an average diameter and thickness of 270 and 38 µm, respectively. Both the XRD and FTIR characterization confirmed that a crystalline structure transition from cellulose I (MCC) to cellulose II (regenerated CHFs) occurred during the cellulose dissolution in ionic liquids and spinning processes. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that regenerated CHFs presented a similar pyrolysis behavior with deacetylated cellulose acetate during pyrolysis process. This study provided a suitable way to directly fabricate hollow fiber carbon membranes using cellulose hollow fiber precursors spun from cellulose/(EmimAc + DMSO)/H?O ternary system.
Project description:Cellulose nanofibers (CNF), representing the nano-structured cellulose, have attained an extensive research attention due to their sustainability, biodegradability, nanoscale dimensions, large surface area, unique optical and mechanical performance, etc. Different lengths of CNF can lead to different extents of entanglements or network-like structures through van der Waals forces. In this study, a series of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films, reinforced with CNF of different lengths, were fabricated via conventional solvent casting technique. CNF were extracted from jute fibers by tuning the dosage of sodium hypochlorite during the TEMPO-mediated oxidation. The mechanical properties and thermal behavior were observed to be significantly improved, while the optical transparency decreased slightly (Tr. > 75%). Interestingly, the PVA/CNF20 nanocomposite films exhibited higher tensile strength of 34.22 MPa at 2 wt% filler loading than the PVA/CNF10 (32.55 MPa) while displayed higher elastic modulus of 482.75 MPa than the PVA/CNF20 films (405.80 MPa). Overall, the findings reported in this study provide a novel, simple and inexpensive approach for preparing the high-performance polymer nanocomposites with tunable mechanical properties, reinforced with an abundant and renewable material.
Project description:A low carbon yield is a major limitation for the use of cellulose-based filaments as carbon fiber precursors. The present study aims to investigate the use of an abundant biopolymer chitosan as a natural charring agent particularly on enhancing the carbon yield of the cellulose-derived carbon fiber. The ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate ([DBNH]OAc) was used for direct dissolution of cellulose and chitosan and to spin cellulose-chitosan composite fibers through a dry-jet wet spinning process (Ioncell). The homogenous distribution and tight packing of cellulose and chitosan revealed by X-ray scattering experiments enable a synergistic interaction between the two polymers during the pyrolysis reaction, resulting in a substantial increase of the carbon yield and preservation of mechanical properties of cellulose fiber compared to other cobiopolymers such as lignin and xylan.