In vitro reconstitution of chaperone-mediated human RISC assembly.
ABSTRACT: To silence target mRNAs, small RNAs and Argonaute (Ago) proteins need to be assembled into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Although the assembly of Drosophila melanogaster RISC was recently reconstituted by Ago2, the Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, and five chaperone proteins, the absence of a reconstitution system for mammalian RISC assembly has posed analytical challenges. Here we describe reconstitution of human RISC assembly using Ago2 and five recombinant chaperone proteins: Hsp90?, Hsc70, Hop, Dnaja2, and p23. Our data show that ATP hydrolysis by both Hsp90? and Hsc70 is required for RISC assembly of small RNA duplexes but not for that of single-stranded RNAs. The reconstitution system lays the groundwork for further studies of small RNA-mediated gene silencing in mammals.
Project description:Posttranscriptional gene silencing is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that contain AGO proteins and single-stranded small RNAs. The assembly of plant AGO1-containing RISCs depends on the molecular chaperone HSP90. Here, we demonstrate that cyclophilin 40 (CYP40), protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), and several other proteins with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain associates with AGO1 in an HSP90-dependent manner in extracts of evacuolated tobacco protoplasts (BYL). Intriguingly, CYP40, but not the other TPR proteins, could form a complex with small RNA duplex-bound AGO1. Moreover, CYP40 that was synthesized by in-vitro translation using BYL uniquely facilitated binding of small RNA duplexes to AGO1, and as a result, increased the amount of mature RISCs that could cleave target RNAs. CYP40 was not contained in mature RISCs, indicating that the association is transient. Addition of PP5 or cyclophilin-binding drug cyclosporine A prevented the association of endogenous CYP40 with HSP90-AGO1 complex and inhibited RISC assembly. These results suggest that a complex of AGO1, HSP90, CYP40, and a small RNA duplex is a key intermediate of RISC assembly in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Argonaute, the core component of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), binds to mature miRNAs and regulates gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. We recently reported that Argonaute 2 (Ago2) also assembles into complexes with miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). These Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes are catalytically active in vitro and constitute non-canonical RISCs. RESULTS:The use of pre-miRNAs as guides by Ago2 bypasses Dicer activity and complicates in vitro RISC reconstitution. In this work, we characterized Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes and identified RNAs that are targeted by miRNAs but not their corresponding pre-miRNAs. Using these target RNAs we were able to recapitulate in vitro pre-miRNA processing and canonical RISC loading, and define the minimal factors required for these processes. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that Ago2 and Dicer are sufficient for processing and loading of miRNAs into RISC. Furthermore, our studies suggest that Ago2 binds primarily to the 5'- and alternatively, to the 3'-end of select pre-miRNAs.
Project description:Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains the Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although it is an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11(-/-) ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using the recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of the Drosophila RLC and elucidate a cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency.
Project description:The catalytic engine of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), wherein the endoribonuclease Argonaute and single-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) direct target mRNA cleavage. We reconstituted long double-stranded RNA- and duplex siRNA-initiated RISC activities with the use of recombinant Drosophila Dicer-2, R2D2, and Ago2 proteins. We used this core reconstitution system to purify an RNAi regulator that we term C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC), a complex of Translin and Trax. C3PO is a Mg2+-dependent endoribonuclease that promotes RISC activation by removing siRNA passenger strand cleavage products. These studies establish an in vitro RNAi reconstitution system and identify C3PO as a key activator of the core RNAi machinery.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (Ago), GW182, and FXR1 proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). RISCs represent a critical checkpoint in the regulation and bioavailability of miRNAs. Recent studies have revealed dysregulation of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the function of RISCs in EAE and MS is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression of Ago, GW182, and FXR1 in CNS tissue, oligodendrocytes (OLs), brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, and CD3(+)splenocytes (SCs) of EAE mic, and found that global RISC protein levels were significantly dysregulated. Specifically, Ago2 and FXR1 levels were decreased in OLs and brain-infiltrating T cells in EAE mice. Accordingly, assembly of Ago2/GW182/FXR1 complexes in EAE brain tissues was disrupted, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments. In parallel with alterations in RISC complex content in OLs, we found downregulation of miRNAs essential for differentiation and survival of OLs and myelin synthesis. In brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, aberrant RISC formation contributed to miRNA-dependent proinflammatory helper T-cell polarization. In CD3(+) SCs, we found increased expression of both Ago2 and FXR1 in EAE compared with nonimmunized mice. Therefore, our results demonstrate a gradient in expression of miRNA between primary activated T cells in the periphery and polarized CNS-infiltrating T cells. These results suggest that, in polarized autoreactive effector T cells, miRNA synthesis is inhibited in response to dysregulated RISC assembly, allowing these cells to maintain a highly specific proinflammatory program. Therefore, our findings may provide a mechanism that leads to miRNA dysregulation in EAE/MS.
Project description:RNA silencing is a eukaryote-specific phenomenon in which microRNAs and small interfering RNAs degrade messenger RNAs containing a complementary sequence. To this end, these small RNAs need to be loaded onto an Argonaute protein (AGO protein) to form the effector complex referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC assembly undergoes multiple and sequential steps with the aid of Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. The molecular mechanisms for this assembly process remain unclear, despite their significance for the development of gene silencing techniques and RNA interference-based therapeutics. This review dissects the currently available structures of AGO proteins and proposes models and hypotheses for RISC assembly, covering the conformation of unloaded AGO proteins, the chaperone-assisted duplex loading, and the slicer-dependent and slicer-independent duplex separation. The differences in the properties of RISC between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will also be clarified. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:637-660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1356 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Project description:Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel cause cystic fibrosis. Chaperones, including HSC70, DNAJA1 and DNAJA2, play key roles in both the folding and degradation of wild-type and mutant CFTR at multiple cellular locations. DNAJA1 and HSC70 promote the folding of newly synthesized CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but are required for the rapid turnover of misfolded channel at the plasma membrane (PM). DNAJA2 and HSC70 are also involved in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded CFTR, while they assist the refolding of destabilized channel at the PM. These outcomes may depend on the binding of chaperones to specific sites within CFTR, which would be exposed in non-native states. A CFTR peptide library was used to identify binding sites for HSC70, DNAJA1 and DNAJA2, validated by competition and functional assays. Each chaperone had a distinct binding pattern, and sites were distributed between the surfaces of the CFTR cytosolic domains, and domain interfaces known to be important for channel assembly. The accessibility of sites to chaperones will depend on the degree of CFTR folding or unfolding. Different folded states may be recognized by unique combinations of HSC70, DNAJA1 and DNAJA2, leading to divergent biological effects.
Project description:The assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a key process in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. In humans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are incorporated into RISCs containing the Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins Ago1-4. Previous studies have proposed that, unlike Drosophila melanogaster RISC assembly pathways, human RISC assembly is coupled with dicing and is independent of ATP. Here we show by careful reexamination that, in humans, RISC assembly and dicing are uncoupled, and ATP greatly facilitates RISC loading of small-RNA duplexes. Moreover, all four human AGO proteins show remarkably similar structural preferences for small-RNA duplexes: central mismatches promote RISC loading, and seed or 3'-mid (guide position 12-15) mismatches facilitate unwinding. All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which are guided by microRNAs (miRNAs) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to cognate RNA targets. In humans, the catalytic engine of RISC is a ribonucleoprotein formed by the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and either miRNA (miRNP) or siRNA (siRNP). The Dicer nuclease produces mature miRNAs and siRNAs from pre-miRNAs and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), respectively, and associates with Ago2. Here, we studied the assembly of human RISC by presenting pre-miRNA to immunopurified complexes that contain Ago2, Dicer, and TRBP. Mature miRNAs were produced in an ATP-independent manner and guided specific cleavage of cognate RNA targets in a pattern that is typical of RISC. This de novo formed RISC activity dissociated from Dicer. The asymmetry of the RISC loading process was fully recapitulated in this system, which, however, could not efficiently assemble RISC from siRNA duplexes. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, a miRNA loading complex (miRLC) is formed by Ago2 and Dicer prior to their encounter with pre-miRNA. We suggest that the miRLC couples the processing of the pre-miRNA substrate to the unwinding of the product and that after loading of the mature miRNA to Ago2, the miRLC disassembles and the miRNP is released.
Project description:Cystic Fibrosis is caused by mutations in the CFTR anion channel, many of which cause its misfolding and degradation. CFTR folding depends on the Hsc70 and Hsp70 chaperones and their co-chaperone DNAJA1, but Hsc70/Hsp70 is also involved in CFTR degradation. Here, we address how these opposing functions are balanced. DNAJA2 and DNAJA1 were both important for CFTR folding, however overexpressing DNAJA2 but not DNAJA1 enhanced CFTR degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum by Hsc70/Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Excess Hsp70 also promoted CFTR degradation, but this occurred through the lysosomal pathway and required CHIP but not complex formation with HOP and Hsp90. Notably, the Hsp70 inhibitor MKT077 enhanced levels of mature CFTR and the most common disease variant ?F508-CFTR, by slowing turnover and allowing delayed maturation, respectively. MKT077 also boosted the channel activity of ?F508-CFTR when combined with the corrector compound VX809. Thus, the Hsp70 system is the major determinant of CFTR degradation, and its modulation can partially relieve the misfolding phenotype.