Mechanism underlying the suppressor activity of retinoic acid on IL4-induced IgE synthesis and its physiological implication.
ABSTRACT: The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor ? (RAR?). Additionally, RA inhibited histone acetylation of germ-line ? (GL ?) promoter, leading to suppression of IgE CSR. Consistently, serum IgE levels were substantially elevated in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice and this was more dramatic in VAD-lecithin:retinol acyltransferase deficient (LRAT-/-) mice. Further, serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) level was elevated while frequency of intestinal regulatory T cells (Tregs) were diminished in VAD LRAT-/- mice, reflecting that deprivation of RA leads to allergic immune response. Taken together, our results reveal that RA has an IgE-repressive activity in vivo, which may ameliorate IgE-mediated allergic disease.
Project description:Crosslinking of receptor-bound Immunoglobulin E (IgE) triggers immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. Blocking the interaction of IgE with its high-affinity receptor, Fc?RI, on mast cells and basophils is an attractive strategy for the treatment of allergies. This approach has seen clinical success using the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, omalizumab. We recently designed and characterized a novel Fc?RI-mimetic peptide (PepE) which contains the two key Fc?RI ?-chain receptor loops known to interact with the ?-heavy chain of IgE, C'-E and B-C, with an optimized linker for joining them. PepE has high specificity and affinity for IgE, blocks IgE binding to Fc?RI and prevents IgE-induced mediator release from RBL2H3 cells. We have now investigated the biological effects of this peptide in vivo using a line of mice (BALB/c Il4raF709) very sensitive to IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis. IgE-deficient (IgE-/-) Il4raF709 mice were passively sensitized with the anti-DNP IgE monoclonal antibody (SPE-7) and subsequently challenged i.v. with DNP-BSA. Mice receiving a single dose of PepE prior to sensitization with SPE-7 IgE were fully protected from anaphylaxis while vehicle control-treated mice displayed strong reactions with significant core body temperature drops and elevated levels of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) in the serum. However, PepE had no effect on IgE-mediated anaphylaxis if given after IgE administration in IgE-/- mice, suggesting that PepE can block binding of free IgE to Fc?RI but cannot compete with the receptor for already bound IgE in vivo. A single dose of PepE treatment did not protect IgE sufficient mice from IgE mediated anaphylaxis. However, a 3 week long course of PepE treatment protected IgE sufficient Il4raF709 mice from body temperature drops and elevation of serum mMCP-1. Our findings establish the potential of this type of structure for blocking IgE binding to mast cells in vivo and suggest that related peptides might have the potential to attenuate clinical allergic reactions.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, often lifelong allergic disease with severe pruritus affecting around 10% of both humans and dogs. To investigate the role of mast cells (MCs) and MC-specific proteases on the immunopathogenesis of AD, a vitamin D3-analog (MC903) was used to induce clinical AD-like symptoms in c-kit-dependent MC-deficient Wsh-/- and the MC protease-deficient mMCP-4-/-, mMCP-6-/-, and CPA3-/- mouse strains. MC903-treatment on the ear lobe increased clinical scores and ear-thickening, along with increased MC and granulocyte infiltration and activity, as well as increased levels of interleukin 33 (IL-33) locally and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) both locally and systemically. The MC-deficient Wsh-/- mice showed significantly increased clinical score and ear thickening albeit having lower ear tissue levels of IL-33 and TSLP as well as lower serum levels of TSLP as compared to the WT mice. In contrast, although having significantly increased IL-33 ear tissue levels the chymase-deficient mMCP-4-/- mice showed similar clinical score, ear thickening, and TSLP levels in ear tissue and serum as the WT mice, whereas mMCP-6 and CPA3 -deficient mice showed a slightly reduced ear thickening and granulocyte infiltration. Our results suggest that MCs promote and control the level of MC903-induced AD-like inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences activation, migration and death of immune cells. Further, S1P was proposed to play a major role in the induction and promotion of allergic diseases. However, to date only limited information is available on the role of S1P in food allergy. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate the role of sphingosine-kinase (SphK) 1 and 2, the enzymes responsible for endogenous S1P production, on the induction of food allergy. METHODS AND RESULTS:Human epithelial colorectal CaCo2 cells stimulated in vitro with S1P revealed a decrease of transepithelial resistance and enhanced transport of FITC labeled OVA. We studied the effect of genetic deletion of the enzymes involved in S1P production on food allergy induction using a mouse model of food allergy based on intragastrically (i.g.) administered ovalbumin (OVA) with concomitant acid-suppression. Wild-type (WT), SphK1(-/-) and SphK2(-/-) mice immunized with OVA alone i.g. or intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as negative or positive controls, respectively. SphK1- and SphK2-deficient mice fed with OVA under acid-suppression showed reduced induction of OVA specific IgE and IgG compared to WT mice, but had normal responses when immunized by the intraperitoneal route. Flow cytometric analysis of spleen cells revealed a significantly reduced proportion of CD4(+) effector T-cells in both SphK deficient animals after oral sensitization. This was accompanied by a reduced accumulation of mast cells in the gastric mucosa in SphK-deficient animals compared to WT mice. Furthermore, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) levels, an IgE-mediated anaphylaxis marker, were reliably elevated in allergic WT animals. CONCLUSION:Modulation of the S1P homeostasis by deletion of either SphK1 or SphK2 alters the sensitization and effector phase of food allergy.
Project description:Dietary nondigestible, short-chain galacto-, long-chain fructo-, and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (GFAs) lower the effector response in cow-milk-allergic (CMA) mice; and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) were shown to contribute to this.The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) to the protective effect of the GFA diet in CMA mice.Female C3H/HeOuJ mice, 3-4 wk old, were orally sensitized with cholera toxin (Sham) or whey and cholera toxin (Whey) 1 time/wk for 5 consecutive weeks and challenged with whey 1 wk later. The mice were fed a control or 1% GFA (9:2:1) (Whey+GFA) diet starting 2 wk before the first sensitization. In a second experiment, the mice were also injected with ?IL-10 receptor (?IL-10r), ?TGF-?, or isotype control antibodies 24 h before each sensitization. The acute allergic skin response, anaphylaxis score, whey-specific IgE, mucosal mast cell protease 1 (mMCP-1), and Treg frequency in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and intestinal Foxp3, Il10, and Tgfb mRNA expression were determined.In Whey+GFA mice, intestinal Il10, Tgfb, or Foxp3 mRNA expression was 2-10 times higher (P < 0.05) and the MLN Treg frequency was 25% higher compared with Whey mice (P < 0.05). The acute allergic skin response was 50% lower in Whey+GFA mice compared with Whey mice (P < 0.01), and IL-10 receptor (IL-10r) or TGF-? neutralizing antibodies prevented this protective effect (P < 0.001). The Whey mice had higher serum mMCP-1 concentrations and whey-immunoglobulin E (-IgE) levels than Sham mice (P < 0.01), whereas these were not higher in Whey+GFA mice, and neutralizing antibodies partially interfered with these responses.Dietary GFAs enhance the Treg frequency in the MLNs and mucosal IL-10 and TGF-? transcription while suppressing the allergic effector response. Neutralizing antibodies showed that the allergy-protective effect of the GFA diet was mediated by IL-10 and TGF-? in CMA mice.
Project description:We revealed in previous studies that nitration of food proteins reduces the risk of de novo sensitization in a murine food allergy model. In contrast, in situations with preformed specific IgE antibodies, in vitro experiments suggested an increased capacity of effector cell activation by nitrated food proteins.The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of protein nitration on the effector phase of food allergy.BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the milk allergen ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) or the egg allergen ovomucoid (OVM), followed by intragastric (i.g.) gavages to induce a strong local inflammatory response and allergen-specific antibodies. Subsequently, naïve and allergic mice were intravenously (i.v.) challenged with untreated, sham-nitrated or nitrated BLG or OVM. Anaphylaxis was monitored by measuring core body temperature and determination of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) levels in blood.A significant drop of body temperature accompanied with significantly elevated concentrations of the anaphylaxis marker mMCP-1 were only observed in BLG allergic animals challenged with nitrated BLG and not in OVM allergic mice challenged with nitrated OVM. SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism analysis of the differentially modified allergens revealed an effect of nitration on the secondary protein structure exclusively for BLG together with enhanced protein aggregation.Our data suggest that nitration affects differently the food allergens BLG and OVM. In the case of BLG, structural changes favored dimerization possibly explaining the increased anaphylactic reactivity in BLG allergic animals.
Project description:The mouse and human TPSB2 and TPSAB1 genes encode tetramer-forming tryptases stored in the secretory granules of mast cells (MCs) ionically bound to heparin-containing serglycin proteoglycans. In mice these genes encode mouse MC protease-6 (mMCP-6) and mMCP-7. The corresponding human genes encode a family of serine proteases that collectively are called hTryptase-?. We previously showed that the ? chain of fibrinogen is a preferred substrate of mMCP-7. We now show that this plasma protein also is highly susceptible to degradation by hTryptase-?· and mMCP-6·heparin complexes and that Lys(575) is a preferred cleavage site in the protein ? chain. Because cutaneous mouse MCs store substantial amounts of mMCP-6·heparin complexes in their secretory granules, the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction was induced in the skin of mMCP-6(+)/mMCP-7(-) and mMCP-6(-)/mMCP-7(-) C57BL/6 mice. In support of the in vitro data, fibrin deposits were markedly increased in the skin of the double-deficient mice 6 h after IgE-sensitized animals were given the relevant antigen. Fibrinogen is a major constituent of the edema fluid that accumulates in tissues when MCs degranulate. Our discovery that mouse and human tetramer-forming tryptases destroy fibrinogen before this circulating protein can be converted to fibrin changes the paradigm of how MCs hinder fibrin deposition and blood coagulation internally. Because of the adverse consequences of fibrin deposits in tissues, our data explain why mice and humans lack a circulating protease inhibitor that rapidly inactivates MC tryptases and why mammals have two genes that encode tetramer-forming serine proteases that preferentially degrade fibrinogen.
Project description:To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only. Sensitized mice were fed a control diet or a diet enriched with short-chain- (scFOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS), B. breve or scFOSlcFOS?+?B. breve for 3 weeks starting after the last sensitization. Non-sensitized mice received the control diet. Anaphylactic shock symptoms, acute allergic skin responses and serum specific IgE, mMCP-1 and galectin-9 were measured upon OVA challenge. Activated Th2-, Th1-cells and regulatory T-cells were quantified in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cytokine profiles were analyzed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in ceacal samples. The acute allergic skin response was reduced in mice fed the scFOSlcFOS?+?B. breve diet compared to mice fed any of the other diets. A reduction in mast cell degranulation (mMCP-1) and anaphylactic shock symptoms was also observed in these mice. Unstimulated splenocyte cultures produced increased levels of IL10 and IFNg in mice fed the scFOSlcFOS?+?B. breve diet. Correspondingly, increased percentages of activated Th1 cells were observed in the spleen. Allergen-specific re-stimulation of splenocytes showed a decrease in IL5 production. In summary; post-sensitization administration of scFOSlcFOS?+?B. breve was effective in reducing allergic symptoms after allergen challenge. These effects coincided with changes in regulatory and effector T-cell subsets and increases in the SCFA propionic acid. These results suggest immune modulatory benefits of dietary intervention with a unique combination of scFOSlcFOS?+?B. breve in established food allergy. Whether these effects translate to human applications is subject for ongoing clinical studies.
Project description:Allergic asthma is a common airway inflammatory disease in which B cells play important roles through IgE production and antigen presentation. SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analysis showed that Atg (autophagy-related) allele mutations are involved in asthma. It has been demonstrated that macroautophagy/autophagy is essential for B cell survival, plasma cell differentiation and immunological memory maintenance. However, whether B cell autophagy participates in asthma pathogenesis remains to be investigated. In this report, we found that autophagy was enhanced in pulmonary B cells from asthma-prone mice. Autophagy deficiency in B cells led to attenuated immunopathological symptoms in asthma-prone mice. Further investigation showed that IL4 (interleukin 4), a key effector Th2 cytokine in allergic asthma, was critical for autophagy induction in B cells both in vivo and in vitro, which further sustained B cell survival and enhanced antigen presentation by B cells. Moreover, IL4-induced autophagy depended on JAK signaling via an MTOR-independent, PtdIns3K-dependent pathway. Together, our data indicate that B cell autophagy aggravates experimental asthma through multiple mechanisms.
Project description:We have cloned a novel mouse CC chemokine cDNA from the lung during an allergic inflammatory reaction. The protein encoded by this cDNA is chemotactic for eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Based on its similarities in sequence and function with other CC chemokines, we have named it mouse monocyte chemotactic protein-5 (mMCP-5). Under noninflammatory conditions, expression of mMCP-5 in the lymph nodes and thymus is constitutive and is generally restricted to stromal cells. Neutralization of mMCP-5 protein with specific antibodies during an allergic inflammatory reaction in vivo resulted in a reduction in the number of eosinophils that accumulated in the lung. Moreover, mMCP-5 mRNA expression in vivo is regulated differently from that of other major CC chemokines in the lung during the allergic reaction, including Eotaxin. The presence of lymphocytes is essential for expression of mMCP-5 by alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the lung, and the induction of mMCP-5 RNA occurs earlier than that of the eosinophil chemokine Eotaxin during allergic inflammation. In contrast to Eotaxin, mRNA for mMCP-5 can be produced by mast cells. From these results, we postulate that mMCP-5 plays a pivotal role during the early stages of allergic lung inflammation.
Project description:In response to antigenic stimulation B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) to replace the primary IgM/IgD isotypes by IgG, IgE, or IgA. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) through the deamination of cytosine residues at the switch (S) regions of IgH. B cell stimulation promotes germline transcription (GLT) of specific S regions, a necessary event prior to CSR because it facilitates AID access to S regions. Here, we show that CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-deficient mice are severely impaired in the generation of germinal center B cells and plasma cells after immunization in vivo, most likely due to impaired cell survival. Importantly, we find that CTCF-deficient B cells have an increased rate of CSR under various stimulation conditions in vitro. This effect is not secondary to altered cell proliferation or AID expression in CTCF-deficient cells. Instead, we find that CTCF-deficient B cells harbor an increased mutation frequency at switch regions, probably reflecting an increased accessibility of AID to IgH in the absence of CTCF. Moreover, CTCF deficiency triggers premature GLT of S regions in naïve B cells. Our results indicate that CTCF restricts CSR by enforcing GLT silencing and limiting AID access to IgH.