Ankle sprain as a work-related accident: status of proprioception after 2 weeks.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:This study aims at verifying whether proprioception is abnormal or not, two weeks after a grade 1 and 2 ankle sprain in the scope of work-related accident. Methods:A descriptive, observation and transversal study was designed to compare speed, movement and oscilation of centre of pressure in employees of companies signed up to a mutual company. Participants' healthy feet comprised the control group, and feet that had undergone an ankle sprain due to a work-related accident comprised the cases group. The following stability tests were undertaken to both the healthy and injuried feet using a force plate: Monopodal Romberg test with eyes open, Monopodal Romberg test with eyes open on a 30 mm thick foam rubber, Monopodal Romberg test with eyes closed, and Romberg test as monopodal support with eyes closed on a 30 mm thick foam rubber. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. From the results of this regression model the COR curve test was performed. Results:71.7% accuracy in the predictions was attained. The equation was as follows: Condition (injured or healthy) = 0.052?% RGC AP Movement - 0.81?MREO AP Movement. The variable MREO antero-posterior movement was used in the COR curve methodology. The area under the curve was greater than 0.65 and at a 95% confidence interval the 0.75 value was included, which in our case was the injured subject condition. Values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 0.667, 0.633, 64.5%, and 65.5%, respectively. Conclusion:The participants in this study showed a diminished capacity for postural control in an ankle two weeks after an ankle sprain.
Project description:An ankle brace is commonly used by patients after they suffer from initial ankle sprains, reducing the incidents of recurrent sprain or limiting laxity in joints with functional ankle instability (FAI). However, whether the application of a semirigid ankle brace can improve the abnormal ankle gait kinematics of patients with FAI remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of a semirigid ankle brace on the gait kinematics of ankle joints through 3D-2D fluoroscopy image registration. A total of 8 subjects with FAI (3 males and 5 females, 10 feet) as FAI group and 10 subjects without FAI (6 males and 4 females, 10 feet) as control group were enrolled in this study. Three-dimensional bone models created from computed tomography images were matched to fluoroscopic images to compute the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) talocrural, subtalar, and ankle joints complex kinematics for control and FAI group with or without brace during the stance phase of walking. FAI patients had significantly less ROMs in inversion/eversion rotation of the talocrural and subtalar joint after wearing semirigid ankle brace. Laxity was observed in most of the displacements of the talocrural and subtalar joints in FAI group. The brace partly altered the ankle joints movement in opposite directions, especially joint rotation, and restricted the talocrural and subtalar joints in the dorsiflexion position during the touch down phase of walking.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Ankle function declines with age. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between ankle function and balance in older adults, with a focus on range of motion (ROM) and strength.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross-sectional study that included 88 healthy community-dwelling older adults. Ankle mobility was measured while bearing weight (lunge test) and not bearing weight. The plantar-flexor muscle strength was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer. Balance was measured in terms of dynamic balance and mobility (timed up and go test), monopodal and bipodal static balance with open and closed eyes (single-leg stand test and platform measures), and margins of stability (functional reach test). Linear correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted with a 95% CI.<h4>Results and discussion</h4>Most participants had limited ankle mobility (n = 75, 86%). Weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM was the strongest predictor of dynamic balance and included general mobility and stability ([Formula: see text] = [0.34]; ? = [-0.50]). In contrast, plantar-flexor muscle strength was a significant predictor of static standing balance with open eyes ([Formula: see text] = [0.16-0.2]; ? = [0.29-0.34]). Overall, weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM was a more representative measure of balance and functional performance; however, a non-weight-bearing mobility assessment provides complementary information. Therefore, both measures can be used in clinical practice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study supports the concept that ankle mobility contributes to the performance of dynamic tasks, while the plantar-flexor muscle strength helps to develop a standing static balance. Identification of alterations in ankle function is warranted and may assist in the design of tailored interventions. These interventions can be used in isolation or to augment conventional balance training in order to improve balance performance in community-dwelling older adults.
Project description:Background: Ankle sprains are common among physically active individuals, especially among athletes. Majority of those who suffer ankle sprains have residual symptoms including pain, episodes of giving way, compromised proprioception and neuromuscular control, and re-injury leading to chronic ankle instability. The aim of this study was to see the effect of chronic ankle sprain on pain, range of motion, proprioception, and, static and dynamic balance among athletes. Methods: A total of 80 athletes, aged 18 to 25 years, involved in track-and-field sports were invited to participate in this study. They were divided in two groups. Athletes with history of grade 1 or 2 ankle sprain on either side requiring medical care who reported at least three episodes of ankle giving way in past 12 months were included in group A. An equal number of healthy athletes without any history of ankle sprain or injury in the lower limbs in the past one year matched by sex, age, height, weight, and limb dominance, were included in group B (control). Outcome measures: Participant's pain, range of motion, proprioception and balance (static and dynamic) was measured using visual analog scale, half circle goniometer, degree of foot position sense, single leg stance time and Y-balance test respectively. Results: Although there were no differences in the active ankle joint range of motion (p > 0.05) in comparison to the control group, athletes with chronic ankle sprain reported mild pain and statistically significant (p < 0.05) deficits in foot proprioception, static and dynamic balance. Conclusions: Deficits in foot proprioception, static and dynamic balance even one year after the ankle sprain could be the reason for limitations in the dynamic defense system of the joint that predisposes to recurrent injury and instability. It is essential to understand the normal clinical course and risk factors for athletes who sustain sprain before devising a long term comprehensive rehabilitation program that focuses on mechanical and functional insufficiencies in order to improve their functional performance and prevent the risk of recurrent sprain.
Project description:Ankle orthoses are commonly used for prevention of recurrent ankle sprains. While there are some data on their functional performance or restriction of range of motion, there is little knowledge on the quantifiable passive mechanical effectiveness of various devices. This study aimed to determine the prophylactic stabilization effect for commonly prescribed ankle orthoses in a simulated recurrent ankle sprain. Eleven anatomic lower leg specimens were tested in plantar flexion and hindfoot inversion in a simulated ankle sprain in a quasi-static and dynamic test mode at 0.5°/s and 50°/s internal rotation, respectively. Tests included intact specimens, same specimens with the ruptured anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), followed by stabilization with five different semi-rigid orthoses: AirGo Ankle Brace, Air Stirrup Ankle Brace, Dyna Ankle 50S1, MalleoLoc, and Aequi. Compared to the injured and unprotected state, two orthoses (AirGo and Air Stirrup) significantly reinforced the ankle. The Aequi ankle brace restored stability comparable to an intact joint. Dyna Ankle 50S1 and MalleoLoc provided insufficient resistance to applied internal rotation compared to the ankle with ruptured ATFL. Ankle orthoses varied significantly in their ability to stabilize the unstable ankle during an ankle sprain in both testing modes. Presented objective data on passive stabilization reveal a lack of supporting evidence for clinical application of ankle orthoses.
Project description:Purpose This study was performed to evaluate topical 1% diclofenac/3% menthol gel in treating ankle sprain. Design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adolescents and adults with acute ankle sprain (N?=?385) applied 4?g of gel containing 1% diclofenac/3% menthol (n?=?117), 1% diclofenac (n?=?112), 3% menthol (n?=?77), or placebo (n?=?75) four times daily. The primary outcome was the area under the curve of pain intensity (PI) on movement [0 (no pain) to 10 (extreme pain)] from 24 to 72 hours post-application (AUC1-3 days). Secondary outcomes included pain relief (PR); PI; time to onset of PR, meaningful PR, cooling, and complete recovery; PI difference; sum of PI difference; total PR; reduction in ankle swelling; and the patient's global assessment of response to treatment. Results There were no statistically significant differences in AUC1-3 between 1% diclofenac/3% menthol and placebo, diclofenac, or menthol gels and no meaningful advantages of 1% diclofenac/3% menthol for any secondary outcome. There was a higher incidence of skin and application-site events with 1% diclofenac/3% menthol than with placebo or 1% diclofenac. Conclusion No significant improvement was observed with topical 1% diclofenac/3% menthol gel compared with placebo, 1% diclofenac, or 3% menthol gel in treating pain from ankle sprain. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT02100670.
Project description:Aim:Following soft tissue ankle injury, patients are often referred for out-patient physiotherapy and present symptoms including pain, reduced range of movement and function, and oedema. In this study, we assess the use of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) device as an adjunctive therapy to reduce oedema in patients recovering from grade I and II ankle sprains. Methods:This was a single-centre, pilot randomised controlled study, recruiting patients referred to physiotherapy following an ankle sprain. Participants presenting with oedema were randomised to one of two treatment groups: (1) the current standard of care and (2) the current standard of care plus NMES use. Participants were identified in an emergency department and referred to a physiotherapy department for treatment 1 to 5 days following the injury and returned to clinic 7 days later. Results:Twenty-two participants completed the study and had full data sets for analysis (11 in each group). Mean volumetric displacement was reduced in the intervention group in comparison to the standard care group (P = .011); however, there were no between-group differences in figure of eight measurements, function or pain scores. The device was well tolerated, with no device-related adverse events recorded. Conclusions:In this pilot, randomised controlled trial, NMES was well tolerated by patients following ankle sprain and demonstrated statistically significant improvements in oedema reduction as measured by fluid displacement. No other changes were observed. Further work will need to confirm the clinical significance and effect on longer term recovery post-ankle sprain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The efficacy of external ankle braces to protect against sudden inversion sprain has yet to be determined while taking into account the possible placebo effect of brace application. PURPOSE:To assess the protective effect of an external ankle brace on ankle kinematics during simulated inversion sprain and single-legged drop landings among individuals with a history of unilateral lateral ankle sprain. HYPOTHESIS:The primary hypothesis was that active and placebo external braces would reduce inversion angle during simulated inversion sprain. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Sixteen participants with ankle instability and previous sprain performed single-legged drop landings and sudden inversion tilt perturbations. Kinematics of the affected limb were assessed in 3 conditions (active bracing, passive placebo bracing, and unbraced) across 2 measurement days. Participators and investigators were blinded to the brace type tested. The effect of bracing on kinematics was assessed with repeated measures analysis of variance with statistical parametric mapping, with post hoc tests performed for significant interactions. RESULTS:Only active bracing reduced inversion angles during a sudden ankle inversion when compared with the unbraced condition. This reduction was apparent between 65 and 140 milliseconds after the initial fall. No significant differences in inversion angle were found between the passive placebo brace and unbraced conditions during sudden ankle inversion. Furthermore, no significant differences were found among all tested conditions in the sagittal plane kinematics at the knee and ankle. CONCLUSION:During an inversion sprain, only the actively protecting ankle brace limited inversion angles among participants. These results do not indicate a placebo effect of external bracing for patients with ankle instability and a history of unilateral ankle sprain. Furthermore, sagittal plane knee kinematics appear to remain unaffected by bracing during single-legged landing, owing to the limited effects of bracing on sagittal ankle kinematics. These results highlight the role of brace design on biomechanical function during sports-related and injury-prone movements. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Athletes prone to reinjury after lateral ankle sprain may benefit from brace designs that allow for full sagittal range of motion but restrict only frontal plane motion.
Project description:Little information is available regarding the ankle braces orthopaedic sports medicine clinicians recommend or clinicians' concerns that may influence their decisions to recommend use of an ankle brace.(1) Clinicians most frequently recommend lace-up braces with straps. (2) Clinicians who are concerned about potential adverse side effects from ankle brace use are less likely to recommend an ankle brace to prevent ankle sprain injuries.Descriptive survey study.Level 3.Surveys were sent via e-mail to 1000 randomly selected members of the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) and 1000 randomly selected members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA). A total of 377 individuals responded to the survey.Lace-up braces, specifically lace-up braces with straps, were the most frequently recommended type of ankle brace. Regression analyses indicated that the only perceived adverse side effect significantly related to frequency of ankle brace recommendation was a potential negative influence on ankle strength.Based on our sample, clinicians recommend lace-up ankle braces with straps most frequently to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Clinicians who are concerned about weakness of ankle musculature may be less likely to recommend use of an ankle brace.Clinicians may effectively reduce the number of ankle sprain injuries by recommending an ankle brace use after an initial ankle sprain injury.
Project description:Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent athletic injuries. Prior work has investigated lateral ankle sprains, but research on generally more severe medial sprains is lacking. This case report performs a kinematic analysis using novel motion analysis methods on a non-contact medial ankle sprain. Peak eversion (50°) occurred 0.2 seconds following ground contact, maximum velocity of 426°/s, while peak dorsiflexion (64°) occurred with a greater maximum velocity (573°/s). The combination of dorsiflexion at ground contact and rapid eversion is associated with a non-contact eversion sprain. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the eversion ankle sprain injury mechanism.
Project description:Ankle sprains represent a common injury in emergency departments, but little is known about common complications, procedures, and charges associated with ankle sprains in emergency departments.There will be a higher incidence of ankle sprains among younger populations (?25 years old) and in female patients. Complications and procedures will differ between ankle sprain types. Lateral ankle sprains will have lower health care charges relative to medial and high ankle sprains.Descriptive epidemiological study.Level 3.A cross-sectional study of the 2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was conducted. Outcomes such as charges, complications, and procedures were compared using propensity score matching between lateral and medial as well as lateral and high ankle sprains.The sample contained 225,114 ankle sprains. Female patients sustained more lateral ankle sprains (57%). After propensity score adjustment, lateral sprains incurred greater charges than medial ankle sprains (median [interquartile range], $1008 [$702-$1408] vs $914 [$741-$1108]; P < 0.01). Among complications, pain in the limb (1.92% vs 0.52%, P = 0.03), sprain of the foot (2.96% vs 0.70%, P < 0.01), and abrasion of the hip/leg (1.57% vs 0.35%, P = 0.03) were more common in lateral than medial ankle sprain events. Among procedures, medial ankle sprains were more likely to include diagnostic radiology (97.91% vs 83.62%, P < 0.01) and less likely to include medications than lateral ankle sprains (0.87% vs 2.79%, P < 0.01). Hospitalizations were more common following high ankle sprains than lateral ankle sprains (24 [6.06%] vs 1 [0.25%], P < 0.01).Ankle sprain emergency department visits account for significant health care charges in the United States. Age- and sex-related differences persist among the types of ankle sprains.The health care charges associated with ankle sprains indicate the need for additional preventive measures. There are age- and sex-related differences in the prevalence of ankle sprains that suggest these demographics may be risk factors for ankle sprains.