Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of NAC transcription factor genes under abiotic stresses in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).
ABSTRACT: NAC (NAM, no apical meristem; ATAF, Arabidopsis transcription activation factor and CUC, cup-shaped cotyledon) proteins are among the largest transcription factor (TF) families playing fundamental biological processes, including cell expansion and differentiation, and hormone signaling in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, 172 RsNACs comprising 17 membrane-bound members were identified from the whole radish genome. In total, 98 RsNAC genes were non-uniformly distributed across the nine radish chromosomes. In silico analysis revealed that expression patterns of several NAC genes were tissue-specific such as a preferential expression in roots and leaves. In addition, 21 representative NAC genes were selected to investigate their responses to heavy metals (HMs), salt, heat, drought and abscisic acid (ABA) stresses using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). As a result, differential expressions among these genes were identified where RsNAC023 and RsNAC080 genes responded positively to all stresses except ABA, while RsNAC145 responded more actively to salt, heat and drought stresses compared with other genes. The results provides more valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis for improving abiotic stress tolerances in radish.
Project description:Plants are continuously challenged by different environment stresses, and they vary widely in their adjustability. NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) transcription factors are known to be crucial in plants tolerance response to abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity. ANAC019, ANAC055, and ANAC072, belong to the stress-NAC TFs, confer the Arabidopsis abiotic stress tolerance.Here we isolated two stress-responsive NACs, CiNAC3 and CiNAC4, from Caragana intermedia, which were induced by ABA and various abiotic stresses. Localization assays revealed that CiNAC3 and CiNAC4 localized in the nuclei, consistent with their roles as transcription factors. Histochemistry assay using Pro(CiNAC4)::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that the expression of the GUS reporter was observed in many tissues of the transgenic plants, especially in the root vascular system. Overexpression of CiNAC3 and CiNAC4 reduced ABA sensitivity during seed germination, and enhanced salt tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis.We characterised CiNAC3 and CiNAC4 and found that they were induced by numerous abiotic stresses and ABA. GUS histochemical assay of CiNAC4 promoter suggested that root, flower and local damaged tissues were the strongest stained tissues. Overexpression assay revealed that CiNAC4 play essential roles not only in promoting lateral roots formation, but also in responding to salinity and ABA treatment of Arabidopsis.
Project description:The NAC transcription factors involved plant development and response to various stress stimuli. However, little information is available concerning the NAC family in the woodland strawberry. Herein, 37 NAC genes were identified from the woodland strawberry genome and were classified into 13 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. And further analyses of gene structure and conserved motifs showed closer relationship of them in every subgroup. Quantitative real-time PCR evaluation different tissues revealed distinct spatial expression profiles of the FvNAC genes. The comprehensive expression of FvNAC genes revealed under abiotic stress (cold, heat, drought, salt), signal molecule treatments (H2O2, ABA, melatonin, rapamycin), biotic stress (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Ralstonia solanacearum). Expression profiles derived from quantitative real-time PCR suggested that 5 FvNAC genes responded dramatically to the various abiotic and biotic stresses, indicating their contribution to abiotic and biotic stresses resistance in woodland strawberry. Interestingly, FvNAC genes showed greater extent responded to the cold treatment than other abiotic stress, and H2O2 exhibited a greater response than ABA, melatonin, and rapamycin. For biotic stresses, 3 FvNAC genes were up-regulated during infection with C. gloeosporioides, while 6 FvNAC genes were down-regulated during infection with R. solanacearum. In conclusion, this study identified candidate FvNAC genes to be used for the genetic improvement of abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in woodland strawberry.
Project description:Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+) efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.
Project description:NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors play important roles in plant biological processes, including phytohormone homeostasis, plant development, and in responses to various environmental stresses.TaNAC29 was introduced into Arabidopsis using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated floral dipping method. TaNAC29-overexpression plants were subjected to salt and drought stresses for examining gene functions. To investigate tolerant mechanisms involved in the salt and drought responses, expression of related marker genes analyses were conducted, and related physiological indices were also measured. Expressions of genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).A novel NAC transcription factor gene, designated TaNAC29, was isolated from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Sequence alignment suggested that TaNAC29 might be located on chromosome 2BS. TaNAC29 was localized to the nucleus in wheat protoplasts, and proved to have transcriptional activation activities in yeast. TaNAC29 was expressed at a higher level in the leaves, and expression levels were much higher in senescent leaves, indicating that TaNAC29 might be involved in the senescence process. TaNAC29 transcripts were increased following treatments with salt, PEG6000, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA). To examine TaNAC29 function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaNAC29 were generated. Germination and root length assays of transgenic plants demonstrated that TaNAC29 overexpression plants had enhanced tolerances to high salinity and dehydration, and exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive response. When grown in the greenhouse, TaNAC29-overexpression plants showed the same tolerance response to salt and drought stresses at both the vegetative and reproductive period, and had delayed bolting and flowering in the reproductive period. Moreover, TaNAC29 overexpression plants accumulated lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, while had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities under high salinity and/or dehydration stress.Our results demonstrate that TaNAC29 plays important roles in the senescence process and response to salt and drought stresses. ABA signal pathway and antioxidant enzyme systems are involved in TaNAC29-mediated stress tolerance mechanisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/ATAF2, and CUC2) transcription factors belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors in monocot and dicot species. These transcription factors regulate the expression of stress tolerance-related genes that protect plants from various abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, and low temperatures.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we identified the CaNAC46 transcription factor gene in Capsicum annuum. Its open reading frame was revealed to comprise 921?bp, encoding a protein consisting of 306 amino acids, with an isoelectric point of 6.96. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaNAC46 belongs to the ATAF subfamily. The expression of CaNAC46 was induced by heat, cold, high salt, drought, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Thus, CaNAC46 may be important for the resistance of dry pepper to abiotic stresses. A subcellular localization analysis confirmed that CaNAC46 is localized in the nucleus. The overexpression of CaNAC46 improved the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to drought and salt stresses. The CaNAC46-overexpressing lines had longer roots and more lateral roots than wild-type lines under prolonged drought and high salt stress conditions. Additionally, CaNAC46 affected the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, CaNAC46 promoted the expression of SOD, POD, RD29B, RD20, LDB18, ABI, IAA4, and P5CS. The malondialdehyde contents were higher in TRV2-CaNAC46 lines than in wild-type plants in response to drought and salt stresses. Furthermore, the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, such as ABA2, P5CS, DREB, RD22, CAT, and POD, were down-regulated in TRV2-CaNAC46 plants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Under saline and drought conditions, CaNAC46 is a positive regulator that activates ROS-scavenging enzymes and enhances root formation. The results of our study indicate CaNAC46 is a transcriptional regulator responsible for salinity and drought tolerance and suggest the abiotic stress-related gene regulatory mechanisms controlling this NAC transcription factor are conserved between A. thaliana and pepper.
Project description:Drought and salinity are major abiotic stresses to crop production. Here, we show that overexpression of stress responsive gene SNAC1 (STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC 1) significantly enhances drought resistance in transgenic rice (22-34% higher seed setting than control) in the field under severe drought stress conditions at the reproductive stage while showing no phenotypic changes or yield penalty. The transgenic rice also shows significantly improved drought resistance and salt tolerance at the vegetative stage. Compared with WT, the transgenic rice are more sensitive to abscisic acid and lose water more slowly by closing more stomatal pores, yet display no significant difference in the rate of photosynthesis. SNAC1 is induced predominantly in guard cells by drought and encodes a NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factor with transactivation activity. DNA chip analysis revealed that a large number of stress-related genes were up-regulated in the SNAC1-overexpressing rice plants. Our data suggest that SNAC1 holds promising utility in improving drought and salinity tolerance in rice.
Project description:NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol and exogenous abscisic acid. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt, and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.
Project description:Our previous studies have indicated that a partial NAC domain protein gene is strongly up-regulated by cold stress (4 °C) in tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium). In this study, we cloned the full-length of this NAC gene, LlNAC2, to further investigate the function of LlNAC2 in response to various abiotic stresses and the possible involvement in stress tolerance of the tiger lily plant. LlNAC2 was noticeably induced by cold, drought, salt stresses, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Promoter analysis showed that various stress-related cis-acting regulatory elements were located in the promoter of LlNAC2; and the promoter was sufficient to enhance activity of GUS protein under cold, salt stresses and ABA treatment. DREB1 (dehydration-responsive binding protein1) from tiger lily (LlDREB1) was proved to be able to bind to the promoter of LlNAC2 by yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay. LlNAC2 was shown to physically interact with LlDREB1 and zinc finger-homeodomain ZFHD4 from the tiger lily (LlZFHD4) by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Overexpressing LlNAC2 in Arabidopsis thaliana showed ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to cold, drought, and salt stresses. These findings indicated LlNAC2 is involved in both DREB/CBF-COR and ABA signaling pathways to regulate stress tolerance of the tiger lily.
Project description:Salt and drought stresses are two primary abiotic stresses that inhibit growth and reduce the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in abiotic stress regulation in plants. Some aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) can enhance various abiotic stresses resistance by scavenging cytotoxic aldehydes in some plants. However, there are few comprehensive reports of plant AKR genes and their expression patterns in response to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 30 putative AKR genes from Medicago truncatula. The gene characteristics, coding protein motifs, and expression patterns of these MtAKRs were analyzed to explore and identify candidate genes in regulation of salt, drought, and ABA stresses. The phylogenetic analysis result indicated that the 52 AKRs in Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana can be divided into three groups and six subgroups. Fifteen AKR genes in M. truncatula were randomly selected from each group or subgroup, to investigate their response to salt (200 mM of NaCl), drought (50 g·L-1 of PEG 6000), and ABA (100 µM) stresses in both leaves and roots. The results suggest that MtAKR1, MtAKR5, MtAKR11, MtAKR14, MtAKR20, and MtAKR29 may play important roles in response to these stresses.
Project description:Plants can perceive environmental changes and respond to external stressors. Here, we show that OsNAC2, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was strongly induced by ABA and osmotic stressors such as drought and high salt. With reduced yields under drought conditions at the flowering stage, OsNAC2 overexpression lines had lower resistance to high salt and drought conditions. RNAi plants showed enhanced tolerance to high salinity and drought stress at both the vegetative and flowering stages. Furthermore, RNAi plants had improved yields after drought stress. A microarray assay indicated that many ABA-dependent stress-related genes were down-regulated in OsNAC2 overexpression lines. We further confirmed that OsNAC2 directly binds the promoters of LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT 3 (OsLEA3) and Stress-Activated Protein Kinases 1 (OsSAPK1), two marker genes in the abiotic stress and ABA response pathways, respectively. Our results suggest that in rice OsNAC2 regulates both abiotic stress responses and ABA-mediated responses, and acts at the junction between the ABA and abiotic stress pathways.