PREDICT-CP: study protocol of implementation of comprehensive surveillance to predict outcomes for school-aged children with cerebral palsy.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Cerebral palsy (CP) remains the world's most common childhood physical disability with total annual costs of care and lost well-being of $A3.87b. The PREDICT-CP (NHMRC 1077257 Partnership Project: Comprehensive surveillance to PREDICT outcomes for school age children with CP) study will investigate the influence of brain structure, body composition, dietary intake, oropharyngeal function, habitual physical activity, musculoskeletal development (hip status, bone health) and muscle performance on motor attainment, cognition, executive function, communication, participation, quality of life and related health resource use costs. The PREDICT-CP cohort provides further follow-up at 8-12 years of two overlapping preschool-age cohorts examined from 1.5 to 5 years (NHMRC 465128 motor and brain development; NHMRC 569605 growth, nutrition and physical activity). METHODS AND ANALYSES:This population-based cohort study undertakes state-wide surveillance of 245 children with CP born in Queensland (birth years 2006-2009). Children will be classified for Gross Motor Function Classification System; Manual Ability Classification System, Communication Function Classification System and Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System. Outcomes include gross motor function, musculoskeletal development (hip displacement, spasticity, muscle contracture), upper limb function, communication difficulties, oropharyngeal dysphagia, dietary intake and body composition, participation, parent-reported and child-reported quality of life and medical and allied health resource use. These detailed phenotypical data will be compared with brain macrostructure and microstructure using 3 Tesla MRI (3T MRI). Relationships between brain lesion severity and outcomes will be analysed using multilevel mixed-effects models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The PREDICT-CP protocol is a prospectively registered and ethically accepted study protocol. The study combines data at 1.5-5 then 8-12 years of direct clinical assessment to enable prediction of outcomes and healthcare needs essential for tailoring interventions (eg, rehabilitation, orthopaedic surgery and nutritional supplements) and the projected healthcare utilisation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN: 12616001488493.
Project description:The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18-24 and 36 months, corrected age.This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios.This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals, and presentations at relevant international conferences.
Project description:Background:Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major cause of chronic childhood disability worldwide, causing activity limitation as well as impairments in sensation, cognition, and communication. Leveraging biomarkers to establish individualized predictions of future treatment responses will be of great value. We aim to develop and validate a model that can be used to predict the individualized treatment response in Children with CP. Methods:A multicenter prospective cohort study will be conducted in 4 hospitals in west China. One hundred and thirty children with CP will be recruited and undergo clinical assessment using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI), Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The data collected will include MRI image, clinical status, and socioeconomic status. The clinical information and MRI features extracted using radiomics strategy will be combined for exploratory analysis. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the model will be assessed using multiple modeling methodologies. Internal and external validation will be used to evaluate the performance of the radiomics model. Discussion:We hypothesized that the findings from this study could provide a critical step towards the prediction of treatment response in children with CP, which could also complement other biomarkers in the development of precision medicine approaches for this severe disorder. Trial registration:The study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02979743).
Project description:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used as an assessment or intervention to evaluate or influence brain activity in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) commonly caused by perinatal stroke. This communication report analyzed data from two clinical trials using TMS to assess corticospinal excitability in children and young adults with hemiparetic CP. The results of this communication revealed a higher probability of finding a motor evoked potential (MEP) on the non-lesioned hemisphere compared to the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0.005). The resting motor threshold (RMT) was lower on the non-lesioned hemisphere than the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0.013). There was a significantly negative correlation between age and RMT (rs = -0.65, p = 0.003). This communication provides information regarding MEP responses, motor thresholds (MTs) and the association with age during TMS assessment in children with hemiparetic CP. Such findings contribute to the development of future pediatric studies in neuroplasticity and neuromodulation to influence motor function and recovery after perinatal stroke.
Project description:Background: Walking problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP) can in part be explained by limited selective motor control. Muscle synergy analysis is increasingly used to quantify altered neuromuscular control during walking. The early brain injury in children with CP may lead to a different development of muscle synergies compared to typically developing (TD) children, which might characterize the abnormal walking patterns. Objective: The overarching aim of this review is to give an overview of the existing studies investigating muscle synergies during walking in children with CP compared to TD children. The main focus is on how muscle synergies differ between children with CP and TD children, and we examine the potential of muscle synergies as a measure to quantify and predict treatment outcomes. Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched by two independent reviewers up to 22 April 2019. Studies were included if the focus was on muscle synergies of the lower limbs during walking, obtained by a matrix factorization algorithm, in children with CP. Results: The majority (n = 12) of the 16 included studies found that children with CP recruited fewer muscle synergies during walking compared to TD children, and several studies (n = 8) showed that either the spatial or temporal structure of the muscle synergies differed between children with CP and TD children. Variability within and between subjects was larger in children with CP than in TD children, especially in more involved children. Muscle synergy characteristics before treatments to improve walking function could predict treatment outcomes (n = 3). Only minimal changes in synergies were found after treatment. Conclusions: The findings in this systematic review support the idea that children with CP use a simpler motor control strategy compared to TD children. The use of muscle synergy analysis as a clinical tool to quantify altered neuromuscular control and predict clinical outcomes seems promising. Further investigation on this topic is necessary, and the use of muscle synergies as a target for development of novel therapies in children with CP could be explored.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to create and validate the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), for use by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP.An 11-member development team created comprehensive descriptions of the CFCS levels, and four nominal groups comprising 27 participants critiqued these levels. Within a Delphi survey, 112 participants commented on the clarity and usefulness of the CFCS. Interrater reliability was completed by 61 professionals and 68 parents/relatives who classified 69 children with CP aged 2 to 18 years. Test-retest reliability was completed by 48 professionals who allowed at least 2 weeks between classifications. The participants who assessed the CFCS were all relevant stakeholders: adults with CP, parents of children with CP, educators, occupational therapists, physical therapists, physicians, and speech-language pathologists.The interrater reliability of the CFCS was 0.66 between two professionals and 0.49 between a parent and a professional. Professional interrater reliability improved to 0.77 for classification of children older than 4 years. The test-retest reliability was 0.82.The CFCS demonstrates content validity and shows very good test-retest reliability, good professional interrater reliability, and moderate parent-professional interrater reliability. Combining the CFCS with the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Manual Ability Classification System contributes to a functional performance view of daily life for individuals with CP, in accordance with the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.
Project description:AIM:To determine development curves of communication and social interaction from childhood into adulthood for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD:This Pediatric Rehabilitation Research in the Netherlands (PERRIN)-DECADE study longitudinally assessed 421 individuals with CP, aged from 1 to 20 years at baseline, after 13 years (n=121 at follow-up). Communication and social interactions were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. We estimated the average maximum performance limit (level) and age at which 90% of the limit was reached (age90 ) using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. RESULTS:One-hundred individuals without intellectual disability were aged 21 to 34 years at follow-up (39 females, 61 males) (mean age [SD] 28y 5mo [3y 11mo]). Limits of individuals without intellectual disability, regardless of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, approached the maximum score and were significantly higher than those of individuals with intellectual disability. Ages90 ranged between 3 and 4 years for receptive communication, 6 and 7 years for expressive communication and interrelationships, 12 and 16 years for written communication, 13 and 16 years for play and leisure, and 14 and 16 years for coping. Twenty-one individuals with intellectual disability were between 21 and 27 years at follow-up (8 females, 13 males) (mean age [SD] 24y 7mo [1y 8mo]). Individuals with intellectual disability in GMFCS level V showed the least favourable development, but variation between individuals with intellectual disability was large. INTERPRETATION:Individuals with CP and without intellectual disability show developmental curves of communication and social interactions similar to typically developing individuals, regardless of their level of motor function. Those with intellectual disability reach lower performance levels and vary largely in individual development. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:Communication and social interactions in individuals with cerebral palsy without intellectual disability develop similarly to typically developing individuals. Communication and social interactions of individuals with intellectual disability develop less favourably and show large variation.
Project description:AIM:Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Studies suggest long-lasting effects of SDR on spasticity; long-term effects on symptoms and function are not clear. This study tested whether adults with CP (average 22y after SDR) report less pain, fatigue, and functional decline than a retrospectively assessed non-surgical comparison group. METHOD:This was a case-control study. Eighty-eight adults with CP (mean age 27y; SDR=38 male/female/missing=20/16/2; non-surgical [comparison]=50, male/female=19/31) recruited from a tertiary care center and the community completed a battery of self-reported outcome measures. Regression models were used to test whether SDR status predicted pain, fatigue, functional change, and hours of assistance (controlling for Gross Motor Function Classification System level). RESULTS:SDR status did not significantly predict pain interference (p=0.965), pain intensity (p=0.512), or fatigue (p=0.404). SDR related to lower decline in gross motor functioning (p=0.010) and approximately 6 fewer hours of daily assistance than for those in the comparison group (p=0.001). INTERPRETATION:Adults with CP who had SDR in childhood reported less gross motor decline and fewer daily assistance needs than non-surgically treated peers, suggesting the functional impact of SDR persists long after surgery.
Project description:Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have life-long motor disorders, and they are typically subjected to extensive treatment throughout their childhood. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of early interventions aiming at improving motor function, activity, and participation in daily life. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed Small Step Program, which is introduced to children at risk of developing CP during their first year of life. The intervention is based upon theories of early learning-induced brain plasticity and comprises important components of evidence-based intervention approaches used with older children with CP.A two-group randomised control trial will be conducted. Invited infants at risk of developing CP due to a neonatal event affecting the brain will be randomised to either the Small Step Program or to usual care. They will be recruited from Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital at regular check-up and included at age 3-8 months. The Small Step Program was designed to provide individualized, goal directed, and intensive intervention focusing on hand use, mobility, and communication in the child's own home environment and carried out by their parents who have been trained and coached by therapists. The primary endpoint will be approximately 35 weeks after the start of the intervention, and the secondary endpoint will be at 2 years of age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (second edition). Secondary assessments will measure and describe the children's general and specific development and brain pathology. In addition, the parents' perspective of the program will be evaluated. General linear models will be used to compare outcomes between groups.This paper presents the background and rationale for developing the Small-Step Program and the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the Small Step Program is to influence development by enabling children to function on a higher level than if not treated by the program and to evaluate whether the program will affect parent's ability to cope with stress and anxiety related to having a child at risk of developing CP.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02166801 . Registered June 12, 2014.