Pregnancy-specific stress, fetoplacental haemodynamics, and neonatal outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies: a secondary analysis of the multicentre Prospective Observational Trial to Optimise Paediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To examine associations between maternal pregnancy-specific stress and umbilical (UA PI) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices (MCA PI), cerebroplacental ratio, absent end diastolic flow (AEDF), birthweight, prematurity, neonatal intensive care unit admission and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies. It was hypothesised that maternal pregnancy-specific stress would be associated with fetoplacental haemodynamics and neonatal outcomes. DESIGN:This is a secondary analysis of data collected for a large-scale prospective observational study. SETTING:This study was conducted in the seven major obstetric hospitals in Ireland and Northern Ireland. PARTICIPANTS:Participants included 331 women who participated in the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimise Paediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction. Women with singleton pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks gestation, estimated fetal weight <10th percentile and no major structural or chromosomal abnormalities were included. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Serial Doppler ultrasound examinations of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries between 20 and 42 weeks gestation, Pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ) scores between 23 and 40 weeks gestation and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS:Concerns about physical symptoms and body image at 35-40 weeks were associated with lower odds of abnormal UAPI (OR 0.826, 95%?CI 0.696 to 0.979, p=0.028). PDQ score (OR 1.073, 95%?CI 1.012 to 1.137, p=0.017), concerns about birth and the baby (OR 1.143, 95%?CI 1.037 to 1.260, p=0.007) and concerns about physical symptoms and body image (OR 1.283, 95%?CI 1.070 to 1.538, p=0.007) at 29-34 weeks were associated with higher odds of abnormal MCA PI. Concerns about birth and the baby at 29-34 weeks (OR 1.202, 95%?CI 1.018 to 1.421, p=0.030) were associated with higher odds of AEDF. Concerns about physical symptoms and body image at 35-40 weeks were associated with decreased odds of neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR 0.635, 95%?CI 0.435 to 0.927, p=0.019). CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that fetoplacental haemodynamics may be a mechanistic link between maternal prenatal stress and fetal and neonatal well-being, but additional research is required.
Project description:To compare the maternal and neonatal risks of elective repeat cesarean delivery compared with pregnancy continuation at different gestational ages, starting from 37 weeks.We analyzed the composite maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeat cesarean deliveries studied prospectively over 4 years at 19 U.S. centers. Maternal outcome was a composite of pulmonary edema, cesarean hysterectomy, pelvic abscess, thromboembolism, pneumonia, transfusion, or death. Composite neonatal outcome consisted of respiratory distress, transient tachypnea, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, ventilation, seizure, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, neonatal intensive care unit admission, 5-minute Apgar of 3 or lower, or death. Outcomes after elective repeat cesarean delivery without labor at each specific gestational age were compared with outcomes for all who were delivered later as a result of labor onset, specific obstetric indications, or both.Twenty-three thousand seven hundred ninety-four repeat cesarean deliveries were included. Elective delivery at 37 weeks of gestation had significantly higher risks of adverse maternal outcome (odds ratio [OR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.31), whereas elective delivery at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with better maternal outcome when compared with pregnancy continuation (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.72). Elective repeat cesarean deliveries at 37 and 38 weeks of gestation had significantly higher risks of adverse neonatal outcome (37 weeks OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.73-2.36; 38 weeks OR 1.39 95% CI 1.24-1.56), whereas delivery at 39 and 40 weeks of gestation presented better neonatal outcome as opposed to pregnancy continuation (39 weeks OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92; 40 weeks OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.75).In women with prior cesarean delivery, 39 weeks of gestation is the optimal time for repeat cesarean delivery for both mother and neonate.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess intrapartum/neonatal mortality and morbidity risk in infants born at 37 weeks of gestation compared with infants born at 39-41 weeks of gestation. DESIGN:Nationwide cohort study. SETTING:The Netherlands. POPULATION:A total of 755 198 women delivering at term of a singleton without congenital malformations during 2010-14. METHODS:We used data from the national perinatal registry (PERINED). Analysis was performed with logistic regression and stratification for the way labour started and type of care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Intrapartum or neonatal mortality up to 28 days and adverse neonatal outcome (neonatal mortality, 5-minute Apgar <7, and/or neonatal intensive care unit admission). RESULTS:At 37 weeks of gestation intrapartum/neonatal mortality was 1.10‰ compared with 0.59‰ at 39-41 weeks (P < 0.0001). Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for 37 weeks compared with 39-41 weeks was 1.84 (95% CI) 1.39-2.44). Adverse neonatal outcome at 37 weeks was 21.4‰ compared with 12.04‰ at 39-41 weeks (P < 0.0001) with an aOR 1.63 (95% CI 1.53-1.74). Spontaneous start of labour at 37 weeks of gestation was significantly associated with increased intrapartum/neonatal mortality with an aOR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.56-3.10), in both primary (midwifery-led) care and specialist care. Neither induction of labour nor planned caesarean section showed increased intrapartum/neonatal mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS:Birth at 37 weeks of gestation is independently associated with a higher frequency of clinically relevant adverse perinatal outcomes than birth at 39-41 weeks. In particular, spontaneous start of labour at 37 weeks of gestation doubles the risk for intrapartum/neonatal mortality. Extra fetal monitoring is warranted. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:Birth at 37 weeks of gestation gives markedly higher intrapartum/neonatal mortality risk than at 39-41 weeks, especially with spontaneous start of labour.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether elective induction of labor between 39 through 41 weeks of gestation, as compared with expectant management, is associated with reduced cesarean delivery and other adverse outcomes among obese women and their offspring. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the 2007-2011 California Linked Patient Discharge Data-Birth Cohort File of 165,975 singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous deliveries to obese women. For each gestational week (39-41), we used multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by parity, to assess whether elective induction of labor or expectant management was associated with lower odds of cesarean delivery and other adverse outcomes. RESULTS:At 39 and 40 weeks of gestation, cesarean delivery was less common in obese nulliparous women who were electively induced compared with those who were expectantly managed (at 39 weeks of gestation, frequencies were 35.9% vs 41.0%, respectively [P<.05]; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.88). Severe maternal morbidity was less frequent among electively induced obese nulliparous patients (at 39 weeks of gestation, 5.6% vs 7.6% [P<.05]; adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.87). Neonatal intensive care unit admission was less common among electively induced obese nulliparous women (at 39 weeks of gestation, 7.9% vs 10.1% [P<.05]; adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.89). Patterns were similar among obese parous women at 39 weeks of gestation (crude frequencies and adjusted ORs [95% CIs] were as follows: for cesarean delivery, 7.0% vs 8.7% [P<.05] and 0.79 [0.73-0.86]; for severe maternal morbidity, 3.3% vs 4.0% [P<.05] and 0.83 [0.74-0.94]; for neonatal intensive care unit admission: 5.3% vs 7.4% [P<.05] and 0.75 [0.68-0.82]). Similarly, elective induction at 40 weeks of gestation was associated with reduced odds of cesarean delivery, maternal morbidity, and neonatal intensive care unit admission among both obese nulliparous and parous patients. CONCLUSION:Elective labor induction after 39 weeks of gestation was associated with reduced maternal and neonatal morbidity among obese women. Further prospective investigation is necessary.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the national rate of early-term live births in Brazil and to evaluate the effect of birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation, as compared with 39 and 40 weeks' gestation on infant outcomes according to precursors of birth and the existence of maternal/fetal medical conditions. DESIGN:National perinatal population-based cohort study. SETTING:266 maternity services located in the five Brazilian macroregions. PARTICIPANTS:18?652 singleton live newborns from 37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks of gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Resuscitation in delivery room, oxygen therapy, transient tachypnoea, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), hypoglycaemia, use of antibiotics, phototherapy, phototherapy after hospital discharge, neonatal death and breastfeeding. RESULTS:Early terms accounted for 35% (95% CI 33.4% to 36.7%) of all live births. Among provider-initiated births in women without medical conditions, infants of 37 and 38 weeks' gestation had higher odds of oxygen therapy (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.93, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.98 and AOR 1.92?95% CI 1.18 to 3.13), along with admission to NICU (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.41 and AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.60), neonatal death (AOR 14.40, 95% CI 1.94 to 106.69 and AOR 13.76,95% CI 2.84 to 66.75), hypoglycaemia in the first 48?hours of life (AOR 7.86, 95% CI 1.95 to 31.71 and AOR 5.76, 95% CI 1.63 to 20.32), transient tachypnoea (AOR 2.98, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.65 and AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.48) and the need for phototherapy within the first 72?hours of life (AOR 3.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.60 and AOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.53), yet lower odds of breastfeeding up to 1?hour after birth (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86 and AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) and exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89 and AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99). CONCLUSION:Birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation increased the risk of most adverse infant outcomes analysed, especially among provider-initiated births and should be avoided before 39 weeks' gestation in healthy pregnancies.
Project description:To examine the effects of designation and volume of neonatal care at the hospital of birth on mortality and morbidity outcomes in very preterm infants in a managed clinical network setting.A retrospective, population-based analysis of operational clinical data using adjusted logistic regression and instrumental variables (IV) analyses.165 National Health Service neonatal units in England contributing data to the National Neonatal Research Database at the Neonatal Data Analysis Unit and participating in the Neonatal Economic, Staffing and Clinical Outcomes Project.20?554 infants born at <33?weeks completed gestation (17?995 born at 27-32?weeks; 2559 born at <27?weeks), admitted to neonatal care and either discharged or died, over the period 1 January 2009-31 December 2011.Tertiary designation or high-volume neonatal care at the hospital of birth.Neonatal mortality, any in-hospital mortality, surgery for necrotising enterocolitis, surgery for retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and postmenstrual age at discharge.Infants born at <33?weeks gestation and admitted to a high-volume neonatal unit at the hospital of birth were at reduced odds of neonatal mortality (IV regression odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92) and any in-hospital mortality (IV regression OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85). The effect of volume on any in-hospital mortality was most acute among infants born at <27?weeks gestation (IV regression OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.79). A negative association between tertiary-level unit designation and mortality was also observed with adjusted logistic regression for infants born at <27?weeks gestation.High-volume neonatal care provided at the hospital of birth may protect against in-hospital mortality in very preterm infants. Future developments of neonatal services should promote delivery of very preterm infants at hospitals with high-volume neonatal units.
Project description:To assess the relationship between the timing of antepartum elective caesarean delivery (CD) at term and perinatal outcomes in a Chinese population.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mode of delivery at a large obstetric centre in Shanghai, China between 2007 and 2014. Eligibility criteria included: term nulliparous women with a singleton gestation undergoing antepartum elective CD.There were 19?939 women delivered by antepartum CD without indications, with 5.9% performed at 37-37 6/7 weeks, 36.2% at 38-38 6/7 weeks, 38.4% at 39-39 6/7 weeks, 15.4% at 40-40 6/7 weeks, 4.0% at ?41 weeks. As compared with births at 39-39 6/7 weeks, births at 37 weeks were associated with an increased odds of neonatal respiratory disease (adjusted odds ratian(aOR): 4.82; 95% CI 3.35 to 6.94), neonatal infection (aOR: 3.68; 95% CI 1.80 to 7.52), hypoglycaemia (aOR: 3.85; 95%CI 2.29 to 6.48), hyperbilirubinaemia (aOR: 3.50; 95%CI 2.12 to 5.68), neonatal intensive care admission (aOR: 3.73; 95% CI 2.84 to 4.89) and prolonged hospitalisation (aOR: 7.51; 95% CI 5.10 to 11.07). Births at 38 weeks, 40 weeks or ?41 weeks were also associated with an increased odds of neonatal respiratory disease with corresponding aORs (95% CI) of 2.26 (1.71 to 3.00), 1.97 (1.33 to 2.94) and 2.91 (1.80 to 4.70), respectively.For women undergoing elective CD, neonatal outcome data suggest that delivery at 39-39 6/7 complete weeks is optimal timing in a Chinese population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among women with isolated fetal growth restriction from 17 to 22 weeks of gestation. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies undergoing ultrasonography to assess fetal anatomy between 17 and 22 weeks of gestation at a single center from 2010 to 2014. After excluding patients with fetal structural malformations, chromosomal abnormalities, or identified infectious etiologies, we compared perinatal outcomes between pregnancies with and without fetal growth restriction, defined as estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. Our primary outcome was small for gestational age (SGA) at birth, defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile. Secondary outcomes included preterm delivery at less than 37 and less than 28 weeks of gestation, preeclampsia, abruption, stillbirth, neonatal death, neonatal intensive care unit admission, intraventricular hemorrhage, need for respiratory support, and necrotizing enterocolitis. RESULTS:Of 12,783 eligible patients, 355 (2.8%) had early second-trimester fetal growth restriction. Risk factors for growth restriction were African American race and tobacco use. Early second-trimester growth restriction was associated with a more than fivefold increase in risk of SGA at birth (36.9% compared with 9.1%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.5, 95% CI 4.3-7.0), stillbirth (2.5% compared with 0.4%, OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.7-12.8), and neonatal death (1.4% compared with 0.3%, OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.6-13.5). Rates of indicated preterm birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation (7.3% compared with 3.3%, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) and less than 28 weeks of gestation (2.5% compared with 0.2%, OR 10.8, 95% CI 4.5-23.4), neonatal need for respiratory support (16.9% compared with 7.8%, adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), and necrotizing enterocolitis (1.4% compared with 0.2%, OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.3-20.9) were also significantly higher for those with growth restriction. Rates of preeclampsia, abruption, and other neonatal outcomes were not significantly different. CONCLUSION:Although fetal growth restriction in the early second trimester occurred in less than 3% of our cohort and most of those with isolated growth restriction did not have adverse outcomes, it is a strong risk factor for SGA, stillbirth, neonatal death, and indicated preterm birth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maternal asthma is associated with serious pregnancy complications, but newborn morbidity is understudied. OBJECTIVE:We wanted to determine whether infants of asthmatic mothers have more neonatal complications. METHODS:The Consortium on Safe Labor (2002-2008), a retrospective cohort, included 223,512 singleton deliveries at ? 23 weeks' gestation. Newborns of mothers with asthma (n = 17,044) were compared with newborns of women without asthma by using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Electronic medical record data included gestational week at delivery, birth weight, resuscitation, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, NICU length of stay, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress syndrome, apnea, sepsis, anemia, transient tachypnea of the newborn, infective pneumonia, asphyxia, intracerebral hemorrhage, seizure, cardiomyopathy, periventricular or intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, aspiration, retinopathy of prematurity, and perinatal mortality. RESULTS:Preterm delivery was associated with maternal asthma for each week after 33 completed weeks of gestation and not earlier. Maternal asthma also increased the adjusted odds of small for gestational age (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16), NICU admission (OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.17), hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14), respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.19), transient tachypnea of the newborn (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19), and asphyxia (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.03-1.75). Findings persisted for term infants (? 37 weeks) who had additional increased odds of intracerebral hemorrhage (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.11-3.03) and anemia (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62). CONCLUSIONS:Maternal asthma was associated with prematurity and small for gestational age. Adverse neonatal outcomes, including respiratory complications, hyperbilirubinemia, and NICU admission, were increased in association with maternal asthma even among term deliveries.
Project description:Few studies have examined fetal, infant and maternal mortality and morbidity among pregnant women at very early gestation with an open cervix and prolapsed membranes. We carried out a study describing the outcomes of women hospitalized with prolapsed membranes at 22-28 weeks' gestation.We prospectively recruited women with singleton pregnancies admitted at 22-28 weeks' gestation to tertiary hospitals of the Canadian Perinatal Network between 2005 and 2009. Time-to-delivery, perinatal death, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, severe neonatal morbidity and severe maternal morbidity were compared between women admitted at 22-25 vs. 26-28 weeks gestation. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals.129 women at 22-25 weeks gestation and 65 women at 26-28 weeks gestation were admitted to hospital and the median time-to-delivery was 4 days in both groups. Stillbirth rates were 12.4% vs 4.6% among women admitted at earlier vs later gestation (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 0.5-14.8), while perinatal death rates were 38.0% vs 6.1% (AOR 14.1, 95% CI 3.5-59.0), respectively. There were no significant differences in NICU admission and severe morbidity among live-born infants; 89.4% and 82.3% died or were admitted to NICU, (P value 0.18), and 53.9% vs 44.0% of NICU infants had severe neonatal morbidity (P value 0.28). Antibiotics, tocolysis and cerclage did not have a significant effect on perinatal death. Maternal death or severe maternal morbidity occurred in 8.5% and 6.2% of women admitted at 22-25 vs 26-28 weeks (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-4.2).Perinatal mortality among women with prolapsed membranes at very early gestation is high, although significantly lower among those admitted at a relatively later gestational age. Rates of adverse maternal outcomes are also high. This information can be used to counsel women with prolapsed membranes at 22 to 28 weeks gestation.
Project description:There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL) around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery). However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management.We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n?=?46,176). Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401) of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]). There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]). In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75]) and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00]).A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.