Anticholinergic Prescribing in Medicare Part D Beneficiaries Residing in Nursing Homes: Results from a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Analysis of Medicare Data.
ABSTRACT: Prescribing of medications with anticholinergic properties in older nursing home residents is relatively common, despite an association with an increased risk for falls, delirium, and other outcomes. Few studies have investigated what factors influence different levels of prescribing of these agents.The primary objective was to identify factors associated with low- and high-level anticholinergic burden in nursing home residents. A secondary objective was to examine in detail the contribution of different medications to low versus high burden to aid in determining which drugs to target in interventions.This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of a national sample of 2009-2010 Medicare Part A and B claims, Part D prescription drug events, and Minimum Data Set (MDS) v2.0 assessments. The cohort included 4730 Medicare beneficiaries aged ? 65 years with continuous Medicare Parts A, B, and D enrollment, admitted for non-skilled stays of ? 14 days between 1 January 2010 and 30 September 2010. Anticholinergic burden was defined using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale. Medication scores were summed at the patient level and categorized as high (score ? 3), low (score 1-2), or none. Baseline predisposing factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity), enabling factors (prior year hospitalization, emergency department, primary care, specialist visits; region; Medicaid/low-income subsidy), and medical need factors (dementia severity, anti-dementia medication, Charlson co-morbidity index [CCI], select comorbidities) were evaluated for association with anticholinergic burden using multinomial logistic regression.Overall, 29.6% of subjects had a high anticholinergic burden and 35.2% had a low burden. High burden was most often (72%) due to one highly anticholinergic medication rather than a cumulative effect. In adjusted analyses, factors associated with increased risk of both low and high anticholinergic burden included comorbidity, antidementia medication, depression, hypertension, and prior year hospitalization. Older age was associated with decreased odds of high anticholinergic burden. Urinary incontinence and prior year specialist visit were associated with increased odds of high anticholinergic burden. Severe and nonsevere dementia were associated with decreased odds of low burden but increased odds of high burden.Almost two-thirds of nursing home patients have some degree of anticholinergic burden. Several medical need variables are significantly associated with increased risk for low and high anticholinergic burden. Interventions should be developed to optimize prescribing for residents at increased risk of receiving medications with anticholinergic properties. Future study is needed to evaluate the difference in the risk of adverse outcomes associated with various levels of anticholinergic burden.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Nursing home residents often have a high number of comorbidities resulting in polypharmacy. Inappropriate prescribing is therefore likely to occur, which in turn is expected to worsen cognitive impairment, to increase the fall risk and to decrease residents' quality of life. The objective of the 'Discontinuing Inappropriate Medication in Nursing Home Residents' (DIM-NHR) study is to examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) that is aimed at optimising prescribing and discontinuing inappropriate medication. METHODS:A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Elderly care physicians and their wards (clusters) will be randomised. Data will be collected at baseline and 4?months after the 3MR has taken place. Six hundred nursing home residents will be recruited of whom more than half are expected to suffer from dementia. The 3MR will be based on consensus criteria and the relevant literature and will be performed by the patient's elderly care physician in collaboration with a pharmacist. ANALYSIS:Primary outcomes-the difference in proportion of residents who successfully discontinued inappropriate medication between the intervention and control group at follow-up. Secondary outcomes-undertreatment, exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medicines, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, falls, hospital admission, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Participant burden will be kept at a minimum. The elderly care physician will remain free to adjust medication when symptoms relapse or adverse events occur, rendering serious adverse events highly unlikely. Study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and a 3MR toolkit will be developed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:This study has been registered at http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (trial registration number: NCT01876095).
Project description:To explore the association between the number of physicians providing care and anticholinergic drug burden in older persons newly initiated on cholinesterase inhibitor therapy for the management of dementia.Population-based cross-sectional study.Community and long-term care, Ontario, Canada.Community-dwelling (n = 79,067, mean age 81.0, 60.8% female) and long-term care residing (n = 12,113, mean age 84.3, 67.2% female) older adults (≥66) newly dispensed cholinesterase inhibitor drug therapy.Anticholinergic drug burden in the prior year measured using the Anticholinergic Risk Scale.Community-dwelling participants had seen an average of eight different physicians in the prior year. The odds of high anticholinergic drug burden (Anticholinergic Risk Scale score ≥ 2) were 24% higher for every five additional physicians providing care to individuals in the prior year (adjusted odds ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.26). Female sex, low-income status, previous hospitalization, and higher comorbidity score were also associated with high anticholinergic drug burden. Long-term care facility residents had seen an average of 10 different physicians in the prior year. After a sensitivity analysis, the association between high anticholinergic burden and number of physicians was no longer statistically significant in the long-term care group.In older adults newly started on cholinesterase inhibitor drug therapy, greater number of physicians providing care was associated with higher anticholinergic drug burden scores. Given the potential risks of anticholinergic drug use, improved communication among physicians and an anticholinergic medication review before prescribing a new drug are important strategies to improve prescribing quality.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although antimuscarinics form the first-line therapy in overactive bladder (OAB), little is known regarding antimuscarinic discontinuation among OAB patients in nursing homes. This study examined treatment patterns and predictors of antimuscarinic discontinuation among long-term nursing home (LTNH) residents with OAB. METHODS:The study cohort included LTNH residents (defined as residents staying???101 consecutive days) from the Minimum Data Set linked 2013-2015 Medicare claims data. Patients with OAB were defined by OAB-related claims and medication codes. Treatment patterns and discontinuation (medication gap???30 days) were characterized by examining OAB-specific antimuscarinics prescribed during LTNH stays. The Andersen Behavioral Model was used to identify predisposing, enabling and need factors that predict discontinuation. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted times to discontinuation, respectively, among different antimuscarinics. RESULTS:The mean age of the study cohort (n?=?11,012) was 81.6 years (±?8.5), 74.6% were female, and 89.8% were non-Hispanic White. The mean duration of nursing home stay was 530.1 (±?268.4) days. The most commonly prescribed OAB-specific antimuscarinic was oxybutynin (69.8%). Overall, 66.5% of the study cohort discontinued the index antimuscarinic. Multivariable Cox PH regression analysis revealed that compared to LTNH residents who initiated treatment with oxybutynin, treatment discontinuation was lower with solifenacin or fesoterodin and discontinuation was more frequent when treatment was initiated with tolterodine, darifenacin or trospium compared with oxybutynin. In addition, several need factors (comorbidities, medication use and anticholinergic burden, etc.) were associated with antimuscarinic discontinuation. CONCLUSION:About two-thirds of LTNH residents with OAB discontinued their index antimuscarinic during their nursing home stay. There was significant variation in discontinuation based on the index antimuscarinic agent with lowest risk of discontiuation with solifenacin and fesoterodin. Concerted efforts to optimize antimuscarinic use are needed to improve the management of OAB in nursing homes.
Project description:Objective: Determine the accuracy of nursing home self-reported antipsychotic prescribing before and after implementation of a Medicare campaign to reduce use.Methods: Quasi-experimental study comparing trends in self-reported antipsychotic prescribing relative to claims-based prescribing. Setting is a nationwide sample of 11,912 facilities, 2011-2013. Participants are long-stay nursing home residents (n?=?586,281) with prescribing data in Medicare Minimum Data Set 3.0 and Medicare Part D claims database. Verified with a pharmacy dispensing database. Main outcomes are the discrepancies in quarterly prevalence of antipsychotic prescribing between nursing home self-reports and claims data and the characteristics of facilities and residents where discrepancies were identified.Results: Nursing homes underreport their antipsychotic prescribing levels, on average, by 1 percentage point per quarter relative to Medicare Part D claims (0.013, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.012-0.015; p<.001). After the Medicare campaign, the underreporting gap increased by another half a percentage point (0.004, 95% CI .003-.005; p = .012). Nursing home residents with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or bipolar disorders were at the highest risk for underreported antipsychotic prescribing before the campaign (Adjusted Odds ratio (AOR) 1.385, 95% CI: 1.330-1.444; AOR 1.234, 95% CI: 1.172-1.300; AOR 1.574, 95% CI: 1.444-1.716, respectively) and afterwards. After the launch of the Medicare campaign, underreported antipsychotic prescribing occurred most in for-profit nursing homes (AOR 1.088, 95% CI: 1.005-1.178) and facilities in the US South (AOR 1.262, 95% CI: 1.145-1.391). Agreement was high between claims and dispensing data (99.7%).Conclusion: Nursing homes did not identify up to 6,000 residents per calendar quarter as having received antipsychotics despite these prescriptions being paid by Medicare and dispensed by a pharmacy. Nursing home rates of antipsychotic prescribing from self-reported data may be biased.
Project description:(1) To describe the anticholinergic burden experienced by nursing home residents with dementia using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale; and (2) to determine the association of anticholinergic burden and engagement in activity.Cross-sectional, using baseline data from an ongoing clinical trial.Nine nursing homes in Pennsylvania.Eighty-seven nursing home residents with dementiaThe ACB Scale was used to classify the severity of each resident's prescribed drugs' anticholinergic activity on cognition. Engagement in activity was measured by direct observation using a standard instrument.Across 775 observations, subjects were active approximately 54% of the time, doing nothing 24% of the time, and asleep over 21% of the time. Seventy-one (81.6%) subjects were prescribed at least one drug with anticholinergic properties and 32 (36.7%) were prescribed at least one drug with severe anticholinergic properties. On average, subjects had a total ACB score of 2.55 (+/- 1.9). Mental status (MMSE) and dependency (PGDRS) were associated with engagement, but use of anticholinergic drugs was not.Nursing home residents are prescribed many drugs with anticholinergic properties. The ACB Scale has utility as a tool to alert practitioners to high anticholinergic burden, who can then use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications. Further study using larger samples of persons with dementia in earlier stages of the disease, and use of intense measurement designs are needed to more clearly determine the association of ACB with quality of life indicators.
Project description:Nursing home residents are of particular interest for comparative effectiveness research given their susceptibility to adverse treatment effects and systematic exclusion from trials. However, the risk of residual confounding because of unmeasured markers of declining health using conventional analytic methods is high. We evaluated the validity of instrumental variable (IV) methods based on nursing home prescribing preference to mitigate such confounding, using psychotropic medications to manage behavioral problems in dementia as a case study.A cohort using linked data from Medicaid, Medicare, Minimum Data Set, and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting for 2001-2004 was established. Dual-eligible patients ?65?years who initiated psychotropic medication use after admission were selected. Nursing home prescribing preference was characterized using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The plausibility of IV assumptions was explored, and the association between psychotropic medication class and 180-day mortality was estimated.High-prescribing and low-prescribing nursing homes differed by a factor of 2. Each preference-based IV measure described a substantial proportion of variation in psychotropic medication choice (?(IV???treatment): 0.22-0.36). Measured patient characteristics were well balanced across patient groups based on instrument status (52% average reduction in Mahalanobis distance). There was no evidence that instrument status was associated with markers of nursing home quality of care.Findings indicate that IV analyses using nursing home prescribing preference may be a useful approach in comparative effectiveness studies, and should extend naturally to analyses including untreated comparison groups, which are of great scientific interest but subject to even stronger confounding.
Project description:Antipsychotics are used for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) but have risks. Anticholinergics can worsen outcomes in dementia. The Improving Antipsychotic Appropriateness in Dementia Patients educational program (IA-ADAPT) and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Partnership to Improve Dementia Care (CMS Partnership) promote improved care for BPSD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of these programs on medication use and BPSD among nursing home residents.This quasi-experimental longitudinal study used Medicare and assessment data for Iowa nursing home residents from April 2011 to December 2012. Residents were required to be eligible for six continuous months for inclusion. Antipsychotic use and anticholinergic use were evaluated on a monthly basis, and changes in BPSD were tracked using assessment data. Results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) per month after exposure to the IA-ADAPT or the start of the CMS Partnership.Of 426 eligible Iowa nursing homes, 114 were exposed to the IA-ADAPT in 2012. Nursing home exposure to the IA-ADAPT was associated with reduced antipsychotic use (OR [95% CI] = 0.92 [0.89-0.95]) and anticholinergic use (OR [95% CI] = 0.95 [0.92-0.98]), reduced use of excessive antipsychotic doses per CMS guidance (OR [95% CI] = 0.80 [0.75-0.86]), increased odds of a potentially appropriate indication among antipsychotic users (OR [95% CI] = 1.04 [1.00-1.09]), and decreased documentation of verbal aggression (OR [95% CI] = 0.96 [0.94-0.99]). Facilities with two or more IA-ADAPT exposures had greater reductions in antipsychotic and anticholinergic use than those with only one. The CMS Partnership was associated with reduced antipsychotic use (OR [95% CI] = 0.96 [0.94-0.98]) and decreased documentation of any measured BPSD (OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.97-0.99]) as well as delirium specifically (OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96-0.99]).This study suggests that the IA-ADAPT and the CMS Partnership improved medication use with no adverse impact on BPSD.
Project description:Ageing has become a worldwide reality and presents new challenges for the health-care system. Research has shown that potentially inappropriate prescribing, both potentially inappropriate medications and potentially prescribing omissions, is highly prevalent in older people, especially in the nursing home setting. The presence of potentially inappropriate medications/potentially prescribing omissions is associated with adverse drug events, hospitalisations, mortality and health-care costs. The Collaborative approach to Optimise MEdication use for Older people in Nursing homes (COME-ON) study aims to evaluate the effect of a complex, multifaceted intervention, including interdisciplinary case conferences, on the appropriateness of prescribing of medicines for older people in Belgian nursing homes.A multicentre cluster-controlled trial is set up in 63 Belgian nursing homes (30 intervention; 33 control). In each of these nursing homes, 35 residents (≥65 years) are selected for participation. The complex, multifaceted intervention comprises (i) health-care professional education and training, (ii) local concertation (discussion on the appropriate use of at least one medication class at the level of the nursing home) and (iii) repeated interdisciplinary case conferences between general practitioner, nurse and pharmacist to perform medication review for each included nursing home resident. The control group works as usual. The study period lasts 15 months. The primary outcome measures relate to the appropriateness of prescribing and are defined as (1) among residents who had at least one potentially inappropriate medication/potentially prescribing omission at baseline, the proportion of them for whom there is a decrease of at least one of these potentially inappropriate medications/potentially prescribing omissions at the end of study, and (2) among all residents, the proportion of them for whom at least one new potentially inappropriate medication/potentially prescribing omission is present at the end of the study, compared to baseline. The secondary outcome measures include individual components of appropriateness of prescribing, medication use, outcomes of the case conferences, clinical outcomes and costs. A process evaluation (focusing on implementation, causal mechanisms and contextual factors) will be conducted alongside the study.The COME-ON study will contribute to a growing body of knowledge concerning the effect of complex interventions on the use of medicines in the nursing home setting, and on factors influencing their effect. The results will inform policymakers on strategies to implement in the near future.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66138978.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inappropriate medical treatment of co-morbidities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasing concern in geriatric medicine. The objective of this study was to compare current drug use related to co-morbidity between individuals with a recent diagnosis of AD and a cognitively healthy control group in a population based clinical trial in Northern Norway. METHODS: SETTING: Nine rural municipalities with 70,000 inhabitants in Northern Norway. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS with and without AD recruited in general practice and by population based screening.187 participants with a recent diagnosis of AD were recruited among community dwellers. Of 791 respondents without cognitive symptoms, 500 were randomly selected and invited to further clinical and cognitive testing. The final control group consisted of 200 cognitively healthy individuals from the same municipalities. Demographic characteristics, data on medical history and current medication were included, and a physical and cognitive examination was performed. The statistical analyses were carried out by independent sample t-test, chi-square, ANCOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS: A co-morbidity score was significantly higher in AD participants compared to controls. The mean number of drugs was higher for AD participants compared to controls (5.1±3.6 and 2.9±2.4 respectively, p<0.001 age and gender adjusted), also when adjusted for co-morbidity. AD participants used significantly more anticholinergic, sedative and antidepressant drugs. For nursing home residents with AD the mean number of drugs was significantly higher compared to AD participants living at home (6.9±3.9 and 4.5±3.3, respectively, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AD participants were treated with a significantly higher number of drugs as compared to cognitively healthy controls, even after adjustment for co-morbidity. An inappropriate use of anticholinergic and sedative drugs was identified, especially among nursing home residents with AD. The drug burden and the increased risk of adverse reactions among individuals suffering from AD need more attention from prescribing doctors.
Project description:To examine the association between CNS medication burden and serious falls in those with a recent fall history.Nested-case control study; cases matched to four controls by age, gender, and date.US nursing homes.5,556 residents age ?65 with a recent fall history admitted to a nursing home between 1/1-9/30/2010 and followed until discharge, death, or December 31, 2010.Outcome was serious falls as per Medicare Part A and B ICD/CPT codes. CNS burden, from Medicare Part D data, was calculated by dividing the daily dose of each CNS agent (i.e., specific antidepressants, antiepileptic, antipsychotic, benzodiazepine and opioid receptor agonists) received during the 6 days prior to the index (outcome) date by the minimum effective geriatric daily dose and summing the results across medications.There were 367 cases and 1,468 matched controls. Those taking 3 + CNS standardized daily doses were more likely to have a serious fall than those not taking any CNS medications (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.35-2.48). There was no significant difference in fall risk for residents taking >0 to <3 CNS standardized daily doses compared to residents taking no CNS medications (Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.63-1.15).CNS medication burden, approximately 3 + standardized daily doses, was associated with an increased risk of serious falls in nursing home residents with recent fall. Clinicians should be vigilant for opportunities to discontinue or decrease the doses of individual CNS medications and/or consider non-pharmacological alternatives. Such interventions that reduce use of CNS medications in nursing homes could reduce fall rates but further research is needed to confirm this.