Genome-wide mapping of sister chromatid exchange events in single yeast cells using Strand-seq.
ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination involving sister chromatids is the most accurate, and thus most frequently used, form of recombination-mediated DNA repair. Despite its importance, sister chromatid recombination is not easily studied because it does not result in a change in DNA sequence, making recombination between sister chromatids difficult to detect. We have previously developed a novel DNA template strand sequencing technique, called Strand-seq, that can be used to map sister chromatid exchange (SCE) events genome-wide in single cells. An increase in the rate of SCE is an indicator of elevated recombination activity and of genome instability, which is a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we have adapted Strand-seq to detect SCE in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We provide the first quantifiable evidence that most spontaneous SCE events in wild-type cells are not due to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can arise during DNA replication, or after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and their correct repair is fundamental for cell survival and genomic stability. Here, we show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is recruited to DSBs de novo to support their repair by homologous recombination between sister chromatids. In addition, we demonstrate that Smc5-Smc6 is necessary to suppress gross chromosomal rearrangements. Our findings show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is essential for genome stability as it promotes repair of DSBs by error-free sister-chromatid recombination (SCR), thereby suppressing inappropriate non-sister recombination events.
Project description:Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosomal rearrangements associated with pathological disorders. In bacteria, several different DNA lesions are repaired by homologous recombination, a process that involves sister chromatid pairing. Previous work in Escherichia coli has demonstrated that sister chromatid interactions (SCIs) mediated by topological links termed precatenanes, are controlled by topoisomerase IV. In the present work, we demonstrate that during the repair of mitomycin C-induced lesions, topological links are rapidly substituted by an SOS-induced sister chromatid cohesion process involving the RecN protein. The loss of SCIs and viability defects observed in the absence of RecN were compensated by alterations in topoisomerase IV, suggesting that the main role of RecN during DNA repair is to promote contacts between sister chromatids. RecN also modulates whole chromosome organization and RecA dynamics suggesting that SCIs significantly contribute to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).
Project description:Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are considered sensitive indicators of genome instability. Detection of SCEs typically requires cells to incorporate bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during two rounds of DNA synthesis. Previous studies have suggested that SCEs are induced by DNA replication over BrdU-substituted DNA and that BrdU incorporation alone could be responsible for the high number of SCE events observed in cells from patients with Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by marked genome instability and high SCE frequency. Here we show using Strand-seq, a single cell DNA template strand sequencing technique, that the presence of variable BrdU concentrations in the cell culture medium and in DNA template strands has no effect on SCE frequency in either normal or BS cells. We conclude that BrdU does not induce SCEs and that SCEs detected in either normal or BS cells reflect DNA repair events that occur spontaneously.
Project description:Histone H2AX has a role in suppressing genomic instability and cancer. However, the mechanisms by which it performs these functions are poorly understood. After DNA breakage, H2AX is phosphorylated on serine 139 in chromatin near the break. We show here that H2AX serine 139 enforces efficient homologous recombinational repair of a chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) by using the sister chromatid as a template. BRCA1, Rad51, and CHK2 contribute to recombinational repair, in part independently of H2AX. H2AX(-/-) cells show increased use of single-strand annealing, an error-prone deletional mechanism of DSB repair. Therefore, the chromatin response around a chromosomal DSB, in which H2AX serine 139 phosphorylation plays a central role, "shapes" the repair process in favor of potentially error-free interchromatid homologous recombination at the expense of error-prone repair. H2AX phosphorylation may help set up a favorable disposition between sister chromatids.
Project description:The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins has been implicated in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). The SMC1/3 cohesin complex is thought to promote HR by maintaining the close proximity of sister chromatids at DSBs. The SMC5/6 complex is also required for DNA repair, but the mechanism by which it accomplishes this is unclear. Here, we show that RNAi-mediated knockdown of the SMC5/6 complex components in human cells increases the efficiency of gene targeting due to a specific requirement for hSMC5/6 in sister chromatid HR. Knockdown of the hSMC5/6 complex decreases sister chromatid HR, but does not reduce nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or intra-chromatid, homologue, or extrachromosomal HR. The hSMC5/6 complex is itself recruited to nuclease-induced DSBs and is required for the recruitment of cohesin to DSBs. Our results establish a mechanism by which the hSMC5/6 complex promotes DNA repair and suggest a novel strategy to improve the efficiency of gene targeting in mammalian somatic cells.
Project description:Chromosome ends are known hotspots of meiotic recombination and double-strand breaks. We monitored mitotic sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in telomeres and subtelomeres and found that 17% of all SCE occurs in the terminal 0.1% of the chromosome. Telomeres and subtelomeres are significantly enriched for SCEs, exhibiting rates of SCE per basepair that are at least 1,600 and 160 times greater, respectively, than elsewhere in the genome.
Project description:Chromosomal fragile sites are genomic loci sensitive to replication stress which accumulate high levels of DNA damage, and are frequently mutated in cancers. Fragile site damage is thought to arise from the aberrant repair of spontaneous replication stress, however successful fragile site repair cannot be calculated using existing techniques. Here, we report a new assay measuring recombination-mediated repair at endogenous genomic loci by combining a sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay with fluorescent in situ hybridization (SCE-FISH). Using SCE-FISH, we find that endogenous and exogenous replication stress generated unrepaired breaks and SCEs at fragile sites. We also find that distinct sources of replication stress induce distinct patterns of breakage: ATR inhibition induces more breaks at early replicating fragile sites (ERFS), while ERFS and late-replicating common fragile sites (CFS) are equally fragile in response to aphidicolin. Furthermore, SCEs were suppressed at fragile sites near centromeres in response to replication stress, suggesting that genomic location influences DNA repair pathway choice. SCE-FISH also measured successful recombination in human primary lymphocytes, and identificed the proto-oncogene BCL2 as a replication stress-induced fragile site. These findings demonstrate that SCE-FISH frequency at fragile sites is a sensitive indicator of replication stress, and that large-scale genome organization influences DNA repair pathway choice.
Project description:The process of Sister Chromosome Cohesion (SCC), which holds together sister chromatids upon replication, is essential for chromosome segregation and DNA repair in eukaryotic cells. Although cohesion at the molecular level has never been described in E. coli, previous studies have reported that sister sequences remain co-localized for a period after their replication. Here, we have developed a new genetic recombination assay that probes the ability of newly replicated chromosome loci to interact physically. We show that Sister Chromatid Interaction (SCI) occurs exclusively within a limited time frame after replication. Importantly, we could differentiate sister cohesion and co-localization since factors such as MatP and MukB that reduced the co-localization of markers had no effect on molecular cohesion. The frequency of sister chromatid interactions were modulated by the activity of Topo-IV, revealing that DNA topology modulates cohesion at the molecular scale in bacteria.
Project description:Recombination between homologous chromosomes of different parental origin (homologs) is necessary for their accurate segregation during meiosis. It has been suggested that meiotic inter-homolog recombination is promoted by a barrier to inter-sister-chromatid recombination, imposed by meiosis-specific components of the chromosome axis. Consistent with this, measures of Holliday junction-containing recombination intermediates (joint molecules [JMs]) show a strong bias towards inter-homolog and against inter-sister JMs. However, recombination between sister chromatids also has an important role in meiosis. The genomes of diploid organisms in natural populations are highly polymorphic for insertions and deletions, and meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) that form within such polymorphic regions must be repaired by inter-sister recombination. Efforts to study inter-sister recombination during meiosis, in particular to determine recombination frequencies and mechanisms, have been constrained by the inability to monitor the products of inter-sister recombination. We present here molecular-level studies of inter-sister recombination during budding yeast meiosis. We examined events initiated by DSBs in regions that lack corresponding sequences on the homolog, and show that these DSBs are efficiently repaired by inter-sister recombination. This occurs with the same timing as inter-homolog recombination, but with reduced (2- to 3-fold) yields of JMs. Loss of the meiotic-chromosome-axis-associated kinase Mek1 accelerates inter-sister DSB repair and markedly increases inter-sister JM frequencies. Furthermore, inter-sister JMs formed in mek1? mutants are preferentially lost, while inter-homolog JMs are maintained. These findings indicate that inter-sister recombination occurs frequently during budding yeast meiosis, with the possibility that up to one-third of all recombination events occur between sister chromatids. We suggest that a Mek1-dependent reduction in the rate of inter-sister repair, combined with the destabilization of inter-sister JMs, promotes inter-homolog recombination while retaining the capacity for inter-sister recombination when inter-homolog recombination is not possible.
Project description:DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) pose a high risk for genome integrity. Cells repair DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) when a sister chromatid is available. HR is upregulated by the cycling dependent kinase (CDK) despite the paradox of telophase, where CDK is high but a sister chromatid is not nearby. Here we study in the budding yeast the response to DSBs in telophase, and find they activate the DNA damage checkpoint (DDC), leading to a telophase-to-G1 delay. Outstandingly, we observe a partial reversion of sister chromatid segregation, which includes approximation of segregated material, de novo formation of anaphase bridges, and coalescence between sister loci. We finally show that DSBs promote a massive change in the dynamics of telophase microtubules (MTs), together with dephosphorylation and relocalization of kinesin-5 Cin8. We propose that chromosome segregation is not irreversible and that DSB repair using the sister chromatid is possible in telophase.