Prevalence of Trichinella spp. Infections in Hunted Wild Boars in Northern Iran.
ABSTRACT: Trichinellosis is an important and neglected foodborne zoonotic infectious disease in worldwide. The most human outbreaks in recent years have been related to consumption of wild boar meat. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in hunted wild boars in northern Iran.Thirty-five hunted wild boars were subjected in this study in 2015. All samples were examined by conventional artificial digestion method to detect of muscle larvae. Genomic DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method from isolated larvae. To identify the Trichinella species, a PCR-based method was applied using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences.The overall prevalence of Trichinella spp. infection was 5.7% (2/35, 95%CI= 0-13.4). The mean larval burdens in two positive samples were 0.05 and 6 larvae per gr tissue muscle, respectively. The PCR reaction, using specific primers, yielded two 367 bp and 195 bp bands on agarose gel for ITS 2 and rrnS, respectively.There is a hidden burden of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar population in Iran. Moreover, T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild boars of Iran. Therefore, education of the hunters and other consumers should be performed about the risk of consumption of raw or undercooked meat and meat products from wild boars.
Project description:The northern European wild boar population has increased during the last decade. Highest wild boar numbers in Finland have been reported in the southeastern part near the Russian border. Wild boars may be infected with several human and animal pathogens. In this study, we investigated the presence of important foodborne pathogens in wild boars hunted in 2016 in Finland using serology, PCR and culturing. Seroprevalence of Salmonella (38%) and Yersinia (56%) infections was high in wild boars. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella were found in 18%, 9% and 9% of the wild boars, respectively. Trichinella antibodies were detected in 1% of the animals. We recorded no differences in the seroprevalence between males and females. However, Yersinia and T. gondii antibodies were detected significantly more often in adults than in young individuals. Listeria monocytogenes (48%) and stx-positive Escherichia coli (33%) determinants were frequently detected in the visceral organs (spleen and kidneys) by PCR. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 and L. monocytogenes 2a and 4b were identified by culturing from the PCR-positive samples. Brucella suis biovar 2 was isolated from visceral organs. No African swine fever, classical swine fever or Aujeszky's disease were detected in the wild boars. Our study shows that wild boars are important reservoirs of foodborne pathogens.
Project description:Wild boars may be infected with several zoonotic parasitic infections including Fasciola spp. We reported a case of Fasciola infection in a wild boar in Bushehr Province in southwestern Iran. The sample was isolated from the liver of a hunted wild boar. A few of adult worms were fixed and stained. DNA was extracted from apical and lateral parts of the worms and PCR amplified, targeting NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrion genes. Although the worm was quite long and looked much similar to F. gigantica, sequencing and analysis of PCR products of nad1 and cox1 genes revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with F. hepatica. This is the first report of molecular evaluation of Fasciola spp. from wild boar in Iran.
Project description:Alaria alata is a trematode included among several emerging zoonotic parasites. The mesocercarial larval stage of A. alata named Distomum musculorum suis (DMS) may potentially be infective for humans. In the past, DMS was often observed in wild boar meat during the official Trichinella inspection by artificial digestion before a more specific and effective detection method, the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT), was introduced. In the present study, the AMT method was used to screen 3589 tissue samples collected from wild boars hunted in Poland during the 2015-2019 period. The survey mainly focused on the southern part of Poland with the majority of samples coming from Ma?opolskie, ?wi?tokrzyskie, and Dolno?laskie provinces; samples from ten additional provinces were also included. The total prevalence was 4.2% with mean abundance of 4.7 DMS. Occurrence was dependent upon environmental conditions (i.e., wetland habitats and water reservoirs) rather than on sex of the host or season in which they were hunted. The recovered trematodes were identified as Alaria spp. according to their morphological features. Molecular analysis of 18S rDNA and COI genes confirmed the species identification to be A. alata and documented genetic variability among the isolates.
Project description:Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen, responsible for numerous cases of infection in humans. Transmission occurs through the orofecal route, and ingestion of contaminated foods represents an important risk factor for final consumer's health. Wild animal species, in particular wild boar (<i>Sus scrofa</i>), are the main virus reservoirs; liver is the target organ, from which, through the hematic diffusion, HEV reaches different tissues and organs, as muscular one. The hygienic-sanitary critical issues connected with game meat food chain in general, and particularly wild boar, with special regards to any geographical area where this animal species can be directly in contact with humans, domestic ones (<i>i.e</i>., domestic pig), and other wild reservoirs (<i>i.e.</i>, wild ruminants), finds favorable environmental conditions, have induced us to conduce the present scientific investigation. During the hunting season 2019/2020, a total of 156 wild boar livers were collected from provided plucks at slaughterhouse in Ascoli Piceno. Nested RT-PCR was used for the viral RNA detection. Results demonstrated a positivity of 5.12% (8/156), and the circulation in the screened area of genotype 3 subtype c, which is frequently identified in Central Italy. HEV sanitary relevance and the emerging role of any food chains in its transmission impose further detailed studies. The molecular screening of hunted wild boars' livers can provide important information about virus's circulation in wild animal populations in a specific area.
Project description:Corsica is the main French island in the Mediterranean Sea and has high levels of human and animal population movement. Among the local animal species, the wild boar is highly prevalent in the Corsican landscape and in the island's traditions. Wild boars are the most commonly hunted animals on this island, and can be responsible for the transmission and circulation of pathogens and their vectors. In this study, wild boar samples and ticks were collected in 17 municipalities near wetlands on the Corsican coast. A total of 158 hunted wild boars were sampled (523 samples). Of these samples, 113 were ticks: 96.4% were <i>Dermacentor marginatus</i>, and the remainder were <i>Hyalomma marginatum</i>, <i>Hyalomma scupense</i> and <i>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</i> s.l. Of the wild boar samples, only three blood samples were found to be positive for <i>Babesia</i> spp. Of the tick samples, 90 were found to be positive for tick-borne pathogens (rickettsial species). These results confirm the importance of the wild boar as a host for ticks carrying diseases such as rickettsiosis near wetlands and recreational sites. Our findings also show that the wild boar is a potential carrier of babesiosis in Corsica, a pathogen detected for the first time in wild boars on the island.
Project description:The importance of wild boar lies in its role as a bioindicator for the control of numerous zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases, including antibiotic resistance. Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) is a selective medium used for isolation, enumeration, and differentiation of pathogenic staphylococci. Other genera such as <i>Enterococcus</i> spp. are also salt tolerant and able to grow on MSA. The present study focused on the identification, by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), of bacteria grown on MSA isolated from the nasal cavities of 50 healthy wild boars hunted in Campania Region (southern Italy) in the year 2019. In addition, the antimicrobial resistance phenotype of the isolated strains was determined by disk diffusion method. Among genus <i>Staphylococcus</i>, coagulase-negative <i>Staphylococcus</i> (CoNS) were the most common isolated species, with <i>Staphylococcus xylosus</i> as the most prevalent species (33.3%). Furthermore, <i>Enterococcus</i> spp. strains were isolated, and <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> was the species showing the highest frequency of isolation (93.8%). For staphylococci, high levels of resistance to oxacillin (93.3%) were recorded. Differently, they exhibited low frequencies of resistance to tested non-β-lactams antibiotics. Among enterococci, the highest resistances were observed for penicillin (93.7%), followed by ampicillin (75%), and ciprofloxacin (68.7%). Interestingly, 43.7% of the isolated strains were vancomycin-resistant. In conclusion, this study reports the phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of <i>Staphylococcus</i> spp. and <i>Enterococcus</i> spp. strains isolated from nasal cavities of wild boars hunted in Campania Region, highlighting that these wild animals are carriers of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Project description:The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.
Project description:BACKGROUND Human trichinellosis is a foodborne parasitic zoonotic disease caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat infected with nematode larvae of the genus Trichinella. In the USA, sporadic cases and outbreaks caused by the consumption of wild game meat infected with Trichinella have been reported. The current methods for diagnosis such as serology and microscopy are not specific, may result in false negative results, and cannot differentiate encapsulated Trichinella larvae to species level. The molecular protocols currently available for the differentiation of all encapsulate Trichinella species prevalent in North America have some limitations such as the inability to identify and resolve the presence of several Trichinella species in a single test. OBJECTIVES/METHODS In this study we developed and evaluated a multiplex TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay, which can simultaneously detect, identify and differentiate all species of encapsulated Trichinella occurring in North America i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. murrelli and Trichinella T6, even in cases of multiple infection in a single sample. We investigated two human biopsies and 35 wild animal meat samples considered as having a high likelihood of harboring Trichinella larvae obtained from the United States during 2009-2017. FINDINGS Using the multiplex assay describe here, 22 (59%) samples that tested positive contained Trichinella spp., were identified as: T. nativa (n = 7, including a human biopsy), T. spiralis (n = 9, including a human biopsy), T. murrelli (n = 3), Trichinella T6 (n = 1). Results also included two rare mixed infection cases in bears, a T. nativa/T. spiralis from Alaska and a T. spiralis/Trichinella T6 from California. The species identifications were confirmed using a conventional PCR targeting the rRNA ITS1-ITS2 region, followed by DNA sequencing analysis. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) was approximately seven larvae per gram of meat. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Differentiation of Trichinella spp. is needed to improve efforts on identification of case, optimize food safety control and better understand the geographic distribution of Trichinella species. The Trichinella qPCR multiplex proved to be a robust, easy to perform assay and is presented as an improved technique for identification of all known encapsulated species occurring in North America continent.
Project description:Previously, we reported the presence of imported trichinellosis in a Thai worker returning from Malaysia, who presented with progressive generalized muscle hypertrophy and weakness after eating wild boar meat. This work analyzed a partial small subunit of a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene of Trichinella larvae isolated from the patient. The results showed complete identity with a mitochondrial RNA gene of Trichinella papuae (GenBank accession no. EF517130). This is the first report of imported trichinellosis in Thailand caused by T. papuae. It is possible that T. papuae is widely distributed in the wildlife of Southeast Asia.
Project description:Introduction:Land application of manure that contains antibiotics and resistant bacteria may facilitate the establishment of an environmental reservoir of antibiotic-resistant microbes, promoting their dissemination into agricultural and natural habitats. The main objective of this study was to search for acquired antibiotic resistance determinants in the gut microbiota of wild boar populations living in natural habitats. Material and Methods:Gastrointestinal samples of free-living wild boars were collected in the Zemplén Mountains in Hungary and were characterised by culture-based, metagenomic, and molecular microbiological methods. Bioinformatic analysis of the faecal microbiome of a hunted wild boar from Japan was used for comparative studies. Also, shotgun metagenomic sequencing data of two untreated sewage wastewater samples from North Pest (Hungary) from 2016 were analysed by bioinformatic methods. Minimum spanning tree diagrams for seven-gene MLST profiles of 104 E. coli strains isolated in Europe from wild boars and domestic pigs were generated in Enterobase. Results:In the ileum of a diarrhoeic boar, a dominant E. coli O112ab:H2 strain with intermediate resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin was identified, displaying sequence type ST388 and harbouring the EAST1 toxin astA gene. Metagenomic analyses of the colon and rectum digesta revealed the presence of the tetQ, tetW, tetO, and mefA antibiotic resistance genes that were also detected in the gut microbiome of four other wild boars from the mountains. Furthermore, the tetQ and cfxA genes were identified in the faecal microbiome of a hunted wild boar from Japan. Conclusion:The gastrointestinal microbiota of the free-living wild boars examined in this study carried acquired antibiotic resistance determinants that are highly prevalent among domestic livestock populations.