Comparison of questionnaire-based estimation of pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers.
ABSTRACT: We developed a pesticide residue burden score (PRBS) based on a food frequency questionnaire and surveillance data on food pesticide residues to characterize dietary exposure over the past year. In the present study, we evaluated the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was classified as having high (PRBS?4) or low (PRBS<4) pesticide residues for 90 men from the EARTH study. Two urine samples per man were analyzed for seven biomarkers of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. We used generalized estimating equations to analyze the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers were positively related to high pesticide FV intake but inversely related to low pesticide FV intake. The molar sum of urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers was 21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 44%) higher for each one serving/day increase in high pesticide FV intake, and 10% (95% CI: 1%, 18%) lower for each one serving/day increase in low pesticide FV intake. Furthermore, intake of high pesticide FVs positively related to most individual urinary biomarkers. Our findings support the usefulness of the PRBS approach to characterize dietary exposure to select pesticides.
Project description:Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend <0.001). Furthermore, individuals in the top quintile of this score had urinary pesticide metabolite levels 13.0% (95% CI 8.3%-17.7%) higher than individuals in the lowest quintile. Similarly, we observed significant associations of the OC-PRBS and OP-PRBS with the levels of lipid-adjusted total serum organochlorine pesticides and urinary creatinine-adjusted organophosphate pesticides, respectively. The relative difference (RD) in average pesticide metabolite rank between extreme quintiles was 17.8% (95% CI: 11.1%-24.4%, p for trend <0.001) for the OP-PRBS, whereas the RD was marginally significant at 7.0% (95% CI: -0.5%-14.4%, p for trend 0.07) for the OC-PRBS. The PRBS and OP-PRBS had similar performance when they were derived from fruits and vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend <0.001 for all associations). The OP-PRBS was associated with all measured organophosphate pesticides, whereas the positive association between OC-PRBS and averaged measured organochlorine pesticide residue rank was primarily driven by hexachlorobenzene. OC-PRBS had better performance when derived from more contaminated fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is recommended for the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). FVs are also an important source of exposure to pesticide residues. Whether the relations of FV intake with CHD differ according to pesticide residue status is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with the risk of CHD. METHODS:We followed 145,789 women and 24,353 men free of cardiovascular disease and cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline and participating in three ongoing prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS: 1998-2012), the NHS-II (1999-2013), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS: 1998-2012). FV intake was assessed via food frequency questionnaires. We categorized FVs as having high- or low-pesticide-residues using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of CHD in relation to high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS:A total of 3707 incident CHD events were identified during 2,241,977 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted models, a greater intake of low-pesticide-residue FVs was associated with a lower risk of CHD whereas high-pesticide-residue FV intake was unrelated to CHD risk. Specifically, compared with individuals consuming <1 serving/day of low-pesticide-residue FVs, those consuming ?4 servings/day had 20% (95CI: 4%, 33%) lower risk of CHD. The corresponding HR (comparing ?4 servings/day to <1 serving/day) for high-pesticide-residue FV intake and CHD was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.72, 1.30). CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggested exposure to pesticide residues through FV intake may modify some cardiovascular benefits of FV consumption. Further confirmation of these findings, especially using biomarkers for assessment of pesticide exposure, is needed.
Project description:Importance:Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown. Objective:To examine the association of preconception intake of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables (FVs) with outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Design, Setting, and Participants:This analysis included 325 women who completed a diet assessment and subsequently underwent 541 ART cycles in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2007-2016) at a fertility center at a teaching hospital. We categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residues using a validated method based on surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equations were used to analyze associations of high- and low-pesticide residue FV intake with ART outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures:Adjusted probabilities of clinical pregnancy and live birth per treatment cycle. Results:In the 325 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [4.0] y; body mass index, 24.1 [4.3]), mean (SD) intakes of high- and low-pesticide residue FVs were 1.7 (1.0) and 2.8 (1.6) servings/d, respectively. Greater intake of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of high-pesticide FV intake (<1.0 servings/d), women in the highest quartile (?2.3 servings/d) had 18% (95% CI, 5%-30%) lower probability of clinical pregnancy and 26% (95% CI, 13%-37%) lower probability of live birth. Intake of low-pesticide residue FVs was not significantly related to ART outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance:Higher consumption of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with lower probabilities of pregnancy and live birth following infertility treatment with ART. These data suggest that dietary pesticide exposure within the range of typical human exposure may be associated with adverse reproductive consequences.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>For years the United States Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Data Program and the United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency have published annual or quarterly data on pesticide residues in foods. Both programs report residues in conventionally grown, organic, and imported foods. The US program has tested about 288,000 food samples since 1992, primarily fruits and vegetables consumed by children. Since 1999 the UK has tested about 72,000 samples of a wider range of foods. These data are vital inputs in tracking trends in pesticide dietary risks.<h4>Methods</h4>The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system facilitates detailed analyses of US and UK pesticide residue data, trends, and chronic risk distributions. The DRI value for a pesticide is the dietary intake of that pesticide from a single serving of food divided by the pesticide's acceptable daily intake as set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It can be calculated based on average annual residue concentrations, and on residue levels in individual samples of food. DRI values can be aggregated over multiple pesticides in single foods, and over individual pesticides in multiple foods.<h4>Results</h4>The DRI system provides insights into the levels, trends, and distribution of pesticide dietary risk across most widely consumed foods. By drawing on both US Pesticide Data Program and UK-Food Standards Agency residue data, the DRI is capable of assessing pesticide risks in a significant portion of the global food supply. Substantial reductions in pesticide dietary risks occurred in the early 2000s, primarily from replacement of organophosphate insecticides with seemingly lower-risk neonicotinoids. However, there remain several areas of concern and opportunities to reduce risks. Both herbicide and fungicide dietary risks are rising. Organically grown produce poses risks far lower than corresponding, conventionally grown produce. Risk differences are inconsistent between domestic and imported foods.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The surest ways to markedly reduce pesticide dietary risks are to shift relatively high-risk fruits and vegetables to organic production. For other foods, reducing reliance on pesticides overall, and especially high-risk pesticides, will incrementally lower risks. The DRI system can help focus such efforts and track progress in reducing pesticide dietary risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the associations of maternal intake of fruits and vegetables (FVs), considering pesticide residue levels, with fetal growth. METHODS:We studied 1777 mothers (1275 white, 502 non-white) and their infants from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort (1999-2002). We categorized FVs as containing high or low pesticide residues using data from the US Department of Agriculture. We then used a food frequency questionnaire to estimate each participant's intake of high and low pesticide residue FVs in the first and second trimester. The primary outcomes were small-for-gestational-age (SGA; <10th percentile in birth-weight-for-gestational-age), large-for-gestational-age (LGA; ?10th percentile in birth-weight-for-gestational-age) and preterm birth (gestational age <37?weeks). We also evaluated whether the associations between high pesticide residue FV intake and birth outcomes were modified by race/ethnicity. RESULTS:5.5% of newborns were SGA, 13.7% were LGA, and 7.3% were preterm. Intakes of high or low pesticide residue FVs, regardless of pregnancy trimester, were not associated with risks of SGA, LGA, or preterm birth. In addition, the associations of high pesticide FV intake with SGA and LGA were not modified by race/ethnicity. However, we observed heterogeneity in the relationship between first trimester high pesticide FV intake and risk of preterm birth by race/ethnicity (P value for interaction?=?0.01), although this relationship did not persist after correction for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni corrected level of significance: P?<?2.8?×?10-3). CONCLUSIONS:There were no clear associations between high or low pesticide FV intake during pregnancy with SGA, LGA or preterm birth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pesticide exposure during pregnancy is thought to adversely affect fetal growth, which in turn may impact child growth, but results have been inconsistent across studies and few have explored these effects in developing countries. OBJECTIVES:To quantify urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers in early pregnancy (<16?weeks' gestation), and to estimate the association of these concentrations with preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and stunting at ~1 and 2?years of age. METHODS:Eight pesticide biomarkers were quantified in urine collected from 289 pregnant women (aged 18-40?years) participating in a birth cohort study in Bangladesh. Anthropometry measurements were conducted on the index child at birth and approximately 1 and 2?years of age. A directed acyclic graph was used to identify minimal sufficient adjustment sets. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos methyl, and 4-nitrophenol, a metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion, were detected in nearly all women with geometric mean (95% CI) values of 3.17 (2.82-3.56) and 18.66 (17.03-20.46) µg/g creatinine, respectively. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a non-specific metabolite of several pyrethroids, and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY), a diazinon metabolite, were detected in 19.8% and 16.1% of women, respectively. The remaining four pesticide biomarkers were detected in <10% of women. Women in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol were more than 3 times more likely to deliver preterm than women in the lowest quartile: unadjusted RR (95% CI), 3.57 (1.65, 7.73). Women in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol were also at increased risk of having a child born small for gestational age: RR (95% CI) adjusted for household income, maternal education, and maternal total energy and meat intake, 3.81 (1.10, 13.21). Women with detectable concentrations of IMPY were at increased risk of having a child born with low birth weight compared to women with non-detectable concentrations: adjusted RR (95% CI), 2.13 (1.12, 4.08). We observed no association between any of the pesticide biomarkers and stunting at 1 or 2?years of age. DISCUSSION:Exposure to the insecticides parathion and diazinon during early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes.
Project description:Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities.We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3-6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities.In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations.For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively).An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young children.
Project description:Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children's exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>It was reported that Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake were associated with body antioxidant capacity. The oxidative/anti-oxidative imbalance played an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the association of GST genotype, dietary FV consumption with body antioxidant biomarkers and cognitive function in the elderly is not clear.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of the present study was to determine the association of GST genotype, and dietary FV intake, with antioxidant biomarkers and cognitive function in the elderly.<h4>Methods</h4>Food frequency questionnaire was used to collect data of dietary FV intakes in 504 community dwelling elderly aged from 55 to 75 years old. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by using multiple-PCR method. Plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant biomarkers were measured. Cognitive function was measured by using Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Statistical analysis was applied for exploring the association of GST genotype and FV intake with antioxidant biomarkers level and cognitive function in the elderly.<h4>Results</h4>Individual GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene deletion affects body antioxidant biomarkers levels, including erythrocyte GST activity, plasma total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione levels. GSTM1and/or GSTT1 gene deletion have no effects on cognitive function in the surveyed participants. The effect of GST genotype on antioxidant biomarkers are FV intake dependent. There is interaction of FV intake and GST genotype on cognitive function in the elderly.<h4>Conclusion</h4>GST genotype or daily FV consumption impact body antioxidant biomarkers, but not cognitive function in the elderly. There were combined effects of GST genotype and FV consumption on cognitive function in the elderly population. Large scale perspective population study is required to explore the association of GST genetic polymorphism, FV consumption and antioxidant biomarkers and cognitive function in the elderly.
Project description:We tested the hypothesis that differential gene expression in whole blood will reveal candidate blood biomarkers for exposure to agricultural pesticides and herbicides. Blood gene expression in male Latino farmworkers, where chronic pesticide exposure is occupational, was compared to blood gene expression in age and gender matched Latino manual workers. We identified an expression signature for farmwork, differential expression in genes that correlated with levels of urinary pesticide metabolites, alterations in axonal guidance pathways and statistical models that link farmworker differential expression to Parkinson's disease. Case control, 20 male Latino farmworkers compared to 20 age matched male Latino manual workers.