Mobile elements and chromosomal changes associated with MLS resistance phenotypes of invasive pneumococci recovered in the United States.
ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal macrolide resistance is usually expressed as one of two phenotypes: the M phenotype conferred by the mef gene or the MLSB phenotype caused by modification of ribosomal targets, most commonly mediated by an erm methylase. Target-site modification leading to antibiotic resistance can also occur due to sequence mutations within the 23S rRNA or the L4 and L22 riboproteins. We screened 4,535 invasive isolates resistant to erythromycin and 18 invasive isolates nonsusceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) to deduce the potential mechanisms involved. Of 4,535 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 66.2% were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for mef alone, 17.8% for ermB alone, and 15.1% for both mef and ermB. Thirty-seven isolates (0.9%) were PCR negative for both determinants. Of these, 3 were positive for ermA (subclass ermTR) and 25 had chromosomal mutations. No chromosomal mutations (in 23S rRNA, rplD, or rplV) nor any of the macrolides/lincosamides/streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes screened for (ermT, ermA, cfr, lsaC, and vgaA) were found in the remaining nine isolates. Of 18 Q-D nonsusceptible isolates, 14 had chromosomal mutations and one carried both mef and ermB; no chromosomal mutations or other resistance genes were found in 3 isolates. Overall, we found 28 mutations, 13 of which have not been previously described in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The role of these mutations remains to be confirmed by transformation assays.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological data on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus strains isolated from nasal carriers in each region can be helpful to select appropriate drugs to eradicate carriage states, control nosocomial infections and also treat patients. OBJECTIVES:The current study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile and the molecular prevalence of the ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes among Staphylococcus strains isolated from the anterior nares of hospital employees. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 Staphylococcus isolates, 51 Staphylococcus aureus, 49 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from the anterior nares of hospital employees in Khorramabad, Iran. Susceptibility pattern to macrolide antibiotics were determined using the disk diffusion method. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied to determine the major erythromycin-resistant genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA). RESULTS:Fifty-three (53%) isolates were simultaneously resistant to erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin (cross-resistance); while 8 (8%) isolates had variable macrolide susceptibility pattern. Among the S. aureus isolates, the difference in prevalence of resistance to erythromycin between males and females was significant (P = 0.011). The frequency of ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA genes were 3%, 5%, 33% and 20%, respectively. It was also found that out of 53 isolates resistant to erythromycin, 44 (83%) isolates (eight S. aureus and thirty-six CoNS strains) carried at least one of the four tested genes. Eight (8%) isolates had intermediate phenotype to erythromycin, in which 4 (50%) isolates carried ermB or ermC genes. In addition, out of 39 erythromycin-susceptible isolates, 3 (7.7%) isolates were positive for ermB or ermC genes. CONCLUSIONS:No entire association was found between genotype and phenotype methods to detect macrolides-resistant isolates. In addition, distribution of genetically erythromycin-resistant isolates is geographically different among staphylococci. It is recommend removing S. aureus from nasal carriers by proved approaches such as local or systemic administration of effective antibiotics or bacterial interference.
Project description:Seventy-eight isolates of different Enterococcus species (E. faecalis, n = 27; E. faecium, n = 23; E. durans, n = 8; E. avium, n = 6; E. hirae, n = 9; E. gallinarum, n = 3; and E. casseliflavus, n = 2) with a variety of erythromycin resistance phenotypes were examined for the presence of macrolide resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, ermTR, mefA/E, and msrA). Positive PCR amplifications of ermB were obtained for 39 of 40 highly erythromycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates (MICs, >128 microg/ml) of different species; the remaining highly resistant E. faecium isolate was positive for PCR amplification of ermA but was negative for PCR amplification of the ermB and ermC genes. For all enterococcal strains for which erythromycin MICs were < or =32 microg/ml PCRs were negative for erm methylase genes. For all E. faecium isolates PCR amplified products of the expected size of 400 bp were obtained when msrA primers were used, with the results being independent of the erythromycin resistance phenotype. All the other enterococcal species gave negative results by msrA PCRs. Sequencing of the msrA PCR products from either erythromycin-susceptible, low-level-resistant, or highly resistant E. faecium strains showed that the amplicons did not correspond to the msrA gene described for Staphylococcus epidermidis but corresponded to a new putative efflux determinant, which showed 62% identity with the msrA gene at the DNA level and 72% similarity at the amino acid level. This new gene was named msrC.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance was characterized for 14 strains of Streptococcus mitis. HinfI restriction fragment length mapping of gyrA PCR amplicons from three ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates correlated with mutations associated with such resistance in other organisms. By using PCR, seven erythromycin-resistant strains were found to possess either the mef or ermB gene. Hybridization revealed tet(M) in seven tetracycline-resistant isolates.
Project description:Among 100 patients with group G beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia in a 6-year period (1997 to 2002), seven had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant strains. Five of the seven patients had cellulitis and/or abscesses. The two isolates resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin possessed erm genes, one ermTR and the other ermB. The five isolates resistant to erythromycin but sensitive to clindamycin and one of those resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin possessed mef genes.
Project description:The group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a human commensal bacterium, which is capable of causing several infectious diseases in infants, and people with chronic diseases. GBS has been the most common cause of infections in urinary tract of the elders, but relatively few studies reported the urine-isolated GBS and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Hence, we decided to investigate GBS specially isolated from urine in Suzhou, China.27 GBS samples were isolated from urine in Suzhou, China. The PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to identify the serotype distribution. Susceptibility tests were based on MIC test and Kirby-Bauer test. Genome were sequenced via Illumina Hiseq platform and assembled by SPAdes. Genomes of five isolates were sequenced and submitted to NCBI genome database. The sequencing files in fastq format were submitted to NCBI SRA database.Five serotypes were identified. The resistant rates measured for tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones were 74.1, 63.0, 44.4 and 48.1%, respectively. 18.5% of the isolates were nonsusceptible to nitrofurantoin. The resistance to tetracycline was mainly associated with the gene tetM. The erythromycin resistance was mainly associated with the genes ermB and mefE. The genes ermB and lnuB were the prevalent genes in cMLSB type. No known nitrofurantoin resistance gene was found in nitrofurantoin-nonsusceptible GBS.Five serotypes were identified in our study. High rates of GBS isolates were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones. The genes ermB and lnuB occupied high rates in cMLSB phenotype.
Project description:Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is an under-recognized pathogen and zoonotic agent causing opportunistic infections in humans. Despite increasing recognition of this subspecies as a cause for human infectious diseases, limited information is known about its antibiotic resistance mechanism. In this study, we aim to identify the molecular mechanism underlying the high macrolide resistance of six S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolates from dead ducklings collected in several natural outbreaks in China during 2010-2013. All isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance including high macrolide resistance (MIC ? 1024 mg/L for erythromycin, and 512 mg/L for clarithromycin). Efflux-encoding mefA and mefE genes were not detectable in these isolates. The presence of 23S rRNA mutations in specific isolates did not significantly change macrolide MICs. No nucleotide substitutions were found in genes encoding ribosomal proteins L4 or L22. The ermB and ermT genes were found in the genomes of all isolates. These two genes were acquired independently in one highly virulent isolate AL101002, and clustered with Tn916 and IS1216, respectively. The expression of both ermB and ermT in all isolates was erythromycin inducible and yielded comparable macrolide MICs in all six isolates. Taken together, inducible expression of both ermB and ermT conferred high macrolide resistance in these S. gallolyticus subsp. pasterianus isolates. Our findings reveal new macrolide resistance features in S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus by both ermB and ermT.
Project description:Among nine patients with bacteremia caused by Granulicatella or Gemella in a 6-year period (July 1995 to June 2001), three had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant Granulicatella adiacens and one had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant Gemella haemolysans. All four isolates possessed mef genes, whereas none possessed ermT, ermTR, or ermB genes.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human health problem and recently, domestic animals are described as carriers and possible reservoirs. Twenty seven S. aureus isolates from five turkey farms (n = 18) and two broiler farms (n = 9) were obtained by culturing of choana and skin swabs from apparently healthy birds, identified by Taqman-based real-time duplex nuc-mecA-PCR and characterized by spa typing as well as by a DNA microarray based assay which covered, amongst others, a considerable number of antibiotic resistance genes, species controls, and virulence markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were tested by agar diffusion assays and genotypically confirmed by the microarray. Five different spa types (3 in turkeys and 2 in broilers) were detected. The majority of MRSA isolates (24/27) belonged to clonal complex 398-MRSA-V. The most frequently occurring spa types were accordingly t011, t034, and t899. A single CC5-MRSA-III isolated from turkey and CC398-MRSA with an unidentified/truncated SCCmec element in turkey and broiler were additionally detected. The phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles of S. aureus isolated from both turkeys and broilers against 14 different antimicrobials showed that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, oxacillin, doxycycline, and tetracycline. Moreover, all S. aureus isolated from broilers were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, and fusidic acid. The resistance rate against ciprofloxacin was 55.6% in broiler isolates and 42.1% in turkey isolates. All tetracycline resistant isolates possessed genes tetK/M. All erythromycin-resistant broiler isolates carried ermA. Only one broiler isolate (11.1%) carried genes ermA, ermB, and ermC, while 55.6% of turkey isolates possessed ermA and ermB genes. Neither PVL genes (lukF/S-PV), animal-associated leukocidin (lukM and luk-P83) nor the gene encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst1) were found in turkey and broiler isolates. In conclusion, the detection of MRSA in healthy turkeys and broilers with even additional antibiotic resistance markers is of major public health concern. The difference in antibiotic resistance and virulence markers between MRSA isolates from turkeys and broilers was addressed.
Project description:Since implementation of the 13-valent polyvalent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Canada during 2010, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has declined from 55% (n = 1492) in 2010 to 31% (n = 764) in 2014. A concurrent increase of non-PCV13 serotypes has occurred and 22F has become the most prevalent serotype in Canada increasing from 7% (n = 183) to 11% (n = 283). Core single nucleotide variant phylogenetic analysis was performed on 137 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F isolates collected across Canada from 2005-2015. Six phylogenetic lineages (n = 117) were identified among a serotype 22F/ST433 clonal complex (CC), including a recently expanding erythromycin-resistant clone. Erythromycin-resistance was observed in 25 isolates possessing ermB, mef or a 23S rRNA A2061G point mutation; 2 penicillin-resistant isolates had recombinant pbp1a, pbp2a and/or pbp2x; 3 tetracycline-resistant isolates contained tetM; and 1 isolate was multidrug-resistant. Virulence factor analysis indicated a high level of homogeneity among the 22F/ST433 clonal complex strains. A group of 6 phylogenetic outlier strains had differing MLST, antimicrobial resistance and molecular profiles suggestive of capsule switching events. While capsule switch events among S. pneumoniae serotype 22F has been observed, increasing prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotype 22F can be attributed to an evolving homogenous clone expanding nationally through local transmission events.
Project description:Macrolide resistance has been demonstrated in group B streptococcus (GBS), but there is limited information regarding mechanisms of resistance and their prevalence. We determined these in GBS obtained from neonatal blood cultures and vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Of 178 isolates from cases of neonatal GBS sepsis collected from 1995 to 1998, 8 and 4.5% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively, and one isolate showed intermediate penicillin resistance (MIC, 0.25 microg/ml). Of 101 consecutive vaginal or rectal/vaginal isolates collected in 1999, 18 and 8% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Tetracycline resistance was high (>80%) among both groups of isolates. Of 32 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 28 possessed the erm methylase gene (7 ermB and 21 ermTR/ermA) and 4 harbored the mefA gene; one isolate harbored both genes. One isolate which was susceptible to erythromycin but resistant to clindamycin (MIC, 4 microg/ml) was found to have the linB gene, previously identified only in Enterococcus faecium. The mreA gene was found in all the erythromycin-resistant strains as well as in 10 erythromycin-susceptible strains. The rate of erythromycin resistance increased from 5% in 1995-96 to 13% in 1998-99, which coincided with an increase in macrolide usage during that time.