Lysophosphatidic acid via LPA-receptor 5/protein kinase D-dependent pathways induces a motile and pro-inflammatory microglial phenotype.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species transmit signals via six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR1-6) and are indispensible for brain development and function of the nervous system. However, under neuroinflammatory conditions or brain damage, LPA levels increase, thereby inducing signaling cascades that counteract brain function. We describe a critical role for 1-oleyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (termed "LPA" throughout our study) in mediating a motile and pro-inflammatory microglial phenotype via LPAR5 that couples to protein kinase D (PKD)-mediated pathways.Using the xCELLigence system and time-lapse microscopy, we investigated the migrational response of microglial cells. Different M1 and M2 markers were analyzed by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Using qPCR and ELISA, we studied the expression of migratory genes and quantitated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, respectively. Different transcription factors that promote the regulation of pro-inflammatory genes were analyzed by western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, and microglial cytotoxicity were determined using commercially available assay kits.LPA induces MAPK family and AKT activation and pro-inflammatory transcription factors' phosphorylation (NF-?B, c-Jun, STAT1, and STAT3) that were inhibited by both LPAR5 and PKD family antagonists. LPA increases migratory capacity, induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and expression of M1 markers, enhances production of ROS and NO by microglia, and augments cytotoxicity of microglial cell-conditioned medium towards neurons. The PKD family inhibitor blunted all of these effects. We propose that interference with this signaling axis could aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches to control neuroinflammation under conditions of overshooting LPA production.In the present study, we show that inflammatory LPA levels increased the migratory response of microglia and promoted a pro-inflammatory phenotype via the LPAR5/PKD axis. Interference with this signaling axis reduced microglial migration, blunted microglial cytotoxicity, and abrogated the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species in the extracellular environment induce downstream signaling <i>via</i> six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR1-6). These signaling cascades are essential for normal brain development and function of the nervous system. However, in response to acute or chronic central nervous system (CNS) damage, LPA levels increase and aberrant signaling events can counteract brain function. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions signaling along the LPA/LPAR5 axis induces a potentially neurotoxic microglia phenotype indicating the need for new pharmacological intervention strategies. Therefore, we compared the effects of two novel small-molecule LPAR5 antagonists on LPA-induced polarization parameters of the BV-2 microglia cell line. AS2717638 is a selective piperidine-based LPAR5 antagonist (IC<sub>50</sub> 0.038 ?M) while compound 3 is a diphenylpyrazole derivative with an IC<sub>50</sub> concentration of 0.7 ?M in BV-2 cells. Both antagonists compromised cell viability, however, at concentrations above their IC<sub>50</sub> concentrations. Both inhibitors blunted LPA-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3, p65, and c-Jun and consequently reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cyto-/chemokines (IL-6, TNF?, IL-1?, CXCL10, CXCL2, and CCL5) at non-toxic concentrations. Both compounds modulated the expression of intracellular (COX-2 and Arg1) and plasma membrane-located (CD40, CD86, and CD206) polarization markers yet only AS2717638 attenuated the neurotoxic potential of LPA-activated BV-2 cell-conditioned medium towards CATH.a neurons. Our findings from the present <i>in vitro</i> study suggest that the two LPAR5 antagonists represent valuable pharmacological tools to interfere with LPA-induced pro-inflammatory signaling cascades in microglia.
Project description:Obesity increases cancer risk including breast cancer (BC). However, the direct regulatory mechanisms by which obesity promotes BC progression remain largely unknown. We show that lysophosphatidic acid/protein kinase D1 (LPA/PKD-1)-CD36 signaling is a bona fide breast cancer promoter via stimulating microvascular remodeling in chronic diet-induced obesity (DIO). We observed that the growth of an estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer was markedly increased when compared to the lean control, and specifically accompanied by increased microvascular remodeling in a syngeneic BC model in female DIO mice. The tumor neovessels in DIO mice demonstrated elevated levels of alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR 2) and endothelial differentiation gene 2/LPA receptor1 (Edg2/LPA1), enhanced PKD-1 phosphorylation, and reduced CD36 expression. Tumor associated endothelial cells (TAECs) exposed to LPA demonstrated sustained nuclear PKD-1 phosphorylation, and elevated mRNA levels of ephrin B2, and reduced mRNA expression of CD36. TAEC proliferation also increased in response to LPA/PKD-1 signaling. These studies suggest that the LPA/PKD-1-CD36 signaling axis links DIO to malignant progression of BC via stimulation of de novo tumor arteriogenesis through arteriolar remodeling of microvasculature in the tumor microenvironment. Targeting this signaling axis could provide an additional novel therapeutic strategy.
Project description:Eleven novel isoquinoline-1-carboxamides (HSR1101~1111) were synthesized and evaluated for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell migration in BV2 microglial cells. Three compounds (HSR1101~1103) exhibited the most potent suppression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide (NO), without significant cytotoxicity. Among them, only N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) isoquinoline-1-carboxamide (HSR1101) was found to reverse LPS-suppressed anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, so it was selected for further characterization. HSR1101 attenuated LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Particularly, HSR1101 abated LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B through inhibition of I?B phosphorylation. Furthermore, HSR1101 inhibited LPS-induced cell migration and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK. The specific MAPK inhibitors, U0126, SP600125, and SB203580, suppressed LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators, cell migration, and NF-?B nuclear translocation, indicating that MAPKs may be the upstream kinase of NF-?B signaling. Collectively, these results demonstrate that HSR1101 is a potent and promising compound suppressing LPS-induced inflammation and cell migration in BV2 microglial cells, and that inhibition of the MAPKs/NF-?B pathway mediates its anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory effects. Based on our findings, HSR1101 may have beneficial impacts on various neurodegenerative disorders associated with neuroinflammation and microglial activation.
Project description:Phospholipase C? (PLC?), an effector of Ras and Rap small GTPases, plays a crucial role in inflammation by augmenting proinflammatory cytokine expression. This proinflammatory function of PLC? is implicated in its facilitative role in tumor promotion and progression during skin and colorectal carcinogenesis, although their direct link remains to be established. Moreover, the molecular mechanism underlying these functions of PLC? remains unknown except that PKD works downstream of PLC?. Here we show by employing the colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, where Apc(Min) (/+) mice are administered with dextran sulfate sodium, that PLC? knock-out alleviates the colitis and suppresses the following tumorigenesis concomitant with marked attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human colon epithelial Caco2 cells, TNF-? induces sustained expression of proinflammatory molecules and sustained activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and PKD, the late phases of which are suppressed by not only siRNA-mediated PLC? knockdown but also treatment with a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor antagonist. Also, LPA stimulation induces these events in an early time course, suggesting that LPA mediates TNF-? signaling in an autocrine manner. Moreover, PLC? knockdown results in inhibition of phosphorylation of I?B by ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) but not by I?B kinases. Subcellular fractionation suggests that enhanced phosphorylation of a scaffolding protein, PEA15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15), downstream of the PLC?-PKD axis causes sustained cytoplasmic localization of phosphorylated RSK, thereby facilitating I?B phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. These results suggest the crucial role of the TNF-?-LPA-LPA receptor-PLC?-PKD-PEA15-RSK-I?B-NF-?B pathway in facilitating inflammation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis in the colon.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a destructive arthropathy with systemic manifestations, characterized by chronic synovial inflammation. Under the influence of the pro-inflammatory milieu synovial fibroblasts (SFs), the main effector cells in disease pathogenesis become activated and hyperplastic while releasing a number of signals that include pro-inflammatory factors and tissue remodeling enzymes. Activated RA SFs in mouse or human arthritic joints express significant quantities of autotaxin (ATX), a lysophospholipase D responsible for the majority of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) production in the serum and inflamed sites. Conditional genetic ablation of ATX from SFs resulted in attenuation of disease symptoms in animal models, an effect attributed to diminished LPA signaling in the synovium, shown to activate SF effector functions. Here we show that administration of 1-bromo-3(S)-hydroxy-4-(palmitoyloxy)butyl-phosphonate (BrP-LPA), a metabolically stabilized analog of LPA and a dual function inhibitor of ATX and pan-antagonist of LPA receptors, attenuates collagen induced arthritis (CIA) development, thus validating the ATX/LPA axis as a novel therapeutic target in RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the extracellular environment, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species are generated via autotaxin (ATX)-mediated hydrolysis of lysophospholipid precursors. Members of the LPA family are potent lipid mediators transmitting signals via six different G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPAR1-6). The LPA signaling axis is indispensable for brain development and function of the nervous system; however, during damage of the central nervous system, LPA levels can increase and aberrant signaling events counteract brain function. Here, we investigated regulation of the ATX/LPA/LPAR axis in response to lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation in mice and potential neurotoxic polarization programs in LPA-activated primary murine microglia. METHODS:In vivo, LPAR1-6 expression was established by qPCR in whole murine brain homogenates and in FACS-sorted microglia. ELISAs were used to quantitate LPA concentrations in the brain and cyto-/chemokine secretion from primary microglia in vitro. Transcription factor phosphorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting, and plasma membrane markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. We used MAPK inhibitors to study signal integration by the JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 branches in response to LPA-mediated activation of primary microglia. RESULTS:Under acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, we observed a significant increase in LPA concentrations and differential regulation of LPAR, ATX (encoded by ENPP2), and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (encoded by PLA2G4A) gene expression in the brain and FACS-sorted microglia. During pathway analyses in vitro, the use of specific MAPK antagonists (SP600125, SB203580, and PD98059) revealed that JNK and p38 inhibition most efficiently attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of proinflammatory transcription factors (STAT1 and -3, p65, and c-Jun) and secretion of IL-6 and TNF?. All three inhibitors decreased LPA-mediated secretion of IL-1?, CXCL10, CXCL2, and CCL5. The plasma membrane marker CD40 was solely inhibited by SP600125 while all three inhibitors affected expression of CD86 and CD206. All MAPK antagonists reduced intracellular COX-2 and Arg1 as well as ROS and NO formation, and neurotoxicity of microglia-conditioned media. CONCLUSION:In the present study, we show that systemic inflammation induces aberrant ATX/LPA/LPAR homeostasis in the murine brain. LPA-mediated polarization of primary microglia via MAPK-dependent pathways induces features reminiscent of a neurotoxic phenotype.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid present in low concentrations in serum and biological fluids but in high concentrations at sites of inflammation. LPA evokes a variety of cellular responses via binding to and activation of its specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), namely LPA(1-6). Even though LPA is a chemoattractant for inflammatory cells in vitro, such a role for LPA in vivo remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we used the murine air pouch model to study LPA-mediated leukocyte recruitment in vivo using selective LPA receptor agonist/antagonist and LPA(3)-deficient mice. We report that 1) LPA injection into the air pouch induced leukocyte recruitment and that both LPA(1) and LPA(3) were involved in this process; 2) LPA stimulated the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in the air pouch; 3) tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) injected into the air pouch prior to LPA strongly potentiated LPA-mediated secretion of cytokines/chemokines, including KC, IL-6, and IP-10, which preceded the enhanced leukocyte influx; and 4) blocking CXCR2 significantly reduced leukocyte infiltration. We suggest that LPA, via LPA(1) and LPA(3) receptors, may play a significant role in inducing and/or sustaining the massive infiltration of leukocytes during inflammation.
Project description:Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating metabolic and inflammatory pathways in response to fatty acids. Loss of FABP4 in peripheral macrophages via either molecular or pharmacologic mechanisms results in reduced obesity-induced inflammation via a UCP2-redox based mechanism. Despite the widespread appreciation for the role of FABP4 in mediating peripheral inflammation, the expression of FABP4 and a potential FABP4-UCP2 axis regulating microglial inflammatory capacity is largely uncharacterized. To that end, we hypothesized that microglial cells express FABP4 and that inhibition would upregulate UCP2 and attenuate palmitic acid (PA)-induced pro-inflammatory response. Gene expression confirmed expression of FABP4 in brain tissue lysate from C57Bl/6J mice and BV2 microglia. Treatment of microglial cells with an FABP inhibitor (HTS01037) increased expression of Ucp2 and arginase in the presence or absence of PA. Moreover, cells exposed to HTS01037 exhibited attenuated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) compared to PA alone indicating reduced NF?B signaling. Hypothalamic tissue from mice lacking FABP4 exhibit increased UCP2 expression and reduced iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1; microglial activation marker) expression compared to wild type mice. Further, this effect is negated in microglia lacking UCP2, indicating the FABP4-UCP2 axis is pivotal in obesity induced neuroinflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a FABP4-UCP2 axis with the potential to modulate the microglial inflammatory response.
Project description:Autophagy is a fundamental cellular homeostatic mechanism, whereby cells autodigest parts of their cytoplasm for removal or turnover. Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with autophagy dysregulation, and drugs modulating autophagy have been successful in several animal models. Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) that become activated in pathological conditions and determine the fate of other neural cells. Here, we studied the effects of autophagy on the production of pro-inflammatory molecules in microglial cells and their effects on neuronal cells. We observed that both trehalose and rapamycin activate autophagy in BV2 microglial cells and down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), in response to LPS and alpha-synuclein. Autophagy also modulated the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs in BV2 cells, which was required for NO production. These actions of autophagy modified the impact of microglial activation on neuronal cells, leading to suppression of neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrate a novel role for autophagy in the regulation of microglial cell activation and pro-inflammatory molecule secretion, which may be important for the control of inflammatory responses in the CNS and neurotoxicity.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid present at high concentrations within lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques. Upon local accumulation in the damaged vessels, LPA can act as a potent activator for various types of immune cells through its specific membrane receptors LPA1/3. LPA elicits chemotactic, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects that lead to atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this study we aimed to inhibit LPA signaling by means of LPA1/3 antagonism using the small molecule Ki16425. We show that LPA1/3 inhibition significantly impaired atherosclerosis progression. Treatment with Ki16425 also resulted in reduced CCL2 production and secretion, which led to less monocyte and neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, we provide evidence that LPA1/3 blockade enhanced the percentage of non-inflammatory, Ly6C(low) monocytes and CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T-regulatory cells. Finally, we demonstrate that LPA1/3 antagonism mildly reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of LPA1/3 receptors may prove a promising approach to diminish atherosclerosis development.