A glutathione peroxidase from Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. ANT506: Cloning and heterologous expression of the gene and characterization of recombinant enzyme.
ABSTRACT: A glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene, designated as PsGPx, was cloned from Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. ANT506 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length PsGPx contained a 585-bp encoding 194 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of approx. 21.7 kDa. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that PsGPx belonged to the thioredoxin-like superfamily. PsGPx was heterologously overexpressed in E. coli, purified and characterized. The maximum catalytic temperature and pH value for recombinant PsGPx (rPsGPx) were 30°C and pH 9.0, respectively. rPsGPx retained 45% of the maximum activity at 0°C and exhibited high thermolability with a half-life of approx. 40 min at 40°C. In addition, the enzymatic activity of rPsGPx was still manifested under 3 M NaCl. The Km and Vmax values of the recombinant enzyme using GSH and H2O2 as substrates were 1.73 mM and 16.28 nmol/mL/min versus 2.46 mM and 21.50 nmol/mL/min, respectively.
Project description:The uptake and release of 3-O-methyl-D-[3H]glucose at 37 degrees C by acini, prepared from lactating-rat mammary gland with collagenase, was inhibited by glucose, phloretin, cytochalasin B, HgCl2 and low temperature. Uptake and phosphorylation of 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, studied in greater detail, could be ascribed to a specific, saturable, inhibitable, process of apparent Km 16 mM and Vmax. approx. 56 nmol/min per mg of protein, plus a non-specific, non-inhibitable process that was monitored with [14C]fructose. The mean rate of uptake of 5 mM-2-deoxyglucose (16 nmol/min per mg of protein) was similar to the rate of consumption of 5 mM-glucose, suggesting that transport was a rate-limiting step in the overall metabolism of glucose. This accords with evidence for a glucose gradient across the plasma membrane.
Project description:Transport of glutamine by brush-border vesicles prepared from the renal cortex was studied. The transport system had both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. The presence of Na+ in the incubation resulted in an 'overshoot' at 30s at which time the rates of transport were approx. 8 times the values obtained in the absence of Na+. Variation of the glutamine concentration showed that the system obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km and Vmax. values for the Na+-dependent system of 0.86 mM and 9.6 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. Vesicles obtained from chronically acidotic rats showed similar kinetic characteristics. The Km and Vmax. values for the Na+-dependent system were 0.76 mM and 9.6 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. There was increased uptake of glutamine by vesicles from acidotic rats and this increase was associated with increased activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase in these preparations. Vesicles from acidotic rats, however, showed no increase in glucose transport and no increase in the activity of maltase, another brush-border enzyme.
Project description:An important but unresolved question is whether mammalian mitochondria metabolize arginine to agmatine by the ADC (arginine decarboxylase) reaction. 15N-labelled arginine was used as a precursor to address this question and to determine the flux through the ADC reaction in isolated mitochondria obtained from rat liver. In addition, liver perfusion system was used to examine a possible action of insulin, glucagon or cAMP on a flux through the ADC reaction. In mitochondria and liver perfusion, 15N-labelled agmatine was generated from external 15N-labelled arginine. The production of 15N-labelled agmatine was time- and dose-dependent. The time-course of [U-15N4]agmatine formation from 2 mM [U-15N4]arginine was best fitted to a one-phase exponential curve with a production rate of approx. 29 pmol x min(-1) x (mg of protein)(-1). Experiments with an increasing concentration (0- 40 mM) of [guanidino-15N2]arginine showed a Michaelis constant Km for arginine of 46 mM and a Vmax of 3.7 nmol x min(-1) x (mg of protein)(-1) for flux through the ADC reaction. Experiments with broken mitochondria showed little changes in Vmax or Km values, suggesting that mitochondrial arginine uptake had little effect on the observed Vmax or Km values. Experiments with liver perfusion demonstrated that over 95% of the effluent agmatine was derived from perfusate [guanidino-15N2]arginine regardless of the experimental condition. However, the output of 15N-labelled agmatine (nmol x min(-1) x g(-1)) increased by approx. 2-fold (P<0.05) in perfusions with cAMP. The findings of the present study provide compelling evidence that mitochondrial ADC is present in the rat liver, and suggest that cAMP may stimulate flux through this pathway.
Project description:Cells from primary rat astrocyte cultures express a 36.5 kDa protein that cross-reacts with polyclonal antibodies to the catalytic subunit of rat hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase on Western blotting. Glucose-6-phosphate-hydrolysing activity of the order of 10 nmol/min per mg of total cellular protein can be demonstrated in cell homogenates. This activity shows latency, and is localized to the microsomal fraction. Kinetic analysis shows a Km of 15 mM and a Vmax. of 30 nmol/min per mg of microsomal protein in disrupted microsomes. Approx. 40% of the total phosphohydrolase activity is specific glucose-6-phosphatase, as judged by sensitivity to exposure to pH 5 at 37 degrees C. Previous reports that the brain microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase system does not distinguish glucose 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate are confirmed in astrocyte microsomes. However, we demonstrate significant phosphomannose isomerase activity in brain microsomes, allowing for ready interconversion between mannose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate (Vmax. 15 nmol/min per mg of microsomal protein; apparent Km < 1 mM; pH optimum 5-6 for the two-step conversion). This finding invalidates the past inference from the failure of brain microsomes to distinguish mannose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate that the cerebral glucose-6-phosphatase system lacks a 'glucose 6-phosphate translocase' [Fishman and Karnovsky (1986) J. Neurochem. 46, 371-378]. Furthermore, light-scattering experiments confirm that a proportion of whole brain microsomes is readily permeable to glucose 6-phosphate.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus may survive the mild heat treatments given to minimally processed chilled foods. Subsequent germination and cell multiplication during refrigerated storage may lead to bacterial concentrations that are hazardous to health.<h4>Scope and approach</h4>This review is concerned with the characterisation of factors that prevent psychrotrophic B. cereus reaching hazardous concentrations in minimally processed chilled foods and associated foodborne illness. A risk assessment framework is used to quantify the risk associated with B. cereus and minimally processed chilled foods.<h4>Key findings and conclusions</h4>Bacillus cereus is responsible for two types of food poisoning, diarrhoeal (an infection) and emetic (an intoxication); however, no reported outbreaks of food poisoning have been associated with B. cereus and correctly stored commercially-produced minimally processed chilled foods. In the UK alone, more than 10<sup>10</sup> packs of these foods have been sold in recent years without reported illness, thus the risk presented is very low. Further quantification of the risk is merited, and this requires additional data. The lack of association between diarrhoeal food poisoning and correctly stored commercially-produced minimally processed chilled foods indicates that an infectious dose has not been reached. This may reflect low pathogenicity of psychrotrophic strains. The lack of reported association of psychrotrophic B. cereus with emetic illness and correctly stored commercially-produced minimally processed chilled foods indicates that a toxic dose of the emetic toxin has not been formed. Laboratory studies show that strains form very small quantities of emetic toxin at chilled temperatures.
Project description:During cold storage after milk collection, psychrotrophic bacterial populations dominate the microflora, and their extracellular enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases, contribute to the spoilage of dairy products. The diversity, dynamics, and enzymatic traits of culturable psychrotrophs in raw milk from four farms were investigated over a 10-month period. About 20% of the isolates were found to be novel species, indicating that there is still much to be learned about culturable psychrotrophs in raw milk. The psychrotrophic isolates were identified and classified in seven classes. Three classes were predominant, with high species richness (18 to 21 species per class) in different seasons of the year: Gammaproteobacteria in spring and winter, Bacilli in summer, and Actinobacteria in autumn. The four minor classes were Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. The dominant classes were found in all four dairies, although every dairy had its own unique "bacterial profile." Most but not all bacterial isolates had either lipolytic or both lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Only a few isolates showed proteolytic activity alone. The dominant genera, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), showed mainly lipolytic activity, Microbacterium (Actinobacteria) was highly lipolytic and proteolytic, and the lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus and Leuconostoc) displayed very minor enzymatic ability. Hence, the composition of psychrotrophic bacterial flora in raw milk has an important role in the determination of milk quality. Monitoring the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for the production of heat-stable proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes offers a sensitive and efficient tool for maintaining better milk quality in the milk industry.
Project description:The hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids induced by vasopressin in hepatocytes during 60 min was quantified chemically. There was a large release of myo-inositol which was abolished by Li+, indicating that it was derived from inositol phosphates and not from phospholipase D action on PtdIns. There was also a large release of inositol phosphates which was increased approx. 2-fold by Li+ at 30 min, but then remained constant, suggesting that inositol phospholipid breakdown declined substantially beyond this time. In cells prelabelled with myo-[3H]inositol and treated with Li+, [3H]PtdIns(4,5)P2 decreased maximally (50%) at 15 s and then recovered to a level at 5 min that was maintained at 25% below control for 40 min. [3H]PtdIns4P and [3H]PtdIns showed slower decreases to approx. 30% below control at 15 min, but with no further changes. Labelled Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4)P3 showed 2-4-fold increases within 30 s and then declined to values that were maintained at a constant level above the control, except for [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3, which showed a second increase. [3H]Ins(1,4)P2 showed a very large increase over 10 min, whereas [3H]Ins4P and [3H]Ins1P showed little change before 6 and 15 min respectively. The total [3H]inositol phosphates showed little further increase after 20 min. These data are consistent with a rapid, but not sustained, hydrolysis of PtdIns-(4,5)P2, but not of PtdIns, by phospholipase C, but do not exclude PtdIns4P as a substrate. Phosphatidate was rapidly increased by vasopressin, whereas diacylglycerol was increased after a 1-2 min lag. Both were maintained at levels 2-3-fold above control for 60 min. The vasopressin-induced increase in inositol phosphates plus myo-inositol (approx. 120 nmol/100 mg) was greater than the increase in diacylglycerol plus phosphatidate (approx. 60 nmol/100 mg) between 10 and 40 min. This indicates that there was substantial further metabolism of these lipids. Addition of 75 mM ethanol resulted in rapid production of phosphatidylethanol in response to vasopressin and a 35% reduction in phosphatidate, but no decrease in diacylglycerol. In summary, the results indicate that inositol phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase C can account for most of the diacylglycerol and phosphatidate that accumulate during 60 min of vasopressin action, but that these phospholipids are probably not the major source of the phosphatidate that is formed during the first 2 min by phospholipase D, or of the diacylglycerol and phosphatidate that are formed beyond 30 min.
Project description:Low temperatures and high pH generally inhibit the biodenitrification. Thus, it is important to explore the psychrotrophic and alkali-resisting microorganism for degradation of nitrogen. This research was mainly focused on the identification of a psychrotrophic strain and preliminary explored its denitrification characteristics. The new strain J was isolated using the bromothymol blue solid medium and identified as Pseudomonas taiwanensis on the basis of morphology and phospholipid fatty acid as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, which is further testified to work efficiently for removing nitrate from wastewater at low temperature circumstances. This is the first report that Pseudomonas taiwanensis possessed excellent tolerance to low temperature, with 15°C as its optimum and 5°C as viable. The Pseudomonas taiwanensis showed unusual ability of aerobic denitrification with the nitrate removal efficiencies of 100% at 15°C and 51.61% at 5°C. Single factor experiments showed that the optimal conditions for denitrification were glucose as carbon source, 15°C, shaking speed 150 r/min, C/N 15, pH ≥ 7, and incubation quantity 2.0 × 106 CFU/mL. The nitrate and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 100% and 93.79% at 15°C when glucose is served as carbon source. These results suggested that strain J had aerobic denitrification ability, as well as the notable ability to tolerate the low temperature and high pH.
Project description:The oxidative degradation of plasmalogen (alkenylacyl) phospholipids was analysed in the absence and the presence of polyunsaturated ester phospholipids by 1H-NMR and by chemical determination. Brain lysoplasmenylethanolamine (lyso-P-PE), brain P-PE and erythrocyte P-PE, containing an increasing number of intrachain double bonds at sn2, were oxidized with 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH; 2 or 10 mM) in Triton X-100 micelles (detergent/phospholipid 1:5, mol/mol). The formation of two peroxyl radicals was accompanied by the degradation of approx. one molecule of brain lyso-P-PE. On oxidation of brain P-PE or erythrocyte P-PE (320 nmol) with 2 mM AAPH, the (alpha-vinyl) methine 1H signal of the enol ether decreased more rapidly than the methine proton peak of intrachain double bonds. The rate of enol ether degradation increased in the order: erythrocyte P-PE>brain P-PE>brain lyso-P-PE. The disappearance of the polyunsaturated ester phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:2-PC) (100 nmol), as induced by 10 mM AAPH, was nearly completely inhibited by the plasmalogens (25 nmol) in the first 30 and 60 min of incubation respectively, and was delayed at later time points. Plasmalogens and vitamin E (4-25 nmol) mitigated the decreases in 16:0/[3H]20:4-PC (100 nmol) induced by 2 mM AAPH in a similar manner. The initial rate of degradation of intrachain double bonds of 16:0/20:4-PC and 16:0/18:2-PC (320 nmol; 2 mM AAPH) was decreased by 59% and 81% respectively in the presence of 80 nmol of brain lyso-P-PE. In conclusion, plasmalogens markedly delay the oxidative degradation of intrachain double bonds under in vitro conditions. Interactions of enol ether double bonds with initiating peroxyl radicals as well as with products generated by prior oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids are proposed to be responsible for this capacity of plasmalogens. Furthermore, the products of enol ether oxidation apparently do not propagate the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Project description:The administration of 'acetylglyceryl ether phosphorylcholine' (AGEPC, also known as platelet-activating factor) and L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to rat livers perfused with media containing 1.3 mM-Ca2+ was followed by a concentration-dependent efflux of Ca2+ from the liver. Near-maximal response was observed at 100 nM-AGEPC and 50 microM-LPC, and resulted in a net efflux of approx. 130 nmol of Ca2+/g of liver. Onset of Ca2+ efflux occurred about 10 s after AGEPC and LPC administration, reached a maximum after about 50 s (the maximum rate of efflux was approx. 180 nmol/min per g) and thereafter decreased rapidly, and was sometimes followed by a much smaller influx of Ca2+. Sequential infusions of AGEPC or LPC, and phenylephrine, indicate that each of these agents mobilizes Ca2+ from the same intracellular source. The efflux of Ca2+ was not observed in the presence of indomethacin or bromophenacyl bromide, or when the liver was perfused with low-Ca2+-containing (25 microM) media. Other physiological responses, such as changes in respiration, glucose output and portal pressure, were also inhibited under these conditions. The results suggest that the Ca2+-flux changes and other responses are mediated by prostaglandins produced and released within the liver, possibly by cell types other than hepatocytes.