Cytokine profiling in healthy children shows association of age with cytokine concentrations.
ABSTRACT: Cytokine-based diagnostic assays are increasingly used in research and clinical practice. Assays developed for adults such as the interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis show inferior performance in children. Limited evidence suggests that release of cytokines is influenced by age but normal ranges of cytokines in children are lacking. Whole blood of healthy children (0-12 years) undergoing elective/diagnostic procedures was stimulated with SEB, PHA, Candida albicans for 24?hours or left unstimulated. Concentrations of eight cytokines were measured by multiplex bead-based immunoassays and associations with age and other factors quantified by regression analysis. 271 children (median age 5.2 years) were included. In unstimulated samples IL-1ra, IP-10 and TNF-? concentrations decreased by up to -60% with age. Following antigen stimulation, an age-associated increase (ranging from +90% to +500%) was observed for all cytokines except IL-1ra (significant for IL-4, IFN-? and TNF-?). Inter-individual variability in cytokine concentrations was large with a coefficient of variation ranging from 42% to 1412%. Despite inter-individual variation age was identified as a strong influencing factor of cytokine concentrations. Age-specific normal values need to be considered for cytokine-based diagnostic purposes. These results are relevant for development of novel cytokine-based diagnostic assays and for optimal dosing of therapeutic agents targeting cytokines.
Project description:Non-infectious uveitis are intraocular inflammatory conditions caused by dysregulated activation of the immune response without any detectable infectious agents. The aim of this study was to explore potential markers and therapeutic targets for two distinct types of non-infectious uveitis associated with Behçet's disease (BD) and Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) disease. Concentrations of 27 cytokines were investigated in aqueous humor (AH) samples from patients with active uveitis vs. healthy controls (HC) (n = 10 patients with BD-associated uveitis; n = 10 patients with VKH-associated uveitis; n = 10 HC) using the Bio-Plex ProTM human cytokine group I panel. Additionally, leukocytes in AH samples were counted with hemocytometers and characterized by flow cytometry. Eleven cytokines were differentially expressed between patients with uveitis and HC with a median concentration greater than 10 pg/ml. IL-6, IP-10, G-CSF, and IFN? showed higher concentrations in AH samples from both BD and VKH patients while IL-2, IL-8, IL-13, TNF?, eotaxin, IL-1ra showed statistically significant higher concentrations only in AH samples from BD patients. GM-CSF was the sole cytokine with an opposite profile showing decreased levels in AH samples from BD patients. IL-1ra and IL-6 were detected at higher frequencies in AH samples from BD and VKH patients compared with those from HC while IFN? and TNF? were not detected in HC. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, G-CSF, IFN?, TNF?, eotaxin, IL-1ra positively correlated with the concentrations of leukocytes in AH, suggesting that such cytokines can be produced by immune cells and/or attract and/or promote proliferation and survival of immune cells in these types of uveitis. The correlation matrix of cytokine concentrations in AH samples revealed that IFN?, TNF?, eotaxin, IL-6, G-CSF highly correlated each other. The ratios of cytokine concentrations between AH and plasma intra-individuals showed that IL-2, IL-6, IP-10, GM-CSF were increased intraocularly. In conclusion, AH sampling followed by multiplex analysis of cytokines should be fostered in non-infectious uveitis to identify cytokines dysregulated intraocularly in each individual laying the groundwork for precision medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), and cytokine levels are altered during colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: The serum levels of 13 cytokines and their relation to clinical and pathological parameters, and systemic inflammatory response (mGPS, CRP and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio), were analysed from a prospective series of 148 CRC patients and 86 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: CRC patients had higher serum platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, and IL-8 levels and lower monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels than the controls. A logistic regression model for discriminating the patients from the controls - including the five most predictive cytokines (high IL-8, high IL-6, low MCP-1, low IL-1ra, and low IP-10) - yielded an area under curve value of 0.890 in receiver operating characteristics analysis. Serum cytokines showed distinct correlation with other markers of systemic inflammatory response, and advanced CRCs were associated with higher levels of IL-8, IL-1ra, and IL-6. A metastasised disease was accompanied by an orientation towards Th2 cytokine milieu. CONCLUSION: CRC is associated with extensive alterations in serum cytokine environment, highlighting the importance of studying relative cytokine level alterations. Serum cytokine profile shows promise in separating CRC patients from healthy controls but its clinical value is yet to be confirmed.
Project description:For reasons unknown, temporomandibular disorder (TMD) can manifest as localized pain or in conjunction with widespread pain. We evaluated relationships between cytokines and TMD without or with widespread palpation tenderness (TMD-WPT or TMD+WPT, respectively) at protein, transcription factory activity, and gene levels. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between cytokines and intermediate phenotypes characteristic of TMD and WPT. In a case-control study of 344 females, blood samples were analyzed for levels of 22 cytokines and activity of 48 transcription factors. Intermediate phenotypes were measured by quantitative sensory testing and questionnaires asking about pain, health, and psychological status. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) coding cytokines and transcription factors were genotyped. TMD-WPT cases had elevated protein levels of proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) and antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1ra, whereas TMD+WPT cases had elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. MCP-1, IL-1ra, and IL-8 were differentially associated with experimental pain, self-rated pain, self-rated health, and psychological phenotypes. TMD-WPT and TMD+WPT cases had inhibited transcription activity of the antiinflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1). Interactions were observed between TGF?1 and IL-8 SNPs: an additional copy of the TGF?1 rs2241719 minor T allele was associated with twice the odds of TMD+WPT among individuals homozygous for the IL-8 rs4073 major A allele, and half the odds of TMD+WPT among individuals heterozygous for rs4073. These results demonstrate how pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathophysiology of TMD and WPT in genetically susceptible people. Furthermore, they identify MCP-1, IL-1ra, IL-8, and TGF?1 as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for pain in patients with TMD.
Project description:Investigating cytokines in tear fluid and saliva may offer valuable information for understanding the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Cytokine profiles in both tear fluid and saliva of pSS patients, non-Sjögren's syndrome (non-SS) subjects with sicca symptoms, and healthy controls without sicca complaints were analysed. Furthermore, relationships associating the severity of clinical ocular and oral manifestations with the upregulated cytokines were assessed. In tear fluid, pSS patients showed elevated levels of IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1b, and Rantes compared to non-SS subjects and healthy controls. The increased cytokine levels (except IP-10) correlated significantly with reduced tear production, less stable tear film, and greater ocular surface damage. In saliva, pSS patients had a higher IP-10 level, which correlated with higher candida score; and an elevated MIP-1a level, which correlated significantly with lower unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva secretion rates. The upregulated cytokines identified in tear fluid and saliva of pSS patients show a clear interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses that may contribute to disease pathogenesis. The increase of IP-10 and MIP in both tears and saliva further emphasises the essential role of macrophages and innate immunity in pSS.
Project description:The tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays have limitations in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB), particularly in children. This study investigated the performance of candidate M. tuberculosis-specific cytokine biomarkers for TB in children in a TB-endemic setting. A total of 237 children with a household contact with smear-positive pulmonary TB were recruited. Importantly, a group of children with illnesses other than TB (sick controls) was included to assess specificity. Median IFN-?, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-13, IP-10, MIP-1? and TNF-? responses were significantly higher in children with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) than in both healthy and sick control children. Three of these cytokines - IL-2, IL-13 and IP-10 - showed better performance characteristics than IFN-?, with IL-2 achieving positive and negative predictive values of 97.7% and 90.7%, respectively. Furthermore, IL-1ra and TNF-? responses differed significantly between active TB and LTBI cases, suggesting that they may be stage-specific biomarkers. Our data indicate that incorporating these biomarkers into future blood-based TB assays could result in substantial performance gains.
Project description:Children in low and middle-income countries have a high burden of pneumonia. Measuring the cytokine responses may be useful to identify novel markers for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating pneumonia.To describe and compare a wide range of inflammatory mediators in plasma from children with WHO-defined severe and non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP), and explore to what extent certain mediators are associated with severity and viral detection.We collected blood samples from 430 children with severe (n = 43) and non-severe (n = 387) CAP. Plasma from these children were analysed for 27 different cytokines, and we measured the association with age, disease severity and viral detection.There were generally higher plasma concentrations of several cytokines with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects among children with severe CAP than in children with non-severe CAP. We found significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-15, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in the group of severe CAP. Most of these associations persisted when adjusting for age in linear regression analyses. The cytokine response was strongly associated with age but to a lesser extent with viral etiology.The plasma concentrations of several cytokines, both with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, were higher among children with severe illness. In particular G-CSF and IL-6 reflected severity and might provide complementary information on the severity of the infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00148733.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cytokine disturbances have been suggested to be associated with the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) for decades. METHODS:Fifty female CFS patients were included in a study on the effect of the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist anakinra or placebo during 4 weeks. EDTA plasma was collected from patients before and directly after treatment. At baseline, plasma samples were collected at the same time from 48 healthy, age-matched female neighborhood controls. A panel of 92 inflammatory markers was determined in parallel in 1 ?L samples using a 'proximity extension assay' (PEA) based immunoassay. Since Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were not included in this platform, these cytokines were measured with ELISA. RESULTS:In CFS/ME patients, the 'normalized protein expression' value of IL-12p40 and CSF-1 was significantly higher (p value 0.0042 and 0.049, respectively). Furthermore, using LASSO regression, a combination of 47 markers yielded a prediction model with a corrected AUC of 0.73. After correction for multiple testing, anakinra had no effect on circulating cytokines. TGF-? did not differ between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased IL-12p40 and CSF-1 concentrations in CFS/ME patients in addition to a set of predictive biomarkers. There was no effect of anakinra on circulating cytokines other than IL-1Ra. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02108210 , Registered April 2014.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 26% of trauma patients and is associated with increased mortality and risk for nosocomial infections (NCIs). We compared serial plasma cytokine levels in patients with posttraumatic AKI to determine whether the early cytokine changes are associated with the occurrence of AKI and NCI.We performed a secondary analysis of the Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury database to include adult blunt trauma patients who had available plasma proteomic analyses. AKI was defined by the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney) classification, which requires a 50% increase in serum creatinine. The association among AKI, NCI, and plasma cytokines was analyzed using a mixed model analyses and logistic regression.Among 147 patients in the cohort, prevalence of NCI was 73% and 52% for patients with and without AKI, respectively. In mixed model analyses adjusted for clinical factors, AKI patients developed significant early increase in IL-1ra, IL-8, MCP1, and IL-6; early decrease in sTNFR2; and late decrease in IL-1ra, IL-4, and IL-6 concentrations, compared with patients without AKI and regardless of NCI. The change in cytokine pattern differed for sIL1R2, CXCL1, and MIP1?, depending on the occurrence of NCI. Patients with AKI and NCI had lower early and late sIL1R2 and higher early and late CXCL1 and MIP1? levels. Within the first 24 hours of injury, adding plasma levels of IL-1ra, IL-8, MCP1, IL-6, and sTNFR2 to clinical parameters of injury severity provided a predictive model for AKI superior to clinical model only (p < 0.001).AKI trauma patients exhibit simultaneous changes in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory serial plasma cytokine levels. The predictive model for AKI that combines plasma cytokine levels with clinical data within 24 hours of injury requires further prospective validation in larger studies.Prognostic study, level III.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX) capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array. METHODS:Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25) and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay) and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (100?g/mL/24h). NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson's test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant. RESULTS:LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1?, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40), IL-18, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and TNF?. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values?0.0001. Specifically, IL-1? (r = 0.66), IL-6 (r = 0.74), the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40) (r = 0.78), and TNF? (r = 0.76) were strongly associated with NOX. CONCLUSION:NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies.
Project description:Proinflammatory cytokines are involved in clearance of Plasmodium falciparum, and very high levels of these cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In order to determine how cytokines vary with disease severity and syndrome, we enrolled Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria (CM), severe malarial anemia (SMA), and uncomplicated malaria (UCM) and healthy controls. We analyzed serum cytokine concentrations in acute infection and in convalescence. With the exception of interleukin 5 (IL-5), cytokine concentrations were highest in acute CM, followed by SMA, and were only mildly elevated in UCM. Cytokine concentrations had fallen to control levels when remeasured at 1 month of convalescence in all three clinical malaria groups. Ratios of IL-10 to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and of IL-10 to IL-6 followed a similar pattern. Children presenting with acute CM had significantly higher concentrations of TNF-? (P < 0.001), interferon gamma (IFN-?) (P = 0.0019), IL-2 (P = 0.0004), IL-6 (P < 0.001), IL-8 (P < 0.001), and IL-10 (P < 0.001) in sera than healthy controls. Patients with acute CM had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (P < 0.001) and IL-10 (P = 0.0003) than those presenting with acute SMA. Our findings are consistent with the concept that high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, despite high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, could contribute to the pathogenesis of CM.