Molecular cloning and functional characterisation of an H+-pyrophosphatase from Iris lactea.
ABSTRACT: Tonoplast H+-pyrophosphatases (VPs) mediate vacuolar Na+ sequestration, a process important for salt tolerance of plants. The function of VP in the highly drought- and salt-tolerant perennial Iris lactea under salt stress is unclear. Here, we isolated IlVP from I. lactea and investigated its function in transgenic tobacco. IlVP was found to comprise 771 amino acid residues and showed 88% similarity with Arabidopsis AtVP1. IlVP was mainly expressed in shoots and was up-regulated by salt stress. Overexpression of IlVP enhanced growth of transgenic tobacco plants compared with wild-type (WT) plants exposed to salt stress. Transgenic plants accumulated higher quantities of Na+ and K+ in leaves, stems, and roots under salt stress, which caused higher leaf relative water content and decreased cell membrane damage compared with WT plants. Overall, IlVP encoding a tonoplast H+-pyrophosphatase can reduce Na+ toxicity in plant cells through increased sequestration of ions into vacuoles by enhanced H+-pyrophosphatase activity.
Project description:Mungbean is an important pulse crop extensively cultivated in Southeast Asia for supply of easily digestible protein. Salinity severely limits the growth and productivity of mungbean, and weeding poses nutritional and disease constraints to mungbean cultivation. To pyramid both salt tolerance and protection against herbicide in mungbean, the AtNHX1 encoding tonoplast Na+/H+ antiporter from Arabidopsis, and bar gene associated with herbicide resistance were co-expressed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stress inducible expression of AtNHX1 significantly improved tolerance under salt stress to ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses in transgenic mungbean plants compared to the wild type (WT) plants, whereas constitutive expression of bar provided resistance to herbicide. Compared to WT, transgenic mungbean plants grew better with higher plant height, foliage, dry mass and seed yield under high salt stress (200 mM NaCl) in the greenhouse. The improved performance of transgenic plants under salt stress was associated with enhanced sequestration of Na+ in roots by vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and limited transport of toxic Na+ to shoots, possibly by restricting Na+ influx into shoots. Transgenic plants showed better intracellular ion homeostasis, osmoregulation, reduced cell membrane damage, improved photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate as compared to WT when subjected to salt stress. Reduction in hydrogen peroxide and oxygen radical production indicated enhanced protection of transgenic plants to both salt- and methyl vialogen (MV)-induced oxidative stress. This study laid a firm foundation for improving mungbean yield in saline lands in Southeast Asia.
Project description:Transgenic plants overexpressing the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase are much more resistant to high concentrations of NaCl and to water deprivation than the isogenic wild-type strains. These transgenic plants accumulate more Na(+) and K(+) in their leaf tissue than the wild type. Moreover, direct measurements on isolated vacuolar membrane vesicles derived from the AVP1 transgenic plants and from wild type demonstrate that the vesicles from the transgenic plants have enhanced cation uptake. The phenotypes of the AVP1 transgenic plants suggest that increasing the vacuolar proton gradient results in increased solute accumulation and water retention. Presumably, sequestration of cations in the vacuole reduces their toxic effects. Genetically engineered drought- and salt-tolerant plants could provide an avenue to the reclamation of farmlands lost to agriculture because of salinity and a lack of rainfall.
Project description:Over the last decades several efforts have been carried out to determine the mechanisms of salt homeostasis in plants and, more recently, to identify genes implicated in salt tolerance, with some plants being successfully genetically engineered to improve resistance to salt. It is well established that the efficient exclusion of Na(+) excess from the cytoplasm and vacuolar Na(+) accumulation are the most important steps towards the maintenance of ion homeostasis inside the cell. Therefore, the vacuole of plant cells plays a pivotal role in the storage of salt. After the identification of the vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter Nhx1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first plant Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, AtNHX1, was isolated from Arabidopsis and its overexpression resulted in plants exhibiting increased salt tolerance. Also, the identification of the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger SOS1 and how it is regulated by a protein kinase SOS2 and a calcium binding protein SOS3 were great achievements in the understanding of plant salt resistance. Both tonoplast and plasma membrane antiporters exclude Na+ from the cytosol driven by the proton-motive force generated by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and by the vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase and H(+)-pyrophosphatase and it has been shown that the activity of these proteins responds to salinity. In this review we focus on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation by salt of tonoplast proton pumps and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and on the signalling pathways involved in salt sensing.
Project description:Applying proteomics, we tested the physiological responses of the euryhaline seagrass Cymodocea nodosa to deliberate manipulation of salinity in a mesocosm system. Plants were subjected to a chronic hypersaline condition (43 psu) to compare protein expression and plant photochemistry responses after 15 and 30 days of exposure with those of plants cultured under normal/ambient saline conditions (37 psu). Results showed a general decline in the expression level of leaf proteins in hypersaline stressed plants, with more intense reductions after long-lasting exposure. Specifically, the carbon-fixing enzyme RuBisCo displayed a lower accumulation level in stressed plants relative to controls. In contrast, the key enzymes involved in the regulation of glycolysis, cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase 2 and triose-phosphate isomerase, showed significantly higher accumulation levels. These responses suggested a shift in carbon metabolism in stressed plants. Hypersaline stress also induced a significant alteration of the photosynthetic physiology of C. nodosa by means of a down-regulation in structural proteins and enzymes of both PSII and PSI. However we found an over-expression of the cytochrome b559 alpha subunit of the PSII initial complex, which is a receptor for the PSII core proteins involved in biogenesis or repair processes and therefore potentially involved in the absence of effects at the photochemical level of stressed plants. As expected hypersalinity also affects vacuolar metabolism by increasing the leaf cell turgor pressure and enhancing the up-take of Na(+) by over-accumulating the tonoplast specific intrinsic protein pyrophosphate-energized inorganic pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) coupled to the Na(+)/H(+)-antiporter. The modulation of carbon metabolism and the enhancement of vacuole capacity in Na(+) sequestration and osmolarity changes are discussed in relation to salt tolerance of C. nodosa.
Project description:The membrane-bound proton-pumping pyrophosphatase (V-PPase), together with the V-type H+ -ATPase, generates the proton motive force that drives vacuolar membrane solute transport. Transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing V-PPases were shown to have improved salinity tolerance, but the relative impact of increasing PPi hydrolysis and proton-pumping functions has yet to be dissected. For a better understanding of the molecular processes underlying V-PPase-dependent salt tolerance, we transiently overexpressed the pyrophosphate-driven proton pump (NbVHP) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and studied its functional properties in relation to salt treatment by primarily using patch-clamp, impalement electrodes and pH imaging. NbVHP overexpression led to higher vacuolar proton currents and vacuolar acidification. After 3 d in salt-untreated conditions, V-PPase-overexpressing leaves showed a drop in photosynthetic capacity, plasma membrane depolarization and eventual leaf necrosis. Salt, however, rescued NbVHP-hyperactive cells from cell death. Furthermore, a salt-induced rise in V-PPase but not of V-ATPase pump currents was detected in nontransformed plants. The results indicate that under normal growth conditions, plants need to regulate the V-PPase pump activity to avoid hyperactivity and its negative feedback on cell viability. Nonetheless, V-PPase proton pump function becomes increasingly important under salt stress for generating the pH gradient necessary for vacuolar proton-coupled Na+ sequestration.
Project description:The subcellular localization of a wheat NHX antiporter, TaNHX2, was studied in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and its function was evaluated using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous expression system. Fluorescence patterns of TaNHX2-GFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis cells indicated that TaNHX2 localized at endomembranes. TaNHX2 has significant sequence homology to NHX sodium exchangers from Arabidopsis, is abundant in roots and leaves and is induced by salt or dehydration treatments. Western blot analysis showed that TaNHX2 could be expressed in transgenic yeast cells. Expressed TaNHX2 protein suppressed the salt sensitivity of a yeast mutant strain by increasing its K(+) content when exposed to salt stress. TaNHX2 also increased the tolerance of the strain to potassium stress. However, the expression of TaNHX2 did not affect the sodium concentration in transgenic cells. Western blot analysis for tonoplast proteins indicated that the TaNHX2 protein localized at the tonoplast of transgenic yeast cells. The tonoplast vesicles from transgenic yeast cells displayed enhanced K(+)/H(+) exchange activity but very little Na(+/)H(+) exchange compared with controls transformed with the empty vector; Na(+)/H(+) exchange was not detected with concentrations of less than 37.5 mM Na(+) in the reaction medium. Our data suggest that TaNHX2 is a endomembrane-bound protein and may primarily function as a K(+)/H(+) antiporter, which is involved in cellular pH regulation and potassium nutrition under normal conditions. Under saline conditions, the protein mediates resistance to salt stress through the intracellular compartmentalization of potassium to regulate cellular pH and K(+) homeostasis.
Project description:Salinity stress challenges agriculture and food security globally. Upon salt stress, plant growth slows down, nutrients are recycled, osmolytes are produced, and reallocation of Na+ takes place. Since autophagy is a high-throughput degradation pathway that contributes to nutrient remobilization in plants, we explored the involvement of autophagic flux in salt stress response of Arabidopsis with various approaches. Confocal microscopy of GFP-ATG8a in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that autophagosome formation is induced shortly after salt treatment. Immunoblotting of ATG8s and the autophagy receptor NBR1 confirmed that the level of autophagy peaks within 30 min of salt stress, and then settles to a new homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Such an induction is absent in mutants defective in autophagy. Within 3 h of salt treatment, accumulation of oxidized proteins is alleviated in the wild-type; however, such a reduction is not seen in atg2 or atg7. Consistently, the Arabidopsis atg mutants are hypersensitive to both salt and osmotic stresses, and plants overexpressing ATG8 perform better than the wild-type in germination assays. Quantification of compatible osmolytes further confirmed that the autophagic flux contributes to salt stress adaptation. Imaging of intracellular Na+ revealed that autophagy is required for Na+ sequestration in the central vacuole of root cortex cells following salt treatment. These data suggest that rapid protein turnover through autophagy is a prerequisite for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na+ sequestration in leaf might be occurring independent of tonoplast-localized OsNHX1. The newly isolated wild rice accessions will be valuable materials for both rice improvement to salinity stress and the study of salt tolerance mechanism in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Calcium-binding proteins that contain EF-hand motifs have been reported to play important roles in transduction of signals associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. To functionally characterize genes of EF-hand family in response to abiotic stress, an MtCaMP1 gene belonging to EF-hand family from legume model plant Medicago truncatula was isolated and its function in response to drought and salt stress was investigated by expressing MtCaMP1 in Arabidopsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing MtCaMP1 exhibited higher survival rate than wild-type seedlings under drought and salt stress, suggesting that expression of MtCaMP1 confers tolerance of Arabidopsis to drought and salt stress. The transgenic plants accumulated greater amounts of Pro due to up-regulation of P5CS1 and down-regulation of ProDH than wild-type plants under drought stress. There was a less accumulation of Na(+) in the transgenic plants than in WT plants due to reduced up-regulation of AtHKT1 and enhanced regulation of AtNHX1 in the transgenic plants compared to WT plants under salt stress. There was a reduced accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in the transgenic plants than in WT plants under both drought and salt stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of MtCaMP1 in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought and salt stress by effective osmo-regulation due to greater accumulation of Pro and by minimizing toxic Na(+) accumulation, respectively. The enhanced accumulation of Pro and reduced accumulation of Na(+) under drought and salt stress would protect plants from water default and Na(+) toxicity, and alleviate the associated oxidative stress. These findings demonstrate that MtCaMP1 encodes a stress-responsive EF-hand protein that plays a regulatory role in response of plants to drought and salt stress.
Project description:Nakamurella lactea DLS-10T, isolated from rock in Korea, is one of the four type strains of the genus Nakamurella. In this study, we describe the high quality draft genome of N. lactea DLS-10T and its annotation. A summary of phenotypic data collected from previously published studies was also included. The genome of strain DLS-10T presents a size of 5.82 Mpb, 5100 protein coding genes, and a C?+?G content of 68.9%. Based on the genome analysis, emended description of N. lactea in terms of G?+?C content was also proposed.