Clinical Implications of Quantitative JAK2 V617F Analysis using Droplet Digital PCR in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.
ABSTRACT: JAK2 V617F is the most common mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and is a major diagnostic criterion. Mutation quantification is useful for classifying patients with MPN into subgroups and for prognostic prediction. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can provide accurate and reproducible quantitative analysis of DNA. This study was designed to verify the correlation of ddPCR with pyrosequencing results in the diagnosis of MPN and to investigate clinical implications of the mutational burden.Peripheral blood or bone marrow samples were obtained from 56 patients newly diagnosed with MPN or previously diagnosed with MPN but not yet indicated for JAK2 inhibitor treatment between 2012 and 2016. The JAK2 V617F mutation was detected by pyrosequencing as a diagnostic work-up. The same samples were used for ddPCR to determine the correlation between assays and establish a detection sensitivity cut-off. Clinical and hematologic aspects were reviewed.Forty-two (75%) and 46 (82.1%) patients were positive for JAK2 V617F by pyrosequencing and ddPCR, respectively. The mean mutated allele frequency at diagnosis was 37.5±30.1% and was 40.7±31.2% with ddPCR, representing a strong correlation (r=0.9712, P<0.001). Follow-up samples were available for 12 patients, including eight that were JAK2 V617F-positive. Of these, mutational burden reduction after treatment was observed in six patients (75%), consistent with trends of hematologic improvement.Quantitative analysis of the JAK2 V617F mutation using ddPCR was highly correlated with pyrosequencing data and may reflect the clinical response to treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) characterized in most cases by a unique somatic mutation, JAK2 V617F. Recent studies revealed that JAK2 V617F occurs more frequently in a specific JAK2 haplotype, named JAK2 46/1 or GGCC haplotype, which is tagged by rs10974944 (C/G) and/or rs12343867 (T/C). This study examined the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the JAK2 locus on MPNs in a Japanese population. METHODS: We sequenced 24 JAK2 SNPs in Japanese patients with PV. We then genotyped 138 MPN patients (33 PV, 96 ET, and 9 PMF) with known JAK2 mutational status and 107 controls for a novel SNP, in addition to two SNPs known to be part of the 46/1 haplotype (rs10974944 and rs12343867). Associations with risk of MPN were estimated by odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression. RESULTS: A novel locus, rs4495487 (T/C), with a mutated T allele was significantly associated with PV. Similar to rs10974944 and rs12343867, rs4495487 in the JAK2 locus is significantly associated with JAK2-positive MPN. Based on the results of SNP analysis of the three JAK2 locus, we defined the "GCC genotype" as having at least one minor allele in each SNP (G allele in rs10974944, C allele in rs4495487, and C allele in rs12343867). The GCC genotype was associated with increased risk of both JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPN. In ET patients, leukocyte count and hemoglobin were significantly associated with JAK2 V617F, rather than the GCC genotype. In contrast, none of the JAK2 V617F-negative ET patients without the GCC genotype had thrombosis, and splenomegaly was frequently seen in this subset of ET patients. PV patients without the GCC genotype were significantly associated with high platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the C allele of JAK2 rs4495487, in addition to the 46/1 haplotype, contributes significantly to the occurrence of JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPNs in the Japanese population. Because lack of the GCC genotype represents a distinct clinical-hematological subset of MPN, analyzing JAK2 SNPs and quantifying JAK2 V617F mutations will provide further insights into the molecular pathogenesis of MPN.
Project description:We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel predisposition alleles associated with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis in the general population. We recruited a web-based cohort of 726 individuals with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis and 252?637 population controls unselected for hematologic phenotypes. Using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform with custom probes for the JAK2 V617F mutation (V617F), we identified 497 individuals (0.2%) among the population controls who were V617F carriers. We performed a combined GWAS of the MPN cases plus V617F carriers in the control population (n = 1223) vs the remaining controls who were noncarriers for V617F (n = 252?140). For these MPN cases plus V617F carriers, we replicated the germ line JAK2 46/1 haplotype (rs59384377: odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, P = 6.6 × 10(-89)), previously associated with V617F-positive MPN. We also identified genome-wide significant associations in the TERT gene (rs7705526: OR = 1.8, P = 1.1 × 10(-32)), in SH2B3 (rs7310615: OR = 1.4, P = 3.1 × 10(-14)), and upstream of TET2 (rs1548483: OR = 2.0, P = 2.0 × 10(-9)). These associations were confirmed in a separate replication cohort of 446 V617F carriers vs 169?021 noncarriers. In a joint analysis of the combined GWAS and replication results, we identified additional genome-wide significant predisposition alleles associated with CHEK2, ATM, PINT, and GFI1B All SNP ORs were similar for MPN patients and controls who were V617F carriers. These data indicate that the same germ line variants endow individuals with a predisposition not only to MPN, but also to JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis, a more common phenomenon that may foreshadow the development of an overt neoplasm.
Project description:LNK is an adapter protein negatively regulating the JAK/STAT cell signaling pathway. In this study, we observed the correlation between variation in LNK gene and the clinical type of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).A total of 285 MPN cases were recruited, including essential thrombocythemia (ET) 154 cases, polycythemia vera (PV) 76 cases, primary myelofibrosis (PMF) 19 cases, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) 36 cases. Ninety-three healthy individuals were used as normal controls. V617F mutation in JAK2 was identified by allele-specific PCR method, RT-PCR was used for the detection of BCR/ABL1 fusion gene, and mutations and variations in coding exons and their flanking sequences of LNK gene were examined by PCR-sequencing.Missense mutations of A300V, V402M, and R415H in LNK were found in 8 patients including ET (4 cases, all combined with JAK2-V617F mutation), PV (2 cases, one combined with JAK2-V617F mutation), PMF (one case, combined with JAK2-V617F mutation) and CML (one case, combined with BCR/ABL1 fusion gene). The genotype and allele frequencies of the three SNPs (rs3184504, rs111340708 and rs78894077) in LNK were significantly different between MPN patients and controls. For rs3184504 (T/C, in exon2), the T allele (p.262W) and TT genotype were frequently seen in ET, PV and PMF (P<0.01), and C allele (p.262R) and CC genotype were frequently seen in CML (P<0.01). For rs78894077 (T/C, in exon1), the T allele (p.242S) was frequently found in ET (P<0.05). For rs111340708 (TGGGGx5/TGGGGx4, in intron 5), the TGGGG x4 allele was infrequently found in ET, PMF and CML(P<0.01).Mutations in LNK could be found in some of MPN patients in the presence or absence of JAK2-V617F mutation. Several polymorphisms in LNK gene may affect the clinical type or the genetic predisposition of MPN.
Project description:Patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) sometimes show a chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)-like phenotype but, according to the 2016 WHO classification, a documented history of an MPN excludes the diagnosis of CMML. Forty-one patients with an MPN (35 polycythemia vera (PV), 5 primary myelofibrosis, 1 essential thrombocythemia) and a CMML-like phenotype (MPN/CMML) were comprehensively characterized regarding clinical, hematologic, biologic and molecular features. The white blood cell counts in MPN/CMML patients were not different from CMML patients and PV patients. The hemoglobin values and platelet counts of these patients were higher than in CMML but lower than in PV, respectively. MPN/CMML patients showed myelomonocytic skewing, a typical in vitro feature of CMML but not of PV. The mutational landscape of MPN/CMML was not different from JAK2-mutated CMML. In two MPN/CMML patients, development of a CMML-like phenotype was associated with a decrease in the JAK2 V617F allelic burden. Finally, the prognosis of MPN/CMML (median overall survival (OS) 27 months) was more similar to CMML (JAK2-mutated, 28 months; JAK2-nonmutated 29 months) than to PV (186 months). In conclusion, we show that patients with MPN and a CMML-like phenotype share more characteristics with CMML than with PV, which may be relevant for their classification and clinical management.
Project description:The majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) carry a somatic JAK2-V617F mutation. Because additional mutations can precede JAK2-V617F, it is questioned whether JAK2-V617F alone can initiate MPN. Several mouse models have demonstrated that JAK2-V617F can cause MPN; however, in all these models disease was polyclonal. Conversely, cancer initiates at the single cell level, but attempts to recapitulate single-cell disease initiation in mice have thus far failed. We demonstrate by limiting dilution and single-cell transplantations that MPN disease, manifesting either as erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis, can be initiated clonally from a single cell carrying JAK2-V617F. However, only a subset of mice reconstituted from single hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) displayed MPN phenotype. Expression of JAK2-V617F in HSCs promoted cell division and increased DNA damage. Higher JAK2-V617F expression correlated with a short-term HSC signature and increased myeloid bias in single-cell gene expression analyses. Lower JAK2-V617F expression in progenitor and stem cells was associated with the capacity to stably engraft in secondary recipients. Furthermore, long-term repopulating capacity was also present in a compartment with intermediate expression levels of lineage markers. Our studies demonstrate that MPN can be initiated from a single HSC and illustrate that JAK2-V617F has complex effects on HSC biology.
Project description:Activating alleles of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) such as JAK2(V617F) are central to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that small molecule inhibitors targeting JAK2 may be therapeutically useful. We have identified an aminopyrimidine derivative (CYT387), which inhibits JAK1, JAK2, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) at low nanomolar concentrations, with few additional targets. Between 0.5 and 1.5muM CYT387 caused growth suppression and apoptosis in JAK2-dependent hematopoietic cell lines, while nonhematopoietic cell lines were unaffected. In a murine MPN model, CYT387 normalized white cell counts, hematocrit, spleen size, and restored physiologic levels of inflammatory cytokines. Despite the hematologic responses and reduction of the JAK2(V617F) allele burden, JAK2(V617F) cells persisted and MPN recurred upon cessation of treatment, suggesting that JAK2 inhibitors may be unable to eliminate JAK2(V617F) cells, consistent with preliminary results from clinical trials of JAK2 inhibitors in myelofibrosis. While the clinical benefit of JAK2 inhibitors may be substantial, not the least due to reduction of inflammatory cytokines and symptomatic improvement, our data add to increasing evidence that kinase inhibitor monotherapy of malignant disease is not curative, suggesting a need for drug combinations to optimally target the malignant cells.
Project description:The JAK2 mutation V617F is detectable in a majority of patients with Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Enforced expression of JAK2 V617F in mice induces myeloproliferation and bone marrow (BM) fibrosis suggesting a causal role for the JAK2 mutant in the pathogenesis of MPN. However, little is known about mechanisms and effector molecules contributing to JAK2 V617F-induced myeloproliferation and fibrosis. Here we show that JAK2 V617F promotes expression of oncostatin M (OSM) in neoplastic myeloid cells. Correspondingly, OSM was found to be overexpressed in the BM and elevated in the serum of patients with JAK2 V617F+ MPN. In addition, OSM secreted by JAK2 V617F+ cells stimulated growth of fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells and induced the production of angiogenic and profibrogenic cytokines (HGF, VEGF, and SDF-1) in BM fibroblasts. All effects of MPN cell-derived OSM were blocked by a neutralizing anti-OSM antibody, whereas the production of OSM in MPN cells was effectively suppressed by a pharmacologic JAK2 inhibitor or RNAi-mediated knockdown of JAK2. In summary, JAK2 V617F-mediated upregulation of OSM may contribute to fibrosis, neoangiogenesis, and the cytokine storm observed in JAK2 V617F+ MPN, suggesting that OSM could serve as a novel therapeutic target molecule in these neoplasms. IMR90 cells were treated with a single dose of rh Oncostatin M (10ng/ml).
Project description:Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) result from the malignant transformation of a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC), leading to abnormal amplification and proliferation of myeloid lineages. Identification of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation developed the knowledge of Philadelphia-negative (PN)-MPNs, contributing to and influencing the definition of the phenotype and prognostic impact. Considering the lack of Portuguese epidemiological data, the present study intends to characterize the prevalence of the JAK2 mutation in a PN-MPN versus a control Portuguese population. Caucasian Portuguese PN-MPN patients (n=133) and 281 matched control subjects were investigated. No significant differences were identified between the case and control groups concerning age distribution or smoking habits. Pathology distribution was as follows: 60.2% with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 29.3% with polycythemia vera (PV) and 10.5% with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A total of 75.0% of patients were positive for the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation. In addition, the prevalence of PV was 87.2%, ET was 73.4% and PMF was 50.0%. The JAK2 V617F mutation is observed in various MPN phenotypes, and has an increased incidence in ET patients and a decreased incidence in PV patients. These data may contribute to improving the knowledge of the pathophysiology of these disorders, and to a more rational and efficient selection of therapeutic strategies to be adopted, notably because most of the patients are JAK2 V617F negative.
Project description:Background:The evolution of molecular studies in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has enlightened us the understanding of this complex disease consisting of polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The epidemiology is well described in the western world but not in Asian countries like Malaysia. Materials and methods:This retrospective national registry of MPN was conducted from year 2009 to 2015 in Malaysia. Results:A total of 1010 patients were registered over a period of 5 years. The mean age was 54 years with male predominance. The ethnic distribution revealed that Chinese had a relatively high weighted incidence proportion (43.2%), followed by Indian (23.8%), Malay (15.8%) and other ethnic groups (17.2%). The types of MPN reported were 40.4% of ET (n?=?408), 38.1% of PV (n?=?385), 9.2% of PMF (n?=?93), 3.1% of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) (n?=?31) and 7.9% of unclassifiable MPN (MPN-U) (n?=?80). Splenomegaly was only palpable clinically in 32.2% of patients. The positive JAK2 V617F mutation was present in 644 patients with 46.6% in PV, 36.0% in ET, 9.0% in PMF, and 7.4% in MPN-U, and had significantly lower haemoglobin (p?<?0.001), haematocrit (p?<?0.001) and white blood cells (WBC) (p?<?0.001) than those with negative mutation. Significant differences in platelet and WBC count were detected in ethnic groups and MPN sub-types. There were more arterial thrombosis events seen in those with JAK2 V617F mutation as compared to venous thrombosis events (23.1% vs 4.4%). The bleeding rate was only 6.6%. Among the risk factors, previous thrombosis, old age (??60 years) and hypertension were significantly correlated to positive JAK2 V617F mutation. The arterial thrombosis event is associated with higher presenting HB, HCT and PLT while the bleeding event is associated with lower presenting HB, HCT but higher PLT. The presence of JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with higher risk of arterial thrombosis. Conclusion:Chinese ethnicity is associated with higher rates of MPN. The history of thrombosis, age ??60 years and hypertension are risk factors that can be correlated to JAK2 V617F mutation. This study is instrumental for policy makers to ensure preventive strategies can be implemented in future.
Project description:Heterozygous deletions within chromosome 20q, or del(20q), are frequent cytogenetic abnormalities detected in hematologic malignancies. To date, identification of genes in the del(20q) common deleted region that contribute to disease development have remained elusive. Through assessment of patient gene expression, we have identified STK4 (encoding Hippo kinase MST1) as a 20q gene that is downregulated below haploinsufficient amounts in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Hematopoietic-specific gene inactivation in mice revealed Hippo kinase loss to induce splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic dysplasia, and a propensity for chronic granulocytosis; phenotypes that closely resemble those observed in patients harboring del(20q). In a JAK2-V617F model, heterozygous Hippo kinase inactivation led to accelerated development of lethal myelofibrosis, recapitulating adverse MPN disease progression and revealing a novel genetic interaction between these 2 molecular events. Quantitative serum protein profiling showed that myelofibrotic transformation in mice was associated with cooperative effects of JAK2-V617F and Hippo kinase inactivation on innate immune-associated proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1? and IL-6. Mechanistically, MST1 interacted with IRAK1, and shRNA-mediated knockdown was sufficient to increase IRAK1-dependent innate immune activation of NF-?B in human myeloid cells. Consistent with this, treatment with a small molecule IRAK1/4 inhibitor rescued the aberrantly elevated IL-1? production in the JAK2-V617F MPN model. This study identified Hippo kinase MST1 (STK4) as having a central role in the biology of del(20q)-associated hematologic malignancies and revealed a novel molecular basis of adverse MPN progression that may be therapeutically exploitable via IRAK1 inhibition.