Zoster prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using acyclovir/valacyclovir followed by vaccination.
ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease (usually cutaneous zoster) occurs frequently after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) results in poor quality of life. The optimal prophylaxis of VZV disease/PHN has not been established. At our center, before 2008, VZV prophylaxis consisted of ?1 year of post-HCT acyclovir/valacyclovir ("old strategy"), whereas post-2008 prophylaxis consisted of 2 years of acyclovir/valacyclovir followed by immunization using varicella vaccine ("new strategy"). We performed a retrospective study comparing the cumulative incidence of VZV disease and PHN among patients who completed the old strategy (n = 153) vs the new strategy (n = 125). Patients who completed the old strategy had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of VZV disease (33% vs 17% at 5 years, P ? .01) and PHN (8% vs 0% at 5 years, P = .02). In conclusion, VZV prophylaxis with 2 years of acyclovir/valacyclovir followed by vaccination appears to result in a low incidence of VZV disease and may eliminate PHN.
Project description:The epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) in contemporary autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, and the impact of acyclovir (ACV)/valacyclovir (VACV) prophylaxis, is not well described. In this observational study from 2002 to 2010, we retrospectively identified 1000 varicella zoster virus (VZV)-seropositive autologous HCT recipients with up to 5 years of follow-up. The incidence of HZ and use of ACV/VACV prophylaxis were determined through review of medical records and mailed questionnaires. Risk factors for HZ were determined by multivariable Cox regression. Over a period of 5 years after autologous HCT, 194 patients developed at least 1 HZ episode, with a cumulative incidence of 21%; 159 of 194 (82%) were not on prophylaxis at the time of HZ. A second episode of HZ occurred in 31 of 194 (16%) patients. Patients taking ACV/VACV had reduced risk for HZ (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], .59; 95% confidence interval [CI], .37 to .91), whereas those older than the median age (?55.5 years) had increased risk (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.9). Disseminated VZV was reported in 8% and postherpetic neuralgia in 13% of patients. We demonstrate a high burden of HZ late after autologous HCT, despite long-term antiviral prophylaxis. Improved prevention strategies are needed to provide sustained protection against HZ after autologous HCT.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at risk for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Routine prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended during periods of immunosuppression. Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001), a lipid conjugate of cidofovir, has shown in vitro activity against HSV/VZV, but has not been formally studied for HSV/VZV prophylaxis. We report our clinical experience of BCV for HSV/VZV prophylaxis in HCT recipients. This was a retrospective review of 30 hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients between 8/2010 and 8/2015 who received BCV doses not exceeding 200 mg/week for adults/adolescents and 4 mg/kg/week for pediatric (<12 years) patients, for ?14 days BCV without concomitant acyclovir under clinical trials or single patient use. HSV/VZV cases during BCV treatment were confirmed by viral culture or PCR and clinical symptoms. Of 30 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 27 (90%) patients were adults and 22 (73%) patients received T-cell depleted HCT. The most common indications for BCV were cytomegalovirus in 12 patients (40%) and adenovirus in 11 patients (37%). One patient was treated for acyclovir-resistant HSV and one for disseminated VZV. There were two breakthrough cases of HSV infection during 2170 patient-days. There were no cases of breakthrough VZV infection. The overall rate of breakthrough HSV infection was 1.0 per 1000 patient-days, without any breakthrough VZV infections. Our study provides the only available-albeit limited-evidence on the potential efficacy of BCV for HSV/VZV prophylaxis in HCT patients. Additional studies are needed to further assess the efficacy and safety of BCV in the setting.
Project description:Varicella zoster virus (VZV) primo-infection can be severe in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. Atypical presentations are not uncommon and may mislead the diagnosis and delay adequate treatment. Valacyclovir prophylaxis should be systematically proposed in immunocompromised patients.
Project description:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a common and ubiquitous human-restricted pathogen, causes a primary infection (varicella or chickenpox) followed by establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. The virus can reactivate, causing herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) and leading to significant morbidity but rarely mortality, although in immunocompromised hosts, VZV can cause severe disseminated and occasionally fatal disease. We discuss VZV diseases and the decrease in their incidence due to the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent varicella or HZ. We also focus on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir (FDA approved drugs to treat VZV infections), brivudine (used in some European countries) and amenamevir (a helicase-primase inhibitor, approved in Japan) that augur the beginning of a new era of anti-VZV therapy. Valnivudine hydrochloride (FV-100) and valomaciclovir stearate (in advanced stage of development) and several new molecules potentially good as anti-VZV candidates described during the last year are examined. We reflect on the role of antiviral agents in the treatment of VZV-associated diseases, as a large percentage of the at-risk population is not immunized, and on the limitations of currently FDA-approved anti-VZV drugs. Their low efficacy in controlling HZ pain and post-herpetic neuralgia development, and the need of multiple dosing regimens requiring daily dose adaptation for patients with renal failure urges the development of novel anti-VZV drugs.
Project description:Acyclovir is an antiviral currently used for the prevention and treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of acyclovir and its oral prodrug valacyclovir to optimize dosing in children. Children receiving acyclovir or valacyclovir were included in this study. PK were described using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. Dosing simulations were used to obtain trough concentrations above a 50% inhibitory concentration for HSV or VZV (0.56 mg/liter and 1.125 mg/liter, respectively) and maximal peak concentrations below 25 mg/liter. A total of 79 children (212 concentration-time observations) were included: 50 were taking intravenous (i.v.) acyclovir, 22 were taking oral acyclovir, and 7 were taking both i.v. and oral acyclovir, 57 for preventive and 22 for curative purposes. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination best described the data. An allometric model was used to describe body weight effect, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly associated with acyclovir elimination. To obtain target maximal and trough concentrations, the more suitable initial acyclovir i.v. dose was 10 mg/kg of body weight/6 h for children with normal renal function (eGFR ≤ 250 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>) and 15 to 20 mg/kg/6 h for children with augmented renal clearance (ARC) (eGFR > 250 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>). The 20-mg/kg/8 h dose for oral acyclovir and valacyclovir produced effective concentrations in more than 75% of children; however, a 15-mg/kg/6 h dose, if possible, is preferred. These doses should be prospectively confirmed, and therapeutic drug monitoring could be used to refine them individually. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02539407.).
Project description:Herpes zoster (HZ) is the result of reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) and occurs most frequently in older adults. Classically, HZ presents as a unilateral, selflimited, dermatomal rash. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common sequela, presenting as severe pain that persists after the rash has resolved. In the elderly, PHN can be debilitating and requires a prompt diagnosis, treatment with antivirals, and adequate pain control. A longer-term pain management strategy is required if PHN occurs. A modestly effective vaccine exists and is recommended for older individuals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella primarily in childhood, and some rare adults also report varicella. Herpes zoster mainly occurs in adults by endogenous reactivation of latent VZV. Until now, varicella and herpes zoster have seldom been reported simultaneously in one patient. Here, we report a rare case co-presenting with varicella and herpes zoster in a Chinese adult.<h4>Case presentation</h4>A 44-year-old Chinese man suffered papules and vesicles with pain on the left ear. Five days after onset, he was admitted to the Department of Dermatology of The Third Hospital of Xiamen. Physical examination revealed that small vesicles surrounded by erythema had developed on his trunk, back and neck, and unilateral papules and vesicles in ribbons had also developed on the left ear. This patient was excluded from human immunodeficiency virus and Treponema pallidum infections by ELISA antibody tests. Laboratory tests revealed that the ratio of eosinophils (0.1%) and eosinophil count (0.0?×?10<sup>9</sup>/L) were significantly downregulated. Treatment with valacyclovir, ebastine, mecobalamine, pregabalin and calamine lotion for 5?days was effective therapy for varicella and herpes zoster. Polymerase chain reaction for vesicular fluids from varicella and herpes zoster was positive for VZV, and further phylogenetic analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism variations confirmed that the VZV genotype was type J (clade 2).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This rare case highlights awareness of varicella and herpes zoster caused by VZV infection in adults. Our report provides novel insight into the rare clinical presentation of VZV genotype J.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster and is typified by a lingering pain that can last months or years after the characteristic herpes zoster rash disappears. It is well known that there are risk factors for the development of PHN, such as its association with certain HLA alleles. In this study, previous HLA genotyping results were collected and subjected to a meta-analysis with increased statistical power. This work shows that the alleles HLA-A*33 and HLA-B*44 are significantly enriched in PHN patients, while HLA-A*02 and HLA-B*40 are significantly depleted. Prediction of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) peptide affinity for these four HLA variants by using one in-house-developed and two existing state-of-the-art major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligand prediction methods reveals that there is a great difference in their absolute and relative peptide binding repertoires. It was observed that HLA-A*02 displays a high affinity for an ?7-fold-higher number of VZV peptides than HLA-B*44. Furthermore, after correction for HLA allele-specific limitations, the relative affinity of HLA-A*33 and HLA-B*44 for VZV peptides was found to be significantly lower than those of HLA-A*02 and HLA-B*40. In addition, HLA peptide affinity calculations indicate strong trends for VZV to avoid high-affinity peptides in some of its proteins, independent of the studied HLA allele.<h4>Importance</h4>Varicella-zoster virus can cause two distinct diseases: chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster). Varicella is a common disease in young children, while herpes zoster is more frequent in older individuals. A common complication of herpes zoster is postherpetic neuralgia, a persistent and debilitating pain that can remain months up to years after the resolution of the rash. In this study, we show that the relative affinity of HLA variants associated with higher postherpetic neuralgia risk for varicella-zoster virus peptides is lower than that of variants with a lower risk. These results provide new insight into the development of postherpetic neuralgia and strongly support the hypothesis that one of its possible underlying causes is a suboptimal anti-VZV immune response due to weak HLA binding peptide affinity.
Project description:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous, highly neurotropic, exclusively human ?-herpesvirus. Primary infection usually results in varicella (chickenpox), after which VZV becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. As humans undergo a natural decline in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to VZV with age, VZV frequently reactivates to produce zoster, characterized by maculopapular or vesicular rash and dermatomal-distribution pain. Pain and rash usually occur within days of each other. Pain is severe and often burning. Colorful descriptions of zoster exist worldwide. In Arabic, Hezam innar ( ) means belt of fire; in Hindi, Baoisayaa daga ( ) means big rash; in Norwegian, Helvetesild means Hell's fire (also described as a bell of roses from Hell); and in Spanish, Culebrilla means small snake.(1) The most common complication of zoster is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), operationally defined as pain lasting for more than 90 days after rash. Zoster may be followed by multiple neurologic disorders (meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and vasculopathy, including VZV temporal arteritis) as well as ocular disease (acute or progressive outer retinal necrosis).
Project description:Herpes virus (cytometalovirus [CMV], herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus) and invasive fungal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients despite the availability of effective therapies. In this study, we developed an Internet-based survey, which was distributed to all hematopoietic cell transplant centers participating in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) program, to gather information on strategies utilized for the prevention of disease caused by herpes viruses and fungal infections between 1999 and 2003. The survey response rate was 72%, representing 175 programs from 32 countries. Generally, reported center strategies were in accord with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines published in 2000, with 81% of programs using low-dose acyclovir prophylaxis for herpes simplex virus seropositive patients, 99% of programs reporting use of a CMV prevention strategy during the first 100 days posttransplant for all patients at risk of CMV disease, and 90% of programs using antifungal prophylaxis. Seventy percent of programs reported routine use of a CMV prevention strategy in high-risk patients after day 100. The greatest departure from published guidelines was the use of acyclovir prophylaxis for varicella zoster virus seropositive recipients in 75% of programs. There were very few reported changes within centers in practices over the study time period. Significant regional variations were found with regard to surveillance procedures and treatment durations. There were no significant differences in treatment practices by center size and very few differences found between those centers that reported treating primarily pediatric patients versus primarily adult patients. In summary, our survey demonstrates overall agreement with published guidelines for the prevention of disease because of herpesviruses and fungal infections with significant regional differences found in duration of antiviral prophylaxis, duration of preemptive therapy, and duration and dosing of antifungal prophylaxis. Center size and age of primary patient population were not associated with many reported differences in strategies.