Mapping of quantitative trait loci for grain yield and its components in a US popular winter wheat TAM 111 using 90K SNPs.
ABSTRACT: Stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) are important for deployment in marker assisted selection in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other crops. We reported QTL discovery in wheat using a population of 217 recombinant inbred lines and multiple statistical approach including multi-environment, multi-trait and epistatic interactions analysis. We detected nine consistent QTL linked to different traits on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B and 7A. Grain yield QTL were detected on chromosomes 2B.1 and 5B across three or four models of GenStat, MapQTL, and QTLNetwork while the QTL on chromosomes 5A.1, 6A.2, and 7A.1 were only significant with yield from one or two models. The phenotypic variation explained (PVE) by the QTL on 2B.1 ranged from 3.3-25.1% based on single and multi-environment models in GenStat and was pleiotropic or co-located with maturity (days to heading) and yield related traits (test weight, thousand kernel weight, harvest index). The QTL on 5B at 211 cM had PVE range of 1.8-9.3% and had no significant pleiotropic effects. Other consistent QTL detected in this study were linked to yield related traits and agronomic traits. The QTL on 1A was consistent for the number of spikes m-2 across environments and all the four analysis models with a PVE range of 5.8-8.6%. QTL for kernels spike-1 were found in chromosomes 1A, 2A.1, 2B.1, 6A.2, and 7A.1 with PVE ranged from 5.6-12.8% while QTL for thousand kernel weight were located on chromosomes 1A, 2B.1, 5A.1, 6A.2, 6B.1 and 7A.1 with PVEranged from 2.7-19.5%. Among the consistent QTL, five QTL had significant epistatic interactions (additive × additive) at least for one trait and none revealed significant additive × additive × environment interactions. Comparative analysis revealed that the region within the confidence interval of the QTL on 5B from 211.4-244.2 cM is also linked to genes for aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, splicing regulatory glutamine/lysine-rich protein 1 isoform X1, and UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase 1-like isoform X1. The stable QTL could be important for further validation, high throughput SNP development, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat.
Project description:Breeding for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in durum wheat is complicated by the quantitative trait expression and narrow genetic diversity of available resources. High-density mapping of the FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL), evaluation of their co-localization with plant height and maturity QTL and the interaction among the identified QTL are the objectives of this study. Two doubled haploid (DH) populations, one developed from crosses between Triticum turgidum ssp. durum lines DT707 and DT696 and the other between T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. Strongfield and T. turgidum ssp. carthlicum cv. Blackbird were genotyped using the 90K Infinium iSelect chip and evaluated phenotypically at multiple field FHB nurseries over years. A moderate broad-sense heritability indicated a genotype-by-environment interaction for the expression of FHB resistance in both populations. Resistance QTL were identified for the DT707 × DT696 population on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5A (two loci) and 7A and for the Strongfield × Blackbird population on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 3A, 6A, 6B and 7B with the QTL on chromosome 1A and those on chromosome 5A being more consistently expressed over environments. FHB resistance co-located with plant height and maturity QTL on chromosome 5A and with a maturity QTL on chromosome 7A for the DT707 × DT696 population. Resistance also co-located with plant height QTL on chromosomes 2A and 3A and with maturity QTL on chromosomes 1A and 7B for the Strongfield × Blackbird population. Additive × additive interactions were identified, for example between the two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome 5A for the DT707 × DT696 population and the FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 1A and 7B for the Strongfield × Blackbird population. Application of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP) markers associated with FHB resistance QTL identified in this study will accelerate combining genes from the two populations.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat, causing significant loss of yield and quality worldwide. Warm and wet conditions during flowering, a lack of resistant wheat varieties, and high inoculum pressure from corn stubble contribute to frequent FHB epidemics in the southern United States. The soft red winter wheat variety AGS 2060 is moderately susceptible (as opposed to susceptible) to FHB and regularly found in pedigrees of resistant breeding lines. AGS 2060 does not carry any known resistance genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL). A QTL mapping study was conducted to determine the location and genetic effect of its resistance using a doubled haploid mapping population produced from a cross between wheat varieties AGS 2060 and AGS 2035 (FHB susceptible). The population was genotyped using the Illumina iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for wheat and phenotyped in Baton Rouge and Winnsboro, Louisiana and Newport, Arkansas in 2018 and 2019. The effect of genotype was significant for Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) and deoxynivalenol (DON) content across all locations and years, indicating genetic variation in the population. The study detected 13 QTLs (one each on chromosome 1A, 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B, and two each on 5A and 5B) responsible for the reduction of FDK and/or DON. Of these, nine QTLs for FHB resistance were identified in Winnsboro, Louisiana, in 2019. QTLs on chromosomes 2A and 7A could be valuable sources of resistance to both DON and FDK over several environments and were likely the best candidates for use in marker-assisted selection. Consistently expressed QTLs on chromosomes 5A, 6B, and 7A were potentially newly identified sources of resistance to FHB in soft red winter wheat.
Project description:Grain traits are important agronomic attributes with the market value as well as milling yield of bread wheat. In the present study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulating grain traits in wheat were identified. Data for grain area size (GAS), grain width (GWid), factor form density (FFD), grain length-width ratio (GLWR), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain perimeter length (GPL) and grain length (GL) were recorded on a recombinant inbred line derived from the cross of NW1014 × HUW468 at Meerut and Varanasi locations. A linkage map of 55 simple sequence repeat markers for 8 wheat chromosomes was used for QTL analysis by Composite interval mapping. Eighteen QTLs distributed on 8 chromosomes were identified for seven grain traits. Of these, five QTLs for GLWR were found on chromosomes 1A, 6A, 2B, and 7B, three QTLs for GPL were located on chromosomes 4A, 5A and 7B and three QTLs for GAS were mapped on 5D and 7D. Two QTLs were identified on chromosomes 4A and 5A for GL and two QTLs for GWid were identified on chromosomes 7D and 6A. Similarly, two QTLs for FFD were found on chromosomes 1A and 5D. A solitary QTL for TGW was identified on chromosome 2B. For several traits, QTLs were also co-localized on chromosomes 2B, 4A, 5A, 6A, 5D, 7B and 7D. The QTLs detected in the present study may be validated for specific crosses and then used for marker-assisted selection to improve grain quality in bread wheat.
Project description:Relatively little is known of the genetic control of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and pigment traits important in determining efficiency of photosynthesis in wheat and its association with biomass productivity. A doubled haploid population of 94 lines from the wheat cross Chinese Spring × SQ1 was trialled under optimum glasshouse conditions for 4 years to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for CF traits including, for the first time in wheat, JIP-test parameters per excited cross section (CSm): ABS/CSm, DIo/CSm, TRo/CSm, RC/CSm and ETo/CSm, key parameters determining efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents to establish associations with biomass and grain yield. The existing genetic map was extended to 920 loci by adding Diversity Arrays Technology markers. Markers and selected genes for photosynthetic light reactions, pigment metabolism and biomass accumulation were located to chromosome deletion bins. Across all CF traits and years, 116 QTL for CF were located on all chromosomes except 7B, and 39 QTL were identified for pigments on the majority of chromosomes, excluding 1A, 2A, 4A, 3B, 5B, 1D, 2D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Thirty QTL for plant productivity traits were mapped on chromosomes 3A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 4B, 6B, 7B, 3D and 4D. A region on chromosome 6B was identified where 14 QTL for CF parameters coincided with QTL for chlorophyll content and grain weight per ear. Thirty-five QTL regions were coincident with candidate genes. The environment was shown to dominate in determining expression of genes for those traits.
Project description:Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. is a dangerous disease of common wheat worldwide. Development and cultivation of the varieties with genetic resistance is one of the most effective and environmentally important ways for protection of wheat against fungal pathogens. Field phytopathological screening and genome-wide association study (GWAS) were used for assessment of the genetic diversity of a collection of spring wheat genotypes on stem rust resistance loci. The collection consisting of Russian varieties of spring wheat and introgression lines with alien genetic materials was evaluated over three seasons (2016, 2017 and 2018) for resistance to the native population of stem rust specific to the West Siberian region of Russia. The results indicate that most varieties displayed from moderate to high levels of susceptibility to P. graminis; 16% of genotypes had resistance or immune response. In total, 13,006 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers obtained from the Infinium 15K array were used to perform genome-wide association analysis. GWAS detected 35 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) with SNPs located on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 3B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 7A and 7B. The most significant associations were found on chromosomes 7A and 6A where known resistance genes Sr25 and Sr6Ai = 2 originated from Thinopyrum ssp. are located. Common wheat lines containing introgressed fragments from Triticum timopheevii and Triticum kiharae were found to carry Sr36 gene on 2B chromosome. It has been suggested that the quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to the chromosome 5BL may be new loci inherited from the T. timopheevii. It can be inferred that a number of Russian wheat varieties may contain the Sr17 gene, which does not currently provide effective protection against pathogen. This is the first report describing the results of analysis of the genetic factors conferring resistance of Russian spring wheat varieties to stem rust.
Project description:The slow rate of genetic gain for improving resistance to Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) is due to the inherent complex interactions between host, isolates, and environments. Breeding for improved SNB resistance requires evaluation and selection of wheat genotypes consistently expressing low SNB response in different target production environments. The study focused on evaluating 232 genotypes from global origins for resistance to SNB in the flag leaf expressed in different Western Australian environments. The aim was to identify resistant donor germplasm against historical and contemporary pathogen isolates and enhance our knowledge of the genetic basis of genotype-by-environment interactions for SNB response. Australian wheat varieties, inbred lines from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), and International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), and landraces from discrete regions of the world showed low to moderate phenotypic correlation for disease response amongst genotypes when evaluated with historical and contemporary isolates at two locations across 3 years in Western Australia (WA). Significant (P < 0.001) genotype-by-environment interactions were detected regardless of same or different isolates used as an inoculum source. Joint regression analysis identified 19 genotypes that consistently expressed low disease severity under infection with different isolates in multi-locations. The CIMMYT inbred lines, 30ZJN09 and ZJN12 Qno25, were particularly pertinent as they had low SNB response and highest trait stability at two locations across 3 years. Genome wide association studies detected 20 QTL associated with SNB resistance on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 4B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 7A, 7B, and 7D. QTL on chromosomes 1B and 5B were previously reported in similar genomic regions. Multiple QTL were identified on 1B, 5B, 6A, and 5A and detected in response to SNB infection against different isolates and specific environments. Known SnTox-Snn interactions were either not evident or variable across WA environments and SNB response may involve other multiple complex biological mechanisms.
Project description:Wheat grain protein content (GPC) and yield components are complex quantitative traits influenced by a multi-factorial system consisting of both genetic and environmental factors. Although seed storage proteins represent less than 15% of mature kernels, they are crucial in determining end-use properties of wheat, as well as the nutritional value of derived products. Yield and GPC are negatively correlated, and this hampers breeding programs of commercially valuable wheat varieties. The goal of this work was the evaluation of genetic variability for quantity and composition of seed storage proteins, together with yield components [grain yield per spike (GYS) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW)] in a durum wheat population obtained by an inter-specific cross between a common wheat accession and the durum cv. Saragolla. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted and closely associated markers identified on a genetic map composed of 4,366 SNP markers previously obtained in the same durum population genotyped with the 90K iSelect SNP assay. A total of 22 QTL were detected for traits related to durum wheat quality. Six genomic regions responsible for GPC control were mapped on chromosomes 2B, 3A, 4A, 4B, 5B, and 7B, with major QTL on chromosomes 2B, 4A, and 5B. Nine loci were detected for GYS: two on chromosome 5B and 7A and one on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 4A, 4B, 7B, with the strongest QTL on 2B. Eight QTL were identified for TKW, three of which located on chromosome 3A, two on 1B and one on 4B, 5A, and 5B. Only small overlapping was found among QTL for GYS, TKW, and GPC, and increasing alleles coming from both parents on different chromosomes. Good candidate genes were identified in the QTL confidence intervals for GYS and TKW.
Project description:Eyespot, caused by the soil-borne necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis, is a disease of major economic significance for wheat, barley and rye. Pacific Northwest (PNW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in areas of high rainfall and moderate winters is most vulnerable to infection. The objective of this research was to identify novel genomic regions associated with eyespot resistance in winter wheat adapted to the PNW. Two winter wheat panels of 469 and 399 lines were compiled for one of the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of eyespot resistance in US winter wheat germplasm. These panels were genotyped with the Infinium 9K and 90K iSelect SNP arrays. Both panels were phenotyped for disease resistance in a two-year field study and in replicated growth chamber trials. Growth chamber trials were used to evaluate the genetic resistance of O. acuformis and O. yallundae species separately. Best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated across all field and growth chamber environments. A total of 73 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected on nine different chromosomes (1A, 2A, 2B, 4A, 5A, 5B, 7A, 7B and 7D) that were significantly associated (p-value <0.001) with eyespot resistance in Panel A, and 19 MTAs on nine different chromosomes (1A, 1B, 2A, 2D, 3B, 5A, 5B, 7A, and 7B) in Panel B. The most significant SNPs were associated with Pch1 and Pch2 resistance genes on the long arms of chromosome 7D and 7A. Most of the novel MTAs appeared to have a minor effect on reducing eyespot disease. Nevertheless, eyespot disease scores decreased as the number of resistance alleles increased. Seven SNP markers, significantly associated with reducing eyespot disease across environments and in the absence and presence of Pch1 were identified. These markers were located on chromosomes 2A (IWB8331), 5A (IWB73709), 5B (IWB47298), 7AS (IWB47160), 7B (IWB45005) and two SNPs (Ex_c44379_2509 and IAAV4340) had unknown map positions. The additive effect of the MTAs explained most of the remaining phenotypic variation not accounted for by Pch1 or Pch2. This study provides breeders with adapted germplasm and novel sources of eyespot resistance to be used in the development of superior cultivars with increased eyespot resistance.
Project description:Genomic regions responsible for accumulation of grain iron concentration (Fe), grain zinc concentration (Zn), grain protein content (PC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) were investigated in 286 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between an old Indian wheat variety WH542 and a synthetic derivative (Triticum dicoccon PI94624/Aegilops squarrosa //BCN). RILs were grown in six environments and evaluated for Fe, Zn, PC, and TKW. The population showed the continuous distribution for all the four traits, that for pooled Fe and PC was near normal, whereas, for pooled Zn, RILs exhibited positively skewed distribution. A genetic map spanning 2155.3cM was constructed using microsatellite markers covering the 21 chromosomes and used for QTL analysis. 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified in this study. Four QTLs (QGFe.iari-2A, QGFe.iari-5A, QGFe.iari-7A and QGFe.iari-7B) for Fe, five QTLs (QGZn.iari-2A, QGZn.iari-4A, QGZn.iari-5A, QGZn.iari-7A and QGZn.iari-7B) for Zn, two QTLs (QGpc.iari-2A and QGpc.iari-3A) for PC, and five QTLs (QTkw.iari-1A, QTkw.iari-2A, QTkw.iari-2B, QTkw.iari-5B and QTkw.iari-7A) for TKW were identified. The QTLs together explained 20.0%, 32.0%, 24.1% and 32.3% phenotypic variation, respectively, for Fe, Zn, PC and TKW. QGpc.iari-2A was consistently expressed in all the six environments, whereas, QGFe.iari-7B and QGZn.iari-2A were identified in two environments each apart from pooled mean. QTkw.iari-2A and QTkw.iari-7A, respectively, were identified in four and three environments apart from pooled mean. A common region in the interval of Xgwm359-Xwmc407 on chromosome 2A was associated with Fe, Zn, and PC. One more QTL for TKW was identified on chromosome 2A but in a different chromosomal region (Xgwm382-Xgwm359). Two more regions on 5A (Xgwm126-Xgwm595) and 7A (Xbarc49-Xwmc525) were found to be associated with both Fe and Zn. A QTL for TKW was identified (Xwmc525-Xbarc222) in a different chromosomal region on the same chromosome (7A). This reflects at least a partly common genetic basis for the four traits. It is concluded that fine mapping of the regions of the three chromosomes of A genome involved in determining the accumulation of Fe, Zn, PC, and TKW in this mapping population may be rewarding.
Project description:Stripe rust (also known as yellow rust), caused by the pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To identify effective stripe rust resistance loci, a genome-wide association study was performed using 152 wheat landraces from the Yellow and Huai River Valleys in China based on Diversity Arrays Technology and simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic evaluation of the degree of resistance to stripe rust at the adult-plant stage under field conditions was carried out in five environments. In total, 19 accessions displayed stable, high degrees of resistance to stripe rust development when exposed to mixed races of Pst at the adult-plant stage in multi-environment field assessments. A marker-trait association analysis indicated that 51 loci were significantly associated with adult-plant resistance to stripe rust. These loci included 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for adult-plant resistance. Twenty identified resistance QTL were linked closely to previously reported yellow rust resistance genes or QTL regions, which were distributed across chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B, and 7D. Six multi-trait QTL were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2B, 3A, 3B, and 7D. Twenty QTL were mapped to chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 4B, 5B, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7A, 7B, and 7D, distant from previously identified yellow rust resistance genes. Consequently, these QTL are potentially novel loci for stripe rust resistance. Among the 20 potentially novel QTL, five (QDS.sicau-2A, QIT.sicau-4B, QDS.sicau-4B.2, QDS.sicau-6A.3, and QYr.sicau-7D) were associated with field responses at the adult-plant stage in at least two environments, and may have large effects on stripe rust resistance. The novel effective QTL for adult-plant resistance to stripe rust will improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms that control the spread of stripe rust, and will aid in the molecular marker-assisted selection-based breeding of wheat for stripe rust resistance.