Unilateral nephrectomy diminishes ischemic acute kidney injury through enhanced perfusion and reduced pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses.
ABSTRACT: While unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) is suggested to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the remaining kidney, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, functional MRI was employed in a renal IRI rat model to reveal global and regional changes in renal filtration, perfusion, oxygenation and sodium handling, and microarray and pathway analyses were conducted to identify protective molecular mechanisms. Wistar rats were randomized to either UNx or sham UNx immediately prior to 37 minutes of unilateral renal artery clamping or sham operation under sevoflurane anesthesia. MRI was performed 24 hours after reperfusion. Blood and renal tissue were harvested. RNA was isolated for microarray analysis and QPCR validation of gene expression results. The perfusion (T1 value) was significantly enhanced in the medulla of the post-ischemic kidney following UNx. UNx decreased the expression of fibrogenic genes, i.a. Col1a1, Fn1 and Tgfb1 in the post-ischemic kidney. This was associated with a marked decrease in markers of activated myofibroblasts (Acta2/?-Sma and Cdh11) and macrophages (Ccr2). This was most likely facilitated by down-regulation of Pdgfra, thus inhibiting pericyte-myofibroblast differentiation, chemokine production (Ccl2/Mcp1) and macrophage infiltration. UNx reduced ischemic histopathologic injury. UNx may exert renoprotective effects against IRI through increased perfusion in the renal medulla and alleviation of the acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses possibly through decreased myofibroblast activation. The identified pathways involved may serve as potential therapeutic targets and should be taken into account in experimental models of IRI.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis was done after warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a rat model. Earlier studies have shown a protective effect of prior unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) against IRI in the remaining, contralateral kidney compared to a non-neprectomized control group. We aimed at identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. We used the Affymetrix Clariom D array (formerly known as RTA 1.0 st.) Array data was processed in the Affymetrix Console Software. Overall design: We analysed kidney tissue (left) from male Wistar rats. Number of animals from each group, n = 3. Wistar rats were randomized to either UNx or sham UNx immediately prior to 37 minutes of unilateral renal artery clamping or sham operation under sevoflurane anesthesia. Groups: sham (2 normal kidneys), UNx (1 remaining kidney), IR (1 ischemic kidney, 1 normal kidney), IR+UNx (1 ischemic kidney). MRI was performed 24 hours after reperfusion. Blood and renal tissue were harvested. RNA was isolated for microarray analysis.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose was to characterize acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6)- and 129/Sv (Sv)-mice by noninvasive measurement of renal perfusion and tissue edema using functional MRI.<h4>Methods</h4>Different severities of AKI were induced in B6- and Sv-mice by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI) or 45 min (severe AKI) was done. MRI (7-Tesla) was performed 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery using a flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence. Maps of perfusion and T1-relaxation time were calculated. Relative MRI-parameters of the IRI kidney compared to the contralateral not-clipped kidney were compared between AKI severities and between mouse strains using unpaired t-tests. In addition, fibrosis was assessed by Masson Trichrome and collagen IV staining.<h4>Results</h4>After moderate AKI relative perfusion impairment was significantly higher in B6- than in Sv-mice at d7 (55±7% vs. 82±8%, p<0.05) and d28 (76±7% vs. 102±3%, p<0.01). T1-values increased in the early phase after AKI in both mouse strains. T1-increase was more severe after prolonged ischemia times of 45 min compared to 35 min in both mouse strains, measured in the renal cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla. Kidney volume loss (compared to the contralateral kidney) occurred already after 7 days but proceeded markedly towards 4 weeks in severe AKI. Early renal perfusion impairment was predictive for later kidney volume loss. The progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the severe AKI model was similar in both mouse strains as revealed by histology.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Quantification of renal perfusion and tissue edema by functional MRI allows characterization of strain differences upon AKI. Renal perfusion impairment was stronger in B6- compared to Sv-animals following moderate AKI. Prolonged ischemia times were associated with more severe perfusion impairment and edema formation in the early phase and progression to CKD within 4 weeks of observation.
Project description:There is an increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which associates with the development of interstitial fibrosis. Pericytes (perivascular fibroblasts) provide a major source of α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts that are responsible for the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. In order to identify pericyte long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that could serve as a target to decrease myofibroblast formation and counteract the progression of kidney fibrosis we employed two models of experimental kidney injury, one focused on kidney fibrosis (unilateral ureteral obstruction; UUO), and one focused on acute kidney injury that yields kidney fibrosis in the longer term (unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury; IRI). This was performed in FoxD1-GC;tdTomato stromal cell reporter mice that allowed pericyte fate tracing. Tomato red-positive FoxD1-derivative cells of control and injured kidneys were FACS-sorted and used for lncRNA and mRNA profiling yielding a distinctive transcriptional signature of pericytes and myofibroblasts with 244 and 586 differentially expressed lncRNAs (>twofold, P < 0.05), in the UUO and IRI models, respectively. Next, we selected two differentially expressed and conserved lncRNAs, Rian (RNA imprinted and accumulated in nucleus) and Miat (Myocardial infarction associated transcript), and explored their potential regulatory role in myofibroblast formation through knockdown of their function with gapmers. While Miat was upregulated in myofibroblasts of UUO and IRI in mice, gapmer silencing of Miat attenuated myofibroblast formation as evidenced by decreased expression of α-SMA, col1α1, SMAD2, and SMAD3, as well as decreased α-SMA and pro-collagen-1α1 protein levels. In contrast, silencing Rian, which was found to be downregulated in kidney myofibroblast after IRI and UUO, resulted in increased myofibroblast formation. In addition, we found microRNAs that were previously linked to Miat (miR-150) and Rian (14q32 miRNA cluster), to be dysregulated in the FoxD1-derivative cells, suggesting a possible interaction between miRNAs and these lncRNAs in myofibroblast formation. Taken together, lncRNAs play a regulatory role in myofibroblast formation, possibly through interacting with miRNA regulation, implicating that understanding their biology and their modulation may have the potential to counteract the development of renal fibrosis.
Project description:NFAT5 is a transcription factor that protects the kidney from hypertonic stress and also is activated by hypoxia. We hypothesized that NFAT5 mitigates the extent of renal damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mice were subjected to IRI by unilateral clamping of the left renal pedicle for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion. After 3 hours of reperfusion, the level of NFAT5 mRNA was similar in contralateral and clamped kidneys. However, after 48 hours, NFAT5 mRNA accumulation increased ?3-fold in both outer medulla and medullary thick ascending limb tubules. NFAT1 levels were elevated at 3 hours but did not increase further at 48 hours. Mice were then either pretreated for 72 hours with an intrarenal injection of a lentivirus short-hairpin RNA construct to silence NFAT5 (enhanced green fluorescent protein-U6-N5-ex8) or a control vector (enhanced green fluorescent protein-U6) before induction of IRI. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney ischemia molecule-1 mRNA levels increased after IRI and further increased after knockdown of NFAT5, suggesting that silencing of NFAT5 exacerbates renal damage during IRI. In contrast, silencing of NFAT1 had no effect on the levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin or kidney ischemia molecule-1 mRNA. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed patchy denudation of renal epithelial cells and tubular dilation when NFAT5 was silenced. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the outer and inner medulla of the clamped kidney increased nearly 2-fold after knockdown of NFAT5 and was associated with an increase in the number of caspase-3-positive cells. Collectively, the data suggest that NFAT5 is part of a protective mechanism that limits renal damage induced by IRI.
Project description:To characterize ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6) and CD1-mice by longitudinal functional MRI-measurement of edema formation (T2-mapping) and inflammation (diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)). IRI was induced with unilateral right renal pedicle clamping for 35min. 7T-MRI was performed 1 and 14 days after surgery. DWI (7 b-values) and multiecho TSE sequences (7 TE) were acquired. Parameters were quantified in relation to the contralateral kidney on day 1 (d1). Renal MCP-1 and IL-6-levels were measured by qPCR and serum-CXCL13 by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry for fibronectin and collagen-4 was performed. T2-increase on d1 was higher in the renal cortex (127 ± 5% vs. 94 ± 6%, <i>p</i> < 0.01) and the outer stripe of the outer medulla (141 ± 9% vs. 111 ± 9%, <i>p</i> < 0.05) in CD1, indicating tissue edema. Medullary diffusivity was more restricted in CD1 than B6 (d1: 73 ± 3% vs. 90 ± 2%, <i>p</i> < 0.01 and d14: 77 ± 5% vs. 98 ± 3%, <i>p</i> < 0.01). Renal MCP-1 and IL-6-expression as well as systemic CXCL13-release were pronounced in CD1 on d1 after IRI. Renal fibrosis was detected in CD1 on d14. T2-increase and ADC-reduction on d1 correlated with kidney volume loss on d14 (r = 0.7, <i>p</i> < 0.05; r = 0.6, <i>p</i> < 0.05) and could serve as predictive markers. T2-mapping and DWI evidenced higher susceptibility to ischemic AKI in CD1 compared to B6.
Project description:Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is linked with inflammation in kidney transplantation (ktx). The chemokine CXCL13, also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant, mediates recruitment of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues and has recently been identified as a biomarker for acute kidney allograft rejection. The goal of this study was to explore whether IRI contributes to the up-regulation of CXCL13 levels in ktx. It is demonstrated that systemic levels of CXCL13 were increased in mouse models of uni- and bilateral renal IRI, which correlated with the duration of IRI. Moreover, in unilateral renal IRI CXCL13 expression in ischemic kidneys was up-regulated. Immunohistochemical studies revealed infiltration of CD22+ B-cells and, single-cell RNA sequencing analysis a higher number of cells expressing the CXCL13 receptor CXCR5, in ischemic kidneys 7 days post IRI, respectively. The potential relevance of these findings was also evaluated in a mouse model of ktx. Increased levels of serum CXCL13 correlated with the lengths of cold ischemia times and were further enhanced in allogenic compared to isogenic kidney transplants. Taken together, these findings indicate that IRI is associated with increased systemic levels of CXCL13 in renal IRI and ktx.
Project description:Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx). In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV), might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20-50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days) was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI) was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg) twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells.
Project description:Highly aerobic organs like the kidney are innately susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which can originate from sources including myocardial infarction, renal trauma, and transplant. Therapy is mainly supportive and depends on the cause(s) of damage. In the absence of hypervolemia, intravenous fluid delivery is frequently the first course of treatment but does not reverse established AKI. Evidence suggests that disrupting leukocyte adhesion may prevent the impairment of renal microvascular perfusion and the heightened inflammatory response that exacerbate ischemic renal injury. We investigated the therapeutic potential of hydrodynamic isotonic fluid delivery (HIFD) to the left renal vein 24 hours after inducing moderate-to-severe unilateral IRI in rats. HIFD significantly increased hydrostatic pressure within the renal vein. When conducted after established AKI, 24 hours after I/R injury, HIFD produced substantial and statistically significant decreases in serum creatinine levels compared with levels in animals given an equivalent volume of saline via peripheral infusion (P<0.05). Intravital confocal microscopy performed immediately after HIFD showed improved microvascular perfusion. Notably, HIFD also resulted in immediate enhancement of parenchymal labeling with the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. HIFD also associated with a significant reduction in the accumulation of renal leukocytes, including proinflammatory T cells. Additionally, HIFD significantly reduced peritubular capillary erythrocyte congestion and improved histologic scores of tubular injury 4 days after IRI. Taken together, these results indicate that HIFD performed after establishment of AKI rapidly restores microvascular perfusion and small molecule accessibility, with improvement in overall renal function.
Project description:In hypoxic and acidic tissue environments, nitrite is metabolised to nitric oxide, thus, bringing about novel therapeutic options in myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and hypertension. Following renal ischemia, reperfusion of the kidney remains incomplete and tissue oxygenation is reduced for several minutes to hours. Thus, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, providing nitrite may have outstanding therapeutic value. Here we demonstrate nitrite's distinct potential to rapidly restore tissue oxygenation in the renal cortex and medulla after 45?minutes of complete unilateral kidney ischemia in the rat. Notably, tissue oxygenation was completely restored, while tissue perfusion did not fully reach pre-ischemia levels within 60?minutes of reperfusion. Nitrite was infused intravenously in a dose, which can be translated to the human. Specifically, methaemoglobin did not exceed 3%, which is biologically negligible. Hypotension was not observed. Providing nitrite well before ischemia and maintaining nitrite infusion throughout the reperfusion period prevented the increase in serum creatinine by ischemia reperfusion injury. In conclusion, low-dose nitrite restores renal tissue oxygenation in renal ischemia reperfusion injury and enhances regional kidney post-ischemic perfusion. As nitrite provides nitric oxide predominantly in hypoxic tissues, it may prove a specific measure to reduce renal ischemia reperfusion injury.
Project description:Although T cells have been shown to play a direct role in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that studying the transcriptional responses in kidney-infiltrating T cells would help elucidate novel therapeutic targets for kidney IRI. Unilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 min was performed in male C57BL/6 mice, and CD3(+) T cells were isolated from the kidney and purified. Transcriptional activities of T cell were measured by array-based PCR compared between ischemic kidneys and contralateral nonischemic kidneys. Among total of 89 genes analyzed, 24, 22, 24, and 37 genes were significantly changed at 6 h, day 3, day 10, and day 28 after IRI. Genes associated with cytokines, chemokines, and costimulatory molecules were upregulated. Pathway analysis identified CC motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) as a candidate pathophysiological pathway. CCR5 upregulation was validated at the protein level, and CCR5 blockade improved renal function after kidney IRI. Using discovery techniques to identify transcriptional responses in purified kidney-infiltrating cells enabled the elucidation of novel mechanisms and therapeutic targets for IRI.