Estrogen receptor activation contributes to RNF146 expression and neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease models.
ABSTRACT: RNF146 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that specifically recognizes and polyubiquitinates poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR)-conjugated substrates for proteasomal degradation. RNF146 has been shown to be neuroprotective against PAR polymerase-1 (PARP1)-induced cell death during stroke. Here we report that RNF146 expression and RNF146 inducers can prevent cell death elicited by Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated and PARP1-activating stimuli. In SH-SY5Y cells, RNF146 expression conferred resistance to toxic stimuli that lead to PARP1 activation. High-throughput screen using a luciferase construct harboring the RNF146 promoter identified liquiritigenin as an RNF146 inducer. We found that RNF146 expression by liquiritigenin was mediated by estrogen receptor activation and contributed to cytoprotective effect of liquiritigenin. Finally, RNF146 expression by liquiritigenin in mouse brains provided dopaminergic neuroprotection in a 6-hydroxydopamine PD mouse model. Given the presence of PARP1 activity and RNF146 deficits in PD, it could be a potential therapeutic strategy to restore RNF146 expression by natural compounds or estrogen receptor activation.
Project description:Ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase whose activity prevents poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we reported that rhododendrin is a chemical inducer that increases RNF146 expression. However, the molecular mechanism of rhododendrin-induced RNF146 expression is largely unknown and its translational application for the treatment of Parkinson's disease remains unexplored. Here we found that rhododendrin increased RNF146 expression via estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activation. Rhododendrin stimulated ER? nuclear translocation and binding to the RNF146 promoter, thereby enhancing its transcription. Rhododendrin is cytoprotective against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death, which is largely dependent on ER? activity and RNF146 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that rhododendrin treatment resulted in RNF146 expression in dopaminergic neurons in mice. Moreover, dopaminergic neuron viability was markedly enhanced by pretreatment with rhododendrin in 6-OHDA-induced mouse models for PD. Our findings indicate that estrogen receptor activation plays a neuroprotective role and that rhododendrin could be a potential therapeutic agent in preventing PARP1-dependent dopaminergic cell loss in PD.
Project description:Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD). This neuronal loss occurs through diverse mechanisms, including a form of programmed cell death dependent on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) called parthanatos. Deficient activity of the kinase Akt1 and aggregation of the protein α-synuclein are also implicated in disease pathogenesis. Here, we found that Akt1 suppressed parthanatos in dopaminergic neurons through a transcriptional mechanism. Overexpressing constitutively active Akt1 in SH-SY5Y cells or culturing cells with chlorogenic acid (a polyphenol found in coffee that activates Akt1) stimulated the CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146. RNF146 inhibited PARP1 not through its E3 ligase function but rather by binding to and sequestering PAR, which enhanced the survival of cultured cells exposed to the dopaminergic neuronal toxin 6-OHDA or α-synuclein aggregation. In mice, intraperitoneal administration of chlorogenic acid activated the Akt1-CREB-RNF146 pathway in the brain and provided neuroprotection against both 6-OHDA and combinatorial α-synucleinopathy in an RNF146-dependent manner. Furthermore, dysregulation of the Akt1-CREB pathway was observed in postmortem brain samples from patients with PD. The findings suggest that therapeutic restoration of <i>RNF146</i> expression, such as by activating the Akt1-CREB pathway, might halt neurodegeneration in PD.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) has a role in diverse cellular processes such as DNA repair, transcription, Wnt signalling, and cell death. Recent studies have shown that PARylation can serve as a signal for the polyubiquitination and degradation of several crucial regulatory proteins, including Axin and 3BP2 (refs 7, 8, 9). The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (also known as Iduna) is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU). Here we provide a structural basis for RNF146-catalysed PARdU and how PARdU specificity is achieved. First, we show that iso-ADP-ribose (iso-ADPr), the smallest internal poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) structural unit, binds between the WWE and RING domains of RNF146 and functions as an allosteric signal that switches the RING domain from a catalytically inactive state to an active one. In the absence of PAR, the RING domain is unable to bind and activate a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) efficiently. Binding of PAR or iso-ADPr induces a major conformational change that creates a functional RING structure. Thus, RNF146 represents a new mechanistic class of RING E3 ligases, the activities of which are regulated by non-covalent ligand binding, and that may provide a template for designing inducible protein-degradation systems. Second, we find that RNF146 directly interacts with the PAR polymerase tankyrase (TNKS). Disruption of the RNF146-TNKS interaction inhibits turnover of the substrate Axin in cells. Thus, both substrate PARylation and PARdU are catalysed by enzymes within the same protein complex, and PARdU substrate specificity may be primarily determined by the substrate-TNKS interaction. We propose that the maintenance of unliganded RNF146 in an inactive state may serve to maintain the stability of the RNF146-TNKS complex, which in turn regulates the homeostasis of PARdU activity in the cell.
Project description:Glutamate induced excitotoxicity is common in diverse neurological disorders. RNF146 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase protects neurons against excitotoxicity via interfering with Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer-induced cell death (parthanatos). However, the neuroprotective role of RNF146 has not been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the role of RNF146 in modulating autophagy in HT22 cells under glutamate excitotoxicity injury. Here we found that induction of RNF146 decreased the cellular damage and excitotoxicity induced by glutamate. RNF146 also suppressed the excessive autophagy, which is detrimental to HT22 cells survival, induced by glutamate or rapamycin treatment. In addition, we find that Wnt/?-catenin was a negative regulation factor for autophagy in glutamate excitotoxicity. Over-expression of RNF146 promoted Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which was related to destabilization of ?-catenin destruction complex. These results indicated that RNF146 acted as a neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection might be at least partly dependent on the inhibition of excessive autophagy by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) catalyzed by the tankyrase enzymes (Tankyrase-1 and -2; a.k.a. PARP-5a and -5b) is involved in mitosis, telomere length regulation, GLUT-4 vesicle transport, and cell growth and differentiation. Together with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna), tankyrases regulate the cellular levels of several important proteins including Axin, 3BP2, and angiomotins, which are key regulators of Wnt, Src and Hippo signaling, respectively. These tankyrase substrates are first PARylated and then ubiquitylated by RNF146, which is allosterically activated by binding to PAR polymer. Each tankyrase substrate is recognized by a tankyrase-binding motif (TBM). Here we show that RNF146 binds directly to tankyrases via motifs in its C-terminal region. Four of these RNF146 motifs represent novel, extended TBMs, that have one or two additional amino acids between the most conserved Arg and Gly residues. The individual RNF146 motifs display weak binding, but together mediate a strong multivalent interaction with the substrate-binding region of TNKS, forming a robust one-to-one complex. A crystal structure of the first RNF146 noncanonical TBM in complex with the second ankyrin repeat domain of TNKS shows how an extended motif can be accommodated in a peptide-binding groove on tankyrases. Overall, our work demonstrates the existence of a new class of extended TBMs that exist in previously uncharacterized tankyrase-binding proteins including those of IF4A1 and NELFE.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human disorder characterized by abnormal bone development that is mainly due to defective intramembranous bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, we describe a mouse strain lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 that shows phenotypic similarities to CCD. Loss of RNF146 stabilized its substrate AXIN1, leading to impairment of WNT3a-induced ?-catenin activation and reduced Fgf18 expression in osteoblasts. We show that FGF18 induces transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) expression, which is required for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through transcriptional enhancer associate domain (TEAD) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) transcription factors, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate that adipogenesis is enhanced in Rnf146-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, mice with loss of RNF146 within the osteoblast lineage had increased fat stores and were glucose intolerant with severe osteopenia because of defective osteoblastogenesis and subsequent impaired osteocalcin production. These findings indicate that RNF146 is required to coordinate ?-catenin signaling within the osteoblast lineage during embryonic and postnatal bone development.
Project description:Bone undergoes continuous remodeling due to balanced bone formation and resorption mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Osteoclasts arise from the macrophage lineage, and their differentiation is dependent on RANKL, a member of the TNF family of cytokines. Here, we have provided evidence that RANKL controls the expression of 3BP2, an adapter protein that is required for activation of SRC tyrosine kinase and simultaneously coordinates the attenuation of ?-catenin, both of which are required to execute the osteoclast developmental program. We found that RANKL represses the transcription of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 through an NF-?B-related inhibitory element in the RNF146 promoter. RANKL-mediated suppression of RNF146 results in the stabilization of its substrates, 3BP2 and AXIN1, which consequently triggers the activation of SRC and attenuates the expression of ?-catenin, respectively. Depletion of RNF146 caused hypersensitivity to LPS-induced TNF-? production in vivo. RNF146 thus acts as an inhibitory switch to control osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production and may be a control point underlying the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Studies have suggested a possible correlation between the newly identified E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) and tumor development. However, until now, studies on RNF146 have been restricted to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitin ligation, whereas the role of RNF146 in tumor biology has rarely been reported. In the present study, the role of RNF146 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. The results showed that the expression of RNF146 was increased in clinical lung cancer samples and cell lines. RNF146 expression correlated with tumor size, differentiation level, lymphatic metastasis, pTNM staging, and prognosis of patients in stage I. RNF146 expression was negatively correlated with Axin expression but positively correlated with the nuclear expression of ?-catenin in NSCLC tissues. RNF146 downregulated the expression of Axin in lung cancer cell lines and induced the expression and nuclear distribution of ?-catenin. Overexpression of RNF146 in NSCLC cell lines increased the levels of cyclinD1, cyclinE, and CDK4, promoted cell cycle G0/G1-S transitions, and regulated cell proliferation. Overexpression of RNF146 led to upregulated levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 7 and enhanced lung cancer cell invasiveness, events that were mediated by the classical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, the data in the present study indicate that RNF146 regulated the development and progression of NSCLC by enhancing cell growth, invasion, and survival, suggesting that RNF146 may be a potential treatment target in NSCLC.
Project description:Specific E3 ligases target tumor suppressors for degradation. Inhibition of such E3 ligases may be an important approach to cancer treatment. RNF146 is a RING domain and PARylation-dependent E3 ligase that functions as an activator of the β-catenin/Wnt and YAP/Hippo pathways by targeting the degradation of several tumor suppressors. Tankyrases 1 and 2 (TNKS1/2) are the only known poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases that require RNF146 to degrade their substrates. However, systematic identification of RNF146 substrates have not yet been performed. To uncover substrates of RNF146 that are targeted for degradation, we generated RNF146 knockout cells and TNKS1/2-double knockout cells and performed proteome profiling with label-free quantification as well as transcriptome analysis. We identified 160 potential substrates of RNF146, which included many known substrates of RNF146 and TNKS1/2 and 122 potential TNKS-independent substrates of RNF146. In addition, we validated OTU domain-containing protein 5 and Protein mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP10 as TNKS1/2-independent substrates of RNF146 and SARDH as a novel substrate of TNKS1/2 and RNF146. Our study is the first proteome-wide analysis of potential RNF146 substrates. Together, these findings not only demonstrate that proteome profiling can be a useful general approach for the systemic identification of substrates of E3 ligases but also reveal new substrates of RNF146, which provides a resource for further functional studies.
Project description:A TLR9 agonist in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor produced powerful antitumor responses in a clinical trial despite TLR9 agonists as monotherapies failing to generate systemic antitumor immune responses due to immunosuppressive effects. However, the mechanism involved in the improved response induced by their combination remains unknown. Methods: Subcutaneous and orthotopic Hepa1-6 tumor model was used for single-drug and combined-drug treatment. We used TLR9 agonist stimulation or lentiviral vectors to overexpress TLR9 and activate TLR9 signaling. We next investigated the crosstalk between PARP1 autoPARylation and ubiquitination and between STAT3 PARylation and phosphorylation mediated by TLR9. Tissue chips were used to analyze the relationships among TLR9, PARP1, p-STAT3 and PD-L1 expression. Results: In this study, we found that the TLR9 agonist in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy or anti-PD-L1 therapy yielded an additive effect that inhibited HCC growth in mice. Mechanistically, we found that TLR9 promoted PD-L1 transcription by enhancing STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation. Then, we observed that TLR9 negatively regulated PARP1 expression, which mediated a decrease in STAT3 PARylation and an increase in STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation. Moreover, we found that TLR9 enhanced PARP1 autoPARylation by inhibiting PARG expression, which then promoted the RNF146-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of PARP1. Finally, we observed positive associations between TLR9 and p-STAT3 (Tyr705) or PD-L1 expression and negative associations between TLR9 and PARP1 in HCC patient samples. Conclusions: We showed that hepatoma cell-intrinsic TLR9 activation regulated the crosstalk between PARP1 autoPARylation and ubiquitination and between STAT3 PARylation and phosphorylation, which together upregulated PD-L1 expression and finally induces immune escape. Therefore, combination therapy with a TLR9 agonist and an anti-PD-1 antibody or anti-PD-L1 had much better antitumor efficacy than either monotherapy in HCC.